Volume 21 Issue 4 December 2007 ISSN 1832

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Volume 21 Issue 4
December 2007
ISSN 1832-4436
Registered by Australia Post
Publication No: 233066 / 00021
www.lastek.com.au
[email protected]
AOS News Volume 21 Number 4 2007
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AOS News Volume 21 Number 4 2007
ABN 63 009 548 387
AOS News is the official news magazine of the Australian Optical Society. Formed in 1983, the Society is a nonprofit organisation for the advancement of optics in Australia. Membership is open to all persons contributing to, or
interested in, optics in the widest sense. See the back page (or the AOS website) for details on joining the Society.
Submission guidelines
The AOS News is always looking
for contributions, especially from
AOS members. Here is a short
summary of how to make a
submission.
AOS News
Editorial Board
Robert Ballagh
Physics Department
University of Otago
PO Box 56 Dunedin
New Zealand
John Love
Optical Sciences Group
Australian National University
RSPhysSE
Canberra, ACT 0200
Christopher Chantler
School of Physics
University of Melbourne
Parkville, Vic 3010
Halina Rubinsztein-Dunlop
Department of Physics
University of Queensland
QLD 4072
Ben Eggleton
Director, CUDOS
School of Physics
University of Sydney
Sydney, NSW 2006
David Sampson
School of Electrical, Electronic
& Computer Engineering
University of Western Australia
35 Stirling Highway
Crawley, WA 6009
2
How can you submit?
►► The easiest way is by email. We accept nearly all file formats. (Famous
last words!).
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What can you submit?
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Scientific Article
A scientific paper in any area of optics.
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Simply give a run down of the work conducted at your laboratory,
or some aspect of this work.
Conference Report
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regular peer reviewed scientific journals. Please bear in mind that refereeing
takes time and the article should therefore be submitted well in advance of the
publication date.
AOS News Volume 21 Number 4 2007
Submission Of Copy:
Contributions on any topic of
interest to the Australian optics
community are solicited, and
should be sent to the editor, or a
member of the editorial board.
Use of electronic mail is strongly
encouraged, although submission
of hard copy together with a text
file on CD will be considered.
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Potential advertisers in AOS News
are welcomed, and should contact
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Places may be booked for placing
ads - this attracts a 10% surcharge.
Black and White in main body of
newsletter - free to corporate members. Conference announcements
are free.
Copy Deadline
Articles for the next issue (Mar 08)
should be with the editor no later
than 5 March 2008, advertising
deadline 29 February 2008.
Editor
Michaël Roelens
The University of Sydney
CUDOS, School of Physics
Sydney, NSW 2006
Tel: +61 (0) 2 9036 9430
Fax: +61 (0) 2 9031 7726
[email protected]
AOS News is the official news
magazine of the Australian
Optical Society. The views
expressed in AOS News do not
necessarily represent the policies
of the Australian Optical Society.
Australian Optical Society website:
http://www.optics.org.au
• News
• Membership
• Optics links
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• ...and more
December 2007 Volume 21 Number 4
AOS News
Articles
11
Novel, narrow linewidth fibre laser opens new
opportunities, Nemanja Jovanovic
15
Metamaterials: Challenging the fundamentals of
nature, Yuri Kivshar, Ilya Shadrivov, David Powell,
and Steven Morrison
25 OSA Annual Student Chapter Leadership Meeting,
Cameron Smith
28
CUDOS News
Departments
5
President’s Report – Hans Bachor
7
Editor’s Intro – Michaël Roelens
21
Conference Watch
29
Product News
33
Conference Announcement: Focus on Microscopy
34
ICO Newsletter
43
AOS Subscription Form
44
Index of Advertisers & Corporate Members
Information
Cover Pictures:
• Background: Strong Point-by-point inscribed fibre Bragg grating in
the core of a double -clad ytterbium doped optical fibre, (side view, see
page 11)
• Insets (left to right)
• Structure of nonlinear tunable metamaterial. (see page 15)
• Cross-section of a Hex shaped double-clad ytterbium doped fibre
laser (see page 11)
• Diffracted HeNe light off a strong PbP inscribed FBG (see page 11)
3
AOS News Volume 21 Number 4 2007
LIRA-300 Laser Raman Spectrometer
Laser Raman Spectrometer is used for
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External light path and different lasers allowed
Solid state laser of more than 40mW at 532nm
Various accessories for analysis of liquid and
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Monochromator
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1200 lines/mm, blazed wavelength at 500 nm
Slit Width
0~2 mm, continuously adjustable
Notch Filter (optional)
Wavelength
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Single-photon Counter
Integration Time
0~30 min
Max Count
10 7
Wavelength Range
200~800 nm
Wavelength Accuracy
”0.4 nm
Wavelength Repeatability
”0.2 nm
Stray Light
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Half-width of Spectral Line
”0.2 nm at 586 nm
Overall Dimensions
700×500× 450 mm
Weight
70 kg
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Lambda Scientific Pty Ltd
Phone: +61 8 8267 2686
Fax: +61 8 8267 2689
E-mail: [email protected]
AOS News Volume 21 Number 4 2007
President’s Report
Y
ou will be aware of really interesting, high quality optics here in Australia.
And you are aware of examples of excellent optics and photonics
manufacturing in this country. Once you start to look around you will
realise that we have a very successful and lively optics community ranging from
fundamental studies, with examples such as quantum optics, high bandwidth
photonics, and extremely sensitive instruments such as gravitational waves detectors,
to precision manufacturing and many applications such as photo-voltaics, biophysics
or laser based machining. And you will know of other impressive projects.
Recently I had the opportunity to present a cross section of optics in Australia
to the OSA board at the annual meeting “Frontiers in Optics” held in California.
Everybody in the audience knew about some examples of our great work in optics in Australia, but
most were surprised about the breadth, the quality and the success of our activities. This is impressive,
in particular given the small population and economy we have. It was a pleasure to show off what the
members of the AOS are achieving, and we can all be proud of it.
At the same time it was good to experience the upbeat atmosphere that exists in the USA, and in
particular in California in optics. The photonics industry is rebounding. Companies are back asking for
solutions to specific problems, looking for skilled employees, wanting to hire talented young people.
Optics applications, such as the imaging of nanoscale objects, applications in manufacturing, medicine
and environmental engineering are some of the topics that were discussed. The conference in San Jose
was certainly inspiring, and this was mirrored by the bustle of activity at the Laser Show in München
earlier this year. It is good that optics R&D is well and alive again, and to see that we can play an
important part in this global activity. There is more than just a mining boom going on in this country.
The next 12 months will bring several international meetings to Australia, and we will have the
opportunity to show our colleagues our latest results. This starts with a series of topical meetings, such as
the OSA meeting on quantum-atom optics and SPIE meetings on photonics and fibre sensors. Next we
have the large ICO/OECC meeting in Sydney in July, with several satellite events. This will be biggest
event for the AOS in quite a while. Check the events calendar in this issue for details. I encourage you to
contribute to these events, to take as many students along, let them present their excellent work and let
them experience the excitement of optics, together with the visitors who will be impressed yet again.
Finally, it is my pleasure to welcome Michaël Roelens as the new editor of AOS News. I thank the
outgoing editor Murray Hamilton for his long standing and tireless contributions to the AOS.
—Hans Bachor
AOS President
5
AOS News Volume 21 Number 4 2007
AOS Executive
PRESIDENT
Hans-A Bachor
ARC Centre of Excellence for QuantumAtom Optics, Building 38
The Australian National University,
Canberra ACT 0200
Tel: 02 6125 2811
Fax: 02 6125 0741
[email protected]
Min Gu
Faculty of Engineering and Industrial
Sciences,
Swinburne Univ. of Technology,
PO Box 218
Hawthorne VIC 3122
Tel (03) 9214 8776
Fax: (03) 9214 5435
[email protected]
Judith Dawes
Division of ICS
Macquarie University,
Sydney NSW 2109
Tel: (02) 9850 8903
Fax: (02) 9850 8983
[email protected]
VICE-PRESIDENT
Ben Eggleton
CUDOS
School of Physics,
University of Sydney
Sydney NSW 2006
Tel: 0401 055 494
Fax: (02) 9351-7726
[email protected]
John Love
Optical Sciences Centre,
Research School of Physical Sciences
and Engineering
The Australian National University
Canberra ACT 0200
Tel: (02) 6249 4691
Fax: (02) 6279 8588
[email protected]
Ann Roberts
School of Physics,
University of Melbourne
VIC 3010
Tel: (03) 8344 5038
Fax: (03) 9439 4912
a.roberts @physics.unimelb.edu.au
SECRETARY
John Holdsworth,
School of Mathematical and Physical
Sciences, University of Newcastle,
Callaghan 2308 NSW
Australia
Tel: (02) 4921 5436
Fax: (02) 4921 6907
[email protected]
Halina Rubinsztein-Dunlop
Department of Physics,
University of Queensland,
St Lucia, QLD 4072
Tel: (07) 3365 3139
Fax: (07) 3365 1242
[email protected]
Ken Baldwin
Laser Physics Centre
ANU, RSPSE
Canberra ACT 0200
Tel. (02) 6125 4702
Fax. (02) 6125 2452
[email protected]
John Harvey
Department of Physics,
University of Auckland,
Private Bag 92019,
Auckland, New Zealand
Tel: (+64 9) 373 7599 X88831
Fax: (+64 9) 373 7445
[email protected]
OSA
(Optical Society of America)
SPIE
(International Society for Optical
Engineering)
HONORARY TREASURER
Stephen Collins
Optical Technology Research Lab
Victoria University
PO Box 14428, Melbourne, VIC 8001
Tel: (03) 9919 4283
Fax: (03) 9919 4698
[email protected]
PAST PRESIDENT
Murray Hamilton
Department of Physics, University of
Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005
Tel: (08) 8303 3994
Fax: (08) 8303 4380
[email protected]
6
AOS Councillors
Affiliates
Corporate Members
ARC CoE for Quantum-Atom Optics
Australian Fibre Works
Bandwidth Foundry
Bitline System
Coherent Scientific
CUDOS
Francis Lord Optics (Avtronics)
Lambda Scientific
Laserex
Lastek
NewSpec
Optiscan
Photon Engineering
Raymax Applications
Warsash Scientific
Wavelab Scientific
AOS News Volume 21 Number 4 2007
Editor’s Intro
I
t has been more than 6 years ago since I last put a magazine together. It was the
magazine for our Students’ Union, back in Belgium. Joyful times, spending whole
nights in the office after the deadline had lapsed! During my time as an editor
there, one of our professors predicted in an interview that we would always be doing
this kind of professional society work. Little did we know he was going to be so right...
It was during and after the last annual meeting of the AOS, that I started thinking
I could make a worthwile contribution to the Australian Optical Society. I had no idea
however that the society had been looking for a new editor for quite some time already.
So, I was a little surprised indeed to see myself bombarded so quickly to be the new
editor. I guess I must have said a bit too much after that AGM. Nevertheless, I am still
very excited about taking over from Murray Hamilton, as editor of AOS News. He has been of great
support, by the way, during this handover period, and I could not thank him enough for this.
You will probably have noticed a few changes in this newsletter. I can only hope you appreciate them,
but I am open to suggestions and comments of course. My intention is to change even more as time goes
on, so the style of this newsletter might change a bit still in the upcoming issues.
I sincerely hope I can count on your continued support, including contributed articles, conference
and workshop announcements, suggestions for future themes (see below) for this newsletter as well as
feedback and commsdents.
Call for Papers: Astro-Photonics
One of the first new features we would like to try out is the idea of Themed Issues. The next issue for
example (March 2008) will be dedicated to Astro–Photonics, following up on a very succesful workshop
that was held in November 2007 at the University of Sydney (http://www.cudos.org.au/cudos/
meetings/Astrophotonics.php). So with this, I am solliciting article contributions that could bring
the two communities – Astronomy and Photonics – closer together. If you have suggestions for other
themes, please feel free to contact me, or any of the members of the AOS Editorial Board.
—Michaël Roelens
Editor
Group picture of the participants of the first Astro-Photonics workshop at the School of Physics,
University of Sydney, November 2007.
7
AOS News Volume 21 Number 4 2007
Make The Most of Your Connection
The Optical Society of America is your inside track to the optics and photonics community and your link
to an international network of more than 12,000 optical scientists, engineers, and technicians in some 50
countries. This connection, combined with OSA’s strong programs and services, makes OSA membership
a valuable resource for you. Join now!
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incl:JOSA AJOSA
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As an OSA member,
you are also a member
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Join up to 5 OSA
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Optical Society of America
FAX: +1 202 416-6120 WEB: http://www.osa.org
2010 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20036 USA
8
AOS News Volume 21 Number 4 2007
SPIE was formed in 1955 as the Society for Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers, and has been dedicated
to providing the best possible service to the optical engineering community. SPIE is an international
technical society dedicated to promoting the engineering and scientific applications of optical, photonic,
imaging and optoelectronic technologies through its education and communications programs, meetings and
publications.
SPIE offers
International Networking
Today SPIE is the largest international professional engineering society serving the practicing engineer
and scientist in the field of optics and photonics. The Society serves the global technical and business
communities, with over 14,000 individual, 320 corporate, and 3,000 technical group members in more
than 75 countries worldwide. Advance professionally through networking and visibility among your peers.
Learn from others and gain access to the voices, ideas, and the energy of a global community.
Meetings
Among the many services the Society offers are the sponsorship, planning, and execution of technical
conferences, product exhibitions, and symposia. SPIE’s technical meetings and symposia are internationallyacclaimed gatherings of engineers and scientists working in optics, optoelectronics, and many related
fields. They take place in large and small venues, from specialised topics to cross-disciplinary information
exchanges, complete with extensive programs including short courses, workshops, and other special
activities.
Publications
A major activity of SPIE is the publication and distribution of archival professional journals, full-manuscript
conference proceedings, newsletters, and optics-related texts and monographs. SPIE publications deliver
timely, high-quality technical information to the optics, imaging, and photonics communities worldwide.
Membership includes a subscription to
OE Reports, a monthly newspaper that provides news and commentary on cutting-edge technology.
and More
In addition, SPIE provides numerous services to its members, including on-line electronic databases,
electronic bulletin board and networking services, and employment assistance. To further serve the public
good, the Society sponsors a number of awards, scholarships, and educational grants every year, and
publishes a comprehensive catalogue of educational resources in the optics field,
Optics Education.
To join SPIE: Complete the online membership form at www.spie.org/membership_form.html, print
and fax it to SPIE along with a copy of your AOS dues receipt. (Be sure to indicate that you are
eligible for the US$20 discount as an AOS member). Any queries can be directed to Mr Paul
Giusts at [email protected]
SPIE International Headquarters
Tel: +1 360 676 3290 Fax: +1 360 647 1445 email: [email protected]
web: http://spie.org
PO Box 10, Bellingham WA 98227-0010 USA
9
AOS News Volume 21 Number 4 2007
Interferometry at a low price?
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Phone: +61 8 8267 2686
Fax: +61 8 8267 2689
E-mail: [email protected]
AOS News Volume 21 Number 4 2007
Novel, narrow linewidth
fibre laser opens new
opportunities
Nemanja Jovanovic
Fibre lasers have significantly advanced over
the last 15 years and have become an important
and mature technology. High slope efficiencies,
power scalability, broad wavelength tunability,
diffraction limited beam qualities at high power
and cheap laser diode pump sources make fiber
lasers well suited for a range of applications.
However for airborne applications such as
LIDAR or countermeasure systems, there are
elevated demands on stability and robustness,
consequently the use of conventional external
bulk optics to control the fibre lasers wavelength
and linewidth is unviable.
F
iber Bragg gratings (FBGs) written using 1
or 2 photon UV processes can be utilized
to generate a narrowband laser output (~
0.25 -1 nm), but because they require the fibre to
be photosensitive, they can not be easily written
into non-photosensitive rare-earth doped laser
fibre. Typically gratings are written into standard
photosensitive fibers without rare-earth dopants
and spliced onto the fiber containing the active
core. This procedure produces an additional step
in the fabrication process, introduces an additional
loss to both the pump and laser light, and
diminishes the overall robustness of the laser.
Recently, point-by-point (PbP) inscribed fibre
Bragg gratings (FBG) were written directly into
the active core of a ytterbium doped double clad
silica fibre laser in order to overcome these issues.
The point-by-point technique refers to the use of
a single tightly focused femtosecond pulse into
the core of an optical fibre in order to modify
the refractive index of the core locally and hence
create one period of the grating. By translating
the optical fibre synchronized with the repetition
rate of the femtosecond laser it is possible to build
up a structure consisting of many periods that
will inevitably have a stop band at the required
wavelength.
Initial experiments demonstrated up to 5 W
of CW output power at the predetermined 1080
nm wavelength, in a very narrow linewidth of only
15 pm (3.87 GHz) which is 17 times narrower
then systems exploiting interference FBGs [1]. The
very narrow linewidth feature offered by these
PbP FBGs makes efficient frequency doubling
into the visible spectrum possible since the
bandwidth is smaller then the maximum phase
The very narrow linewidth
“feature
offered by these
PbP FBGs makes efficient
frequency doubling into the
visible spectrum possible.
”
Nemanja Jovanovic is with CUDOS,
MQ Photonics, Department of
Physics,
Macquarie University,
North Ryde, NSW 2109,
Australia.
E-Mail: [email protected]
Fig. 1. Fibre laser in operation.
11
AOS News Volume 21 Number 4 2007
12
AOS News Volume 21 Number 4 2007
Cooling fan for temperature stabilization
Pigtail
Rare-earth
doped fibre
Pump laser diode
Splice
PbP inscribed FBG
Fig. 2. Schematic of a very simple fibre laser geometry exploiting
PbP FBGs to narrow the linewidth and control the wavelength.
matching bandwidth of the periodically poled
ferroelectric crystals. The fibre laser showed great
stability in terms of output power, wavelength
drift and linewidth fluctuations over a 4 hour
period of test which was further improved by
the implementation of passive temperature
stabilization of the FBG. There was no observable
degradation to the laser performance and hence
the FBG after several four hour experiments,
which may have resulted from the fact that
the FBG may have been annealed by the high
intracore irradiances.
The potential of this fibre laser variant was
further tested in a high power scaling experiment
where it was observed, that the fibre laser offered
a relatively narrow linewidth of 260 pm (64.8
GHz) at a pump limited output power of 103 W
at 1097 nm [2]. In order to exploit the narrow
linewidth feature of the laser, the output of the
fibre laser was single pass frequency doubled using
a MgO:PPLN piece which was 11 mm long.
The conversion efficiency was 10 % which was
consistent with values reported in the literature
but the output rolled off above 2.1 W of green
light generated due to the linewidth of the laser
being slightly broader than the maximum phase
matching bandwidth of the MgO:PPLN crystal.
Although the linewidth broadening was partly
due to spatial hole burning, the majority of the
broadening was due to thermal chirping of the
FBG induced by the high intracore irradiances.
Therefore, by either encoding a counter chirp
during the writing process, cooling the grating to
a greater extent or by creating a master oscillator
power amplifier (MOPA) arrangement in the fibre
form (FOPA), it would be possible to retain the
very narrow linewidth features of the fibre laser at
high power levels which would aid in generating
the maximum amount of visible radiation.
The advantages of using such a system for
applications requiring a greater level of robustness
include the following:
• a simple setup including a pump laser diode,
a roll of laser fibre, which if arranged correctly
could be spliced directly to the pump diodes
pigtail and a PbP inscribed FBG as shown in
Fig. 2,
• a very narrow linewidth of the fiber laser
which can be exploited to achieve efficient
frequency doubling into the visible part of the
spectrum,
• easy wavelength selectivity that is achieved by
simply rewriting the FBG at the new target
wavelength, and
• simple passive temperature stabilization of the
laser by cooling the grating.
The combination of PbP FBGs and fibre lasers
promises to enable new applications that have
previously been out of reach.
References
[1] N. Jovanovic, A. Fuerbach, G.D. Marshall, M.J. Withford, and S.D. Jackson, “Stable
high-power continuous-wave Yb3+ - doped silica fiber laser utilizing a point-by-point
inscribed fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1486 (2007).
[2] N. Jovanovic, M. Aslund, A. Fuerbach, S. D. Jackson, G.D. Marshall, M.J. Withford,
“Narrow Linewidth, 100 W CW Yb3+-Doped Silica Fiber Laser with a Point-by-Point
Bragg Grating Inscribed Directly into the Active Core,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2804 (2007).
13
AOS News Volume 21 Number 4 2007
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14
AOS News Volume 21 Number 4 2007
Metamaterials:
Challenging the
fundamentals of nature
Yuri Kivshar, Ilya Shadrivov, David Powell, and Steven Morrison
Summary
Recent experimental results have shown a possibility of creating novel
types of microstructured materials that demonstrate many counterintuitive properties including negative refraction. In particular, the
composite materials created by arrays of wires and split-ring resonators
can possess a negative real part of magnetic permeability and dielectric
permittivity for microwaves. These materials are referred to as left-handed
metamaterials. They were mentioned first as a theoretical curiosity about
35 years ago, but recent experimental demonstrations of such newlyengineered materials have involved the development of new fundamental
physical concepts and ideas. Members of the Nonlinear Physics Centre
of the Australian National University have pioneered theoretical and
experimental studies of such materials in Australia, and they recently
demonstrated and studied the first tunable nonlinear metamaterial.
I
t is well known that a material’s response
to the applied electromagnetic radiation
can be characterized by two electromagnetic
parameters, magnetic permeability and electric
permittivity. These two physical characteristics
are combined in a product to define the square of
the refractive index, which measures how fast the
material transmits light and how light is bent on
entering the material — the higher the refractive
index, the slower the propagation and the stronger
the deflection.
Metamaterials are artificial composite structures
which exhibit electromagnetic properties inaccessible for natural materials. As a matter of fact, in a
special type of metamaterials, known as left-handed materials, both permeability and permittivity
become simultaneously negative; they were first
studied theoretically as a curiosity about 35 years
ago [1] but the recent fabrication and experimental studies of artificial composites with left-handed
properties for microwave and even optical wavelengths gave a new twist to this concept.
One of the first unusual properties predicted
for left-handed materials is negative refraction,
i.e. metamaterials bend waves in the wrong way.
This property allows making very unusual optical components, such as flat lenses. Moreover, the
metamaterial are remarkable for their ability to
control evanescent waves, or near fields, providing possibilities for building super-lenses without
diffraction resolution limit. In general, all electromagnetic phenomena are different in metamaterials as compared to natural dielectrics, thus having
a potential for a broad range of metamaterial
applications.
In a left-handed material the Poynting vector
15
AOS News Volume 21 Number 4 2007
NewSpec
16
AOS News Volume 21 Number 4 2007
the negative refractive index in Snell’s
law provides the correct description of
refraction at the interface between leftand right-handed materials.
There are no such materials in
nature. However, a few years ago David Smith and his team in San Diego
demonstrated [2] the first artificially
fabricated metamaterial with the peculiar property of left-handed materials: it bends electromagnetic waves
in the opposite direction to normal
materials. A typical metamaterial has
a structure composed of copper elements that appears as a continuous
Fig. 1. Dr. Ilya Shadrivov, Dr. David Powell, and PhD student
material to electromagnetic waves over
Steven Morrison in a new microwave laboratory with the first
the microwave range of frequencies,
sample of a microwave composite metamaterial.
exhibits a simultaneously negative perof a wave is anti-parallel to the wave vector and,
mittivity and negative permeability, and represents
therefore, the basic feature of light is reversed that
an example of Veselago’s left-handed materials.
is light propagates in the opposite direction to the
energy flow. This leads to some very interesting
effects such as the reversal of the Doppler shift
Metamaterials in Canberra
for radiation, and the reversal of the direction of
Cherenkov radiation. In addition, one of the most The studies of unusual properties of the lefthanded metamaterials have been initiated in the
basic principles of optics, Snell’s law, is “reversed”
Nonlinear Physics Centre several years ago, being
at the interface of a left-handed medium with a
the first in Australia. In particular, our group sugnormal right-handed material, so that the elecgested the concept of tunable nonlinear materials
tromagnetic waves experience negative refraction.
[3] through accurate microscopic derivation of
That is, light that enters a left-handed material
the effective magnetic permeability and dielectric
from a right-handed medium will undergo refracpermittivity in the case of nonlinear Kerr-like
tion, but opposite to that usually observed. The
dielectric. It was demonstrated that the effective
reversal comes about because a left-handed matemagnetic permeability in such structures depends
rial has a refractive index that is negative; use of
on the intensity of the macroscopic magnetic field in a nontrivial hysteresis-type way, allowing
changes in the material properties
from left- to right-handed and
back. This effect can be treated as
the second-order phase transition in
the transmission properties induced
by an external field, and it has been
now verified experimentally [4].
Very recently, our metamaterial
group at Nonlinear Physics Centre
(see Fig. 1) fabricated the first
mechanically tunable composite
structure that was characterized and
tested in collaboration with Dr.
Fig. 2. The first mechanically tunable metamaterials operating at
microwaves, with possibility of superlattice arrangement of the splitG.N. Milford from the Australian
ring resonator board layers [5].
Defence Force Academy, with the
17
AOS News Volume 21 Number 4 2007
first experimental results have been
published a few months ago [5]. The
experiments have been conducted
on the free-space scattering properties of a microwave metamaterial
created by layers of printed circuit
boards with split-ring resonators and
wires arranged to form a superlattice.
First, we studied both transmission
and reflection of electromagnetic
waves from a regular structure with
different spacing between the layers.
Then, we arranged the boards in
different superlattice configurations,
and analyzed the dual resonance
Fig. 3. Structure of nonlinear tunable metamaterial.
behaviour of the metamaterial. In
contrast with earlier studies, the
of the resonator. The diode allows the split-ring
resonance splitting is achieved in a material with
resonator to be tuned by an applied dc voltage or
identical resonators but with a superlattice arby a high power signal. In our recent paper [8],
rangement of the split-ring resonator board layers,
we demonstrated different tuning regimes with
as shown in the photo of Fig. 2.
and without an inductive coil in parallel with the
In particular, by varying periodicity in one
varactor. This coil was shown to change the sign
dimension, we have shown that the reflection and
of the nonlinearity and eliminates the memory
transmission resonances can be shifted by more
effect caused by charge accumulation across the
than 15% of the resonant frequency, allowing for
varactor. In addition, at higher powers the nonmechanical tuning of the electromagnetic proplinear response of the split-ring resonator becomes
erties of metamaterials. We have demonstrated
multi-valued, paving a way for creating nonlinear
that using superlattice structure for arranging the
metamaterials.
metamaterial constituents, one may obtain several
Tunable nonlinear metamaterials have been
reflection and transmission resonances.
fabricated in Canberra by placing varactors in
each of the split-ring resonators of the structures
Tunable nonlinear
(see Fig. 3) . First of all, we measured a very
metamaterials
18
-30
3.11GHz
3.27 GHz
3.3 GHZ
-40
|S21| (dB)
The first step towards creating tunable nonlinear metamaterials was
to study, both theoretically and
experimentally, the dynamic tunability of the magnetic resonance of
a single nonlinear split-ring resonator. Split-ring resonators are the key
building blocks for metamaterials.
Recent studies have demonstrated
how to dynamically tune or modulate the electromagnetic properties
of metamaterials, and the fabrication
of nonlinear split-ring resonators
has been demonstrated by placing a
varactor diode [6] or a photosensitive semiconductor [7] within the gap
-50
-60
-70
-40
-30
-20
VNA output (dBm)
-10
0
Fig. 4. Measured nonlinearity-induced tunability of the transmission
coefficient of a metamaterial by nearly 30 dB [4].
AOS News Volume 21 Number 4 2007
pronounced shift of the resonance itself, and then
measured the transmission through the nonlinear
metamaterial with wires and split-ring resonators
for different power levels. When the frequency is
at the left edge of the resonance, we observe an
enhanced transparency of the metamaterial. However, when we increase the power, the frequency
is shifted to the region of positive susceptibility,
and the material becomes opaque. As a result, we
observe strong suppression of the beam transmission by almost 30 dB (see Fig. 4), in a qualitative
agreement with our earlier theoretical predictions
[3].
Other unusual properties of metamaterials
Recently, we have revealed a novel and highly nontrivial property of left-handed metamaterials with
negative refraction: a one-dimensional periodic
structure containing layers made of a left-handed
metamaterial can trap light in three dimensions
due to the existence of a complete photonic band
gap [9]. This finding is in a sharp contrast with the
fundamental concepts of the conventional physics
of photonic crystals where complicated structures
“Left-handed
metamaterials
possess unique
properties which
set them apart
from any material
available in
nature.
”
with two- and three-dimensional periodicity are
required. We believe that our results may suggest novel directions for the future applications of
metamaterials for microwaves, Terahertz frequencies, and visible light as fabrication technologies
become available.
In collaboration with Lindsay Botten and his
colleagues [10], we studied wave propagation in
disordered, mixed metamaterials and revealed
yet another fascinating feature of these materials.
We found that the introduction of metamaterials
substantially suppresses Anderson localization. At
long wavelengths, the localization length in mixed
stacks is orders of magnitude larger than for normal structures--proportional to the sixth power of
the wavelength--in contrast to the usual quadratic
wavelength dependence of normal systems. Suppression of localization is also exemplified in longwavelength resonances which largely disappear
when left-handed materials are introduced [10].
More recently, we predicted that periodic
structures with metamaterials may possess nontrivial optical Bloch oscillations [11]. In particular,
the most intriguing properties are demonstrated
by the layered structures with left-handed metamaterials and zero average refractive index where the
layer thickness varies linearly across the structure.
We have predicted that such structure should
demonstrate a new type of the Bloch oscillations
associated with coupled surface waves excited at
the interfaces between the layers with left-handed
material and conventional dielectric.
Concluding remarks
The research on left-handed materials has recently
emerged as a new area of physics and engineering and is now attracting rapidly growing interest worldwide. Due to their ability to respond to
electromagnetic radiation in a previously unattainable way, artificially fabricated left-handed
metamaterials with negative refraction hold a real
promise of underpinning the enabling technology for manipulating optical and microwave fields
at the sub-wavelength (below diffraction limit)
nano-meter scales. The possibility of such manipulation is among the most important scientific and
technological challenges that span several scientific
and engineering areas. Most of the fundamental
problems in the field of left-handed materials
have not been solved yet. Left-handed metamaterials possess unique properties which set them
apart from any material available in nature. Apart
from novel possibilities they offer for practical
applications and devices, metamaterials display
unexplored and intriguing properties that often
challenge fundamentals of physics. Far from being specific to the particular area of research, the
novel theoretical and experimental framework that
will be developed in this field could benefit many
19
AOS News Volume 21 Number 4 2007
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AOS News Volume 21 Number 4 2007
areas of physics where the study of the properties
of composite materials and their electromagnetic
response is required.
Acknowledgements
We thank many of our colleagues for collaboration and useful discussions, in particular Lindsay
Botten, Costas Soukoulis, David Smith, and Alex
Kozyrev. This research has been supported by the
Australian Research Council.
Yuri Kivshar ([email protected]
au), Ilya Shadrivov, David Powell, and Steven Morrison are with the Nonlinear Physics
Centre, at the Research School of Physical
Sciences, and Engineering, The Australian
National University, Canberra.
References
[1] See, e.g., C. Soukoulis, Opt. Photonics News 17, 18 (2006), and references
therein.
[2] R.A. Shelby, D.R. Smith, and S. Schultz,
Science 292, 77 (2001).
[3] A.A. Zharov, I.V. Shadrivov, and Yu.S.
Kivshar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 037401
(2003).
[4] I.V. Shadrivov, A. Kozyrev, D.W. van der
Weide, and Yu.S. Kivshar, “Tunable nonlinear metamaterials” submitted for publication (2007)
[5] I.V. Shadrivov, D.A. Powell, S.K. Morrison,
Yu.S. Kivshar, G.N. Milford, Appl. Phys.
Lett. 90, 201919 (2007)
[6] I.V. Shadrivov, S.K. Morrison, and Yu.S.
Kivshar, Opt. Express 14, 9344 (2006).
[7] A. Degiron, J. J. Mock, and D. R. Smith,
Opt. Express 15, 1115 (2007).
[8] D.A. Powell, I.V. Shadrivov, Yu.S. Kivshar,
and M.V. Gorkunov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,
144107 (2007).
[9] I.V. Shadrivov, A.A. Sukhorukov, and
Yu.S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 193903
(2005).
[10]A.A. Asatryan, L.C. Botten, M.A. Byrne,
V.D. Freilikher, SA. Gredeskul, I.V. Shadrivov, R.C. McPhedran, and Yu.S. Kivshar,
Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 193902 (2007).
[11]A.R. Davoyan, I.V. Shadrivov, A.A. Sukhorukov, and Yu.S. Kivshar, “Optical Bloch
oscillations in periodic structures with
metamaterials”, submitted to Appl. Phys.
Lett. (2007).
Conference Watch
OFC/NFOEC 2008
San Diego, CA
http://www.ofcnfoec.org/
Focus on Microscopy 2008
Osaka, Awaji
Island, Japan
http://www.FocusOnMicroscopy.org
International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors Perth
OFS-19
http://obel.ee.uwa.edu.au/OFS-19/
CLEO/QELS 2008
San Jose,
(paper submission deadline 3 Dec 2007)
California, USA
http://www.cleoconference.org
SPIE Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation Marseille, France
2008
http://www.spie.org
21st ICO Congress
Sydney
(incorporating AOS conference)
http://www.iceaustralia.com/ICO2008
OECC/ACOFT 2008
Sydney
http://www.iceaustralia.com/OECC_ACOFT2008
24-28 February 2008
13-16 April, 2008
14-18 April, 2008
4 - 9 May 2008
23 - 28 June 2008
7 - 10 July 2008
7 - 10 July 2008
21
AOS News Volume 21 Number 4 2007
Single Photon Counting Module
SPCM now RoHS compliant
PerkinElmer Optoelectronics recently announced that its SPCM-AQRH Single
Photon Counting Module is now fully RoHS compliant, in accordance with the
European Union Directive 2002/95EEC, which restricts the use of certain hazardous
substances in electrical and electronic equipment.
Applications include:
- LIDAR
- Photon correlation
- spectroscopy
- Astronomical observation
- Optical range finding
- Adaptive optics
- Ultra sensitive fluorescence
- Particle sizing
- Quantum Atom Optics
Photon Detection Efficiency (PD) vs. Wavelength
PerkinElmer's SPCM-AQRH series of selfcontained modules detect single photons
of light over the 400 nm to 1060 nm
wavelength range. The SPCM-AQRH
uses a unique silicon avalanche
photodiode (APD) to achieve a peak
photon detection efficiency of more than
65% at 650 nm over an active area of 180
µm. (See figure left).
With dark counts as low as 25 counts per second, and mean count rates as high as
5x106 counts per second, there is a SPCM-ARQH model to suit every users
22
Sydney
PO Box 1685
Strawberry Hills
NSW 2012
Tel: (02) 9319 0122
Fax: (02) 9318 2192
[email protected]
www.warsash.com.au
AOS News Volume 21 Number 4 2007
Sydney
PO Box 1685
Strawberry Hills
NSW 2012
Tel: (02) 9319 0122
Fax: (02) 9318 2192
[email protected]
www.warsash.com.au 23
AOS News Volume 21 Number 4 2007
24
AOS News Volume 21 Number 4 2007
OSA Annual Student Chapter Leadership Meeting
San Jose, California
Cameron Smith
The University of Sydney is host to one of many OSA (Optical Society
of America) Student Chapters throughout the world. These chapters are
funded by the OSA to provide support for the students of local research
groups to network, collaborate and undertake outreach activities aimed
at the broader community. The OSA Student Chapter at the University
of Sydney consists of three groups: CUDOS (the Centre for Ultrahighbandwidth Devices for Optical Systems), Electrical Engineering, and
OFTC (Optical Fibre Technology Centre).
E
ach year, the OSA is host to a meeting for all the leaders of each student
chapter, providing financial assistance
for travel and expenses to attend. The aim of
these meetings is to encourage networking
and support for the leadership roles in these
chapters, holding workshops, motivational
lectures, gatherings, activities and nightly
festivities. These meetings are also held in
conjunction with the prestigious yearly FiO
(Frontiers in Optics) conference, which the
students can attend to meet and hear world
class speakers and researchers.
This year in October, the OSA held its
annual student chapter meeting in San Jose,
California, USA. First thing, bright and early
on a Sunday morning, everyone met up for
a breakfast of bagels before loading up on a
bus and heading to the campus of Stanford
University. There, we each received trendy
panama hats, red shirts that read, “If this
shirt looks blue, you are going too fast,” and
posed for a group photo before having a seat
in one of the electrical engineering lecture
theatres there. After taking care of formalities
and housekeeping, outlining issues that we
all should be on the lookout for that day, we
heard an enlightening keynote speech from
Professor Alan Willner about the benefits of
leading and serving in the OSA. Indeed, his
case was compelling considering that, aside
from a free trip to the USA, leading an OSA
student chapter is voluntary work.
On that high note, the following lunch
allowed people to network and socialise, not
only with OSA student chapter leaders but
also members from various relevant research
groups of Stanford University. From Peru to
Germany, India to Israel, Ukraine to Singa-
pore, United Kingdom to Brazil, it was a remarkable experience to interact with so many
people from such vastly different locations
and find out what they did and how they
went about it. definition
After lunch we returned to the lecture
theatre where several student chapters gave
presentations on outreach activities they had
undertaken over the past year. Special kudos
should be given to the Australian National
University student chapter for the presentation on their adventure: Optics in the Outback, which was well received. Who would
have thought outreach could reach out so far!
Following that we had a meaningful
discussion on various topics pertaining to the
management of the student chapters. These
topics ranged from ways of motivating our
student chapters to succeed and make things
happen, which can often be a problem when
the students of a research group are frequently
caught chasing deadlines and reviews, and
suggestions for outreach activities. Certainly
many things were learnt and shared by all at
the conclusion of a long yet fruitful day.
The remainder of the trip centred about
the FiO conference, which was attended
along with the friends and acquaintances
made at the student chapter leaders meeting.
Of course, each day was finished off with a
night on the town for extended networking
and socialising. Ah, the things we do for our
chapters!
Cameron Smith is the president of the
OSA Student Chapter at the University of
Sydney.
([email protected])
25
AOS News Volume 21 Number 4 2007
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Strawberry Hills
NSW 2012
Tel: (02) 9319 0122
Fax: (02) 9318 2192
[email protected]
www.warsash.com.au
AOS News Volume 21 Number 4 2007
Park Systems AFM / NSOM
Now Available in Australia & NZ
Park Systems (formerly PSIA) Technology Leader
in Nanoscale Measurements
Looking for advanced, affordable Atomic Force Microscopes
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www.warsash.com.au 27
CUDOS
AOS News Volume 21 Number 4 2007
PECS VIII, 2009
April 5 - 9, 2009 sees the Photonic and Electromagnetic Crystal Structures conference come to Sydney,
Australia.
Continuing the tradition of PECS VII held in
Monterey CA 2007 and PECS VI in Grete 2005, the
8th conference will review significant advances in
the field and discuss future directions of photonic
crystal research. The program will include talks from
leading scientists in the field and poster sessions.
With planning already underway PECSVIII promises
to be a success. Please register your interest at http://
pecs8.mtci.com.au/
News from CUDOS
ARC GRANTS
CUDOS members from Sydney, ANU, Swinburne
and RMIT were involved in a number of ARC
Grants to begin in 2008. Successfull applications
include 4 Discovery Projects, 1 Linkage and 1 International Linkage Project, 1 International Linkage
Fellowship, and 3 LIEF Grants.
AWARDS & RECOGNITION, 2007
Benjamin Eggleton
- COSMOS Magazine Bright Spark
- Australian Academy of Science Pawsey Medal
- ARC Federation Fellow (renewed)
Yuri Kivshar
- ANU Peter Baume Award
- Australian Academy of Science Lyle Medal
- ARC Federation Fellow (renewed)
Min Gu
- Fellow of the Australian Academy of Science
- Cheung Kong Distinguished Professor awarded
by the Chinese Ministry of Education
- Fellow of the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering
David Moss
- Fellow of the Optical Society of America
ICO-21 & OECC/ACOFT 2008
CUDOS is supporting the co-located conferences
ICO-21 and OECC/ACOFT at Sydney Convention
& Exhibition Centre, 7-10 July 2008. Benjamin
Eggleton is Conference Chair of OECC/ACOFT
and Chris Walsh is Organising Committee Chair of
ICO-21.
ICO-21 - The theme of the Congress is “Optics for
the 21st Century”. The technical program is wideranging and will capture all aspects of modern optics
and photonics.
http://www.iceaustralia.com/ico2008/
OECC / ACOFT 2008 - The combined conference
JOURNAL EDITORS
will address all aspects of optoelectronics and optical
Benjamin Eggleton is a new editor of Optics Comcommunications, from waveguide and propagation
munications and Martijn de Sterke has recently
theory, through components and subsystems to sysbecome Editor in Chief of Optics Express.
tems and networks.
http://www.iceaustralia.com/oecc_acoft2008/
UNDERGRADUATE WORKSHOP
In September 2007 CUDOS invited 31 undergraduates from Australia and New Zealand to a two day
CENTRE RENEWAL
2008 marks the beginning of CUDOS II. The Centre workshop on All-Optical Switching. Day one was
specially designed to provide the 3rd and 4th yr stuwas successfully renewed, with ARC funding condents with background for the more advanced topics
tinuing until the end of 2010.
discussed by CUDOS members on the second day.
CUDOS and Undergraduate attendees at the All-Optical Switching Workshop, Friday September 28, 2007
28
A vision
for the
best
people.
AOS News Volume 21 Number 4 2007
Technology R&D Engineer
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Photomultiplier Tube with a robust multialkali photo-cathode, this sensor provides
best-in-class spectral response covering
the 300-850 nm wavelength range.With
its unique Fiber-Optic input, this sensor
is ideal for laser-induced fluorescence
applications where superior signal-tonoise is required. The ultra-low-noise
high-efficiency power supply and signal
amplifier provide both ease of use and
stable operation.
The PHOTONIS Group, is a global
business serving the photo sensor
technology needs of world-leading clients
in the areas of Industry & Science,
Medical Imaging and Night Vision.
Uniting under the PHOTONIS brand, the
group brings together the people, products
and technologies of BURLE, DEP and
PHOTONIS.
For further information, contact Lastek, Toll Free: Australia 1800 882 215, NZ 0800 441 005
T: +61 8 8443 8668, F: +61 8 8443 8427, email: [email protected], web: www.lastek.com.au
29
AOS News Volume 21 Number 4 2007
Quantum Composers introduces 9520 Series Pulse Generators
The model 9520 series heightens the
capabilities of pulse generation and digital
delay to new levels. Cost effective, yet
extremely capable, this instrument provides
solutions to generate and synchronize multiple
pulses and triggers for a wide variety of
applications. The 9520 series provides up to
eight fully independent digitally controlled
channels with width, delay, rate and amplitude
control on each output. For automated test
sequencing, all common computer interfaces
are available such as RS232, USB, GPIB and
Ethernet.
Key Features :
• 250 ps timing resolution with < 200 ps
jitter
• Internal rate generator, 10ns period
resolution over entire range of instrument
• Complete channel and system setup stored
in memory - Provides 12 memory storage
bins
• Remote programmability - All of the 9520
series instruments offer RS232, GPIB,
USB and Ethernet
• Single cycle pulse by pushbutton or
reference trigger - One pulse with each
pushbutton, internal, external signal or
software command
• Advanced Hardware Features :
• 820 nm and 1310 nm optical outputs
available with ST® connectors
Laboratory
Light Sources
• Optical
inputs available
with ST
connectors
We can
provide many lights sources for sci•
Trigger
input per
output
entific
laboratories
such
as; available
Sodium, Mercury, Hydrogen, Xenon, Tungsten-Bromine,
Deuterium and so on. With many applications ranging from wavelength measurement to spectral analysis we are sure to
have a light source to suit your application!
Here are just a few of our light sources:
For further information, contact Lastek, Toll Free: Australia 1800 882 215, NZ 0800 441 005
LLE-3 Multiple Discharge
Lamp. Consist of
T: +61 8 8443 8668, F: +61 8 8443 8427, email: [email protected],
web: www.lastek.com.au
Laboratory Light Sources
Hydrogen, Neon, Helium and Nitrogen.
Laboratory Light Sources
We can provide many lights sources for scientific laboratories such as; Sodium, Mercury, Hydrogen, Xenon, Tungsten-Bromine,
Deuterium and so on. With many applications ranging from wavelength measurement to spectral analysis we are sure to
have a light source to suit your application!
Here are just a few of our light sources:
LLC-7 High Pressure Spherical Xenon
Lamp. Irradiates a strong continuos spectra
from UV to Visible.
LLE-3 Multiple Discharge Lamp. Consist of
Hydrogen, Neon, Helium and Nitrogen.
LLE-9 High Pressure Mercury Lamp. With
high gas pressure more and stronger mercury
spectral lines can be obtained.
Contact Lambda Scientific for further info. Phone: +61 8 8267 Contact
2686, us for further info
Fax: +61 8 8267 2689, E-mail: [email protected]
Lambda Scientific Pty Ltd
Phone: +61 8 8267 2686
Fax: +61 8 8267 2689
E-mail: [email protected]
30
LLC-7 High Pressure Spherical Xenon
AOS News Volume 21 Number 4 2007
Optical Talk Set from oemarket.com
The OTS fiber optic
talk set provides
voice communication
(full duplex) over a
single optical fiber
cable. This handy
instrument is suitable
for installation
and maintenance
of optical networks. Hands free operation makes
communication even more convenient.
This product features low power consumption design,
long operating time (up to 40 hours), clear voice
transmission, calling function, 32 step voice volume
control, up to 50dB dynamic range for long distance
communication.
Multimode CWDM 3-Port Add/Drop
Device from oemarket.com
This add/drop filter has center
wavelength at ITU CWDM grids. It
combines or splits a single channel from
the rest of the channels.
This component works with multimode
fibers, 62.5/125 or 50/125. Hence
it provides add/drop functions for
a CWDM network built up using
multimode fibers.
This product is based on proven thinfilm technology; it has ultra flat and wide
pass band, low insertion loss and high
channel isolation.
Contact: [email protected] or Visit www.oemarket.com
150W Low Cost Solar Simulator
Oriel, a division of Newport Corporation has released a new
low cost, 150W solar simulator, offering an option for lower
power and lower budget applications. The system offers a
33mm (1.3-inch) diameter collimated output beam and a
small arc size allowing the user to focus the output onto a
fibre optic bundle or liquid light guide. Further optional Air
Mass Filters, Dichroic Mirrors, and Bandpass Filters let you
shape the output spectrum as required.
Improved Newport Motorised Stages
Over the past 6 months Newport has upgraded many of its
motorised linear and rotation stages. Improvements include
higher performance, lower cost, lower profiles, more compact
motor and electronics block, manual control knob on stepper
motors, more flexible control cables, simplified product
configuration, more easily accessible mounting holes.
BGS50 and BGS80 Motorised Goniometer Stages
•
Improved version of old BGM series stages
•
Available with either DC or Stepper motor drive
•
BGS50 travel range: +/-30 degrees
•
BGS50 resolution: 0.0000698 degrees (DC) or 0.0000969 degrees (Stepper)
•
BGS80 travel range: +/-45 degrees
•
BGS80 resolution: 0.0005 degrees (DC) or 0.0001 degrees (Stepper)
•
BGS50 has compact folded motor
For further information on the Newport Motorised Stages or the Solar Simulator, contact Neil
McMahon, e: [email protected], t: (08) 8463 1967
31
AOS News Volume 21 Number 4 2007
Ultra-Powerful, Ultrafast Laser – Mira-HP Series
For a decade and a half, the Coherent Mira has been the ultrafast laser of choice for scientific
research. The advent of the Mira-HP (High Power) now takes Mira’s performance to an unprecedented power level.
The Mira-HP has been designed to accept the full 18 watts of pump power from Coherent’s
field proven Verdi V18 pump laser. Producing > 4 Watts typical (Mira-HP-F femtosecond model)
or > 3.2 Watts typical (Mira-HP-P picosecond model), the Mira-HP is the world’s most powerful
commercial ultrafast oscillator.
Applications include:
• Nanomachining
• High harmonic generation
• X-ray generation
• OPO pumping
Ultra-Broadband, Ultrafast Laser – Micra Series
The Micra is a series of integrated, compact, ultra-flexible, ultra-broadband femtosecond lasers,
available in > 300mW (Micra-5) or the new > 750mW (Micra-10) at 800nm output power configurations.
Micra is built on three “industry standard” Coherent technologies:
• The legendary reliability and low noise of the Verdi pump laser
• The flexibility of the Mira open architecture, flat bed oscillator
• The convenience of the Vitesse “one box” package
Key features include:
• Wavelength tuning from 750nm to 860nm (Micra-5)
• Bandwidth selectable from 30nm to 100nm (Micra-5)
• Bandwidth can support pulses as short as 7fs
Applications include amplifier seeding, optical coherence tomography, terahertz imaging, OPO
pumping and high harmonic/X-ray/attosecond pulse generation.
Optional accessories include carrier envelope phase stabilisers, pulse synchronizers, external
compressors, cavity dumpers and pulse pickers, and a Verdi 18 Watt pump leaving 8 Watts spare
to pump your amplifier.
Please contact Gerri Springfield or Paul Wardill at Coherent Scientific for further information on
the Micra laser systems, the Mira-HP or Coherent’s comprehensive range of ultrafast oscillators,
amplifiers and pump lasers.
Cyan™ Scientific 488 nm CW Laser
The Spectra-Physics Cyan™ Scientific CW 488 nm laser
provides researchers with unprecedented beam quality and
reliability at power levels of 10-50 mW. Based on a highly
reliable externally doubled diode laser, the Cyan Scientific laser
provides intrinsically single-frequency operation with best-inclass power and wavelength stability. Designed to minimize
space requirements, the compact Cyan laser head measures only
125 x 70 x 34 mm and is ready for use right out of the box.
With a linewidth of <1 MHz, the Cyan Scientific laser is ideal for
interferometry, Raman spectroscopy and other applications requiring high coherence and spectral
stability. Intensity noise of less than 0.2% makes the Cyan Scientific the favoured light source for
demanding applications in bioinstrumentation, particle measurement, and confocal microscopy.
For further information contact Graeme Jones, e: [email protected]
t: (08) 8463 1967
32
AOS News Volume 21 Number 4 2007
Focus on Microscopy 2008
Osaka, Awaji Island, Japan
April 13-16, 2008
21th International Conference on 3D Image Processing in Microscopy
20th International Conference on Confocal Microscopy
Dear Colleagues,
After the successful FOM2007 conference held in Valencia in April this year, it is a pleasure to announce
that the next conference: Focus on Microscopy 2008 will take place in Osaka/Awaji Island, Japan from
Sunday, April 13 to Wednesday, April 16, 2008. As the next in a series of unique interdisciplinary
meetings on advanced multidimensional light microscopy and image processing, the conference will be
hosted by the University of Osaka.
Focus on Microscopy 2008 is the continuation of a yearly, well attended conference series presenting
the latest innovations in optical microscopy and their application in biology, medicine and the material
sciences. Key subjects for the conference are the theory and practice of 3D optical imaging, related 3D
image processing, together with reporting on the ever increasing spatial resolutions and sophisticated
imaging modes coming available in sectioning microscopy.
The conference series is in addition known for covering the rapid development of advanced fluorescence labeling techniques for the confocal and multi-photon 3D imaging of -live- biological specimens.
Laser light in combination with 3D microscopy is starting to play an increasingly important role as a
tool at the sub micrometer scale in cell biology for dissection and isolation of structures of interest for
subsequent analysis.
Abstracts for contributions are invited and can already be submitted through the website:
http://www.FocusOnMicroscopy.org where further information on the present and previous FOM
conferences can be found.
Important dates:
Deadline for the submission of abstracts:
January 15, 2008
Acceptance of contributions, draft program: February 6, 2008
Deadline for early registration:
February 26, 2008
We welcome you to Osaka for the FOM2008 conference and exhibition. To stay informed about the
conference please leave your name and email at
http://www.FocusOnMicroscopy.org/stayinformed.
On behalf of the organising committee,
Satoshi Kawata and Katsumasa Fujita, Osaka University, RIKEN, Wako City, Japan
Fred Brakenhoff, Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, University of Amsterdam,
The Netherlands
E-mail:
Web:
[email protected]
www.FocusOnMicroscopy.org
33
O C TOBER 20 07
NEWSLETTER
C O M M I S S I O N I N T E R N AT I O N A L E D ’ O P T I Q U E ● I N T E R N AT I O N A L C O M M I S S I O N F O R O P T I C S
ICO mourns the loss of Gallieno Denardo
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We live in difficult times, and unfortunately the
optics community recently experienced a great
loss. Gallieno Denardo, who was for more than
two decades a leader of the optics and photonics
programmes at the Abdus Salam International
Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), passed
away on 23 July after a heart attack. It was
a sudden and unexpected loss. ICO has lost a
great friend and a key person who disseminated
optics and photonics across the world.
I had the great fortune to work with Gallieno
over the last six years and I was always impressed
by his tenacity, dedication, generosity and great
sense of how to manage optics activities. There
is little more that we can add, so it is perhaps
time to continue with our joint work.
This entire issue of ICO Newsletter is dedicated to the memory of Gallieno. These pages
refer to important aspects of his unique work to
develop programmes in optics and photonics,
and they reflect the extent of his international
prestige.
It is also a good opportunity to thank the
ICTP for its necessary support to ensure that
Gallieno Denardo’s legacy continues.
Maria L Calvo, ICO secretary
Compassionate, generous and a man of great vision
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IC O N E W S L E T T E R
34
In writing about my friend Gallieno Denardo,
I have had to resist the temptation to write in
the present tense, as if he is still with us – as if
he will somehow show up in my office and fill it
with his boisterous, if somewhat nervous, laughter. Alas, that will never happen again.
Monday 23 July was Gallieno’s 72nd birthday. I sent him a brief e-greeting some time
that afternoon. He had been housebound for
more than a week because of an accident and
I didn’t expect an immediate response. I hadn’t
received anything from him by the next morning. At around 10.00 a.m. on the 24th I learned
that Gallieno was no more. He had likely passed
away just around the time I sent my e-mail.
At first I could not believe the news of Gallieno’s death because it seemed so unlikely and
untimely. I hoped against hope that someone
might show up to reassure me that this terrible
news was not true. But, alas, it was true and
there was nothing left to do but stare into endless emptiness.
I had had lunch with Gallieno just the previous Friday and had mentioned to him that
he had probably missed the ICTP more than
the ICTP had missed him during his absence.
When I drove him from Adriatico to the Main
Building, he alighted from the car with some
difficulty and walked slowly on his crutches,
but he gave no indication of anything more
than modest discomfort. If it is true that gentle
death without suffering befalls only generous
people, there was abundant proof in death, as
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in life, that Gallieno was unreservedly generous
to all. I know for a fact that he always thought
in terms of how he could be useful to others in
need, never asking how his actions would serve
his strategic advantage.
When I came for my first formal visit to the
ICTP, still unsure if I would accept the position of ICTP director, Gallieno was one of the
people who tipped my decision in favour. He
convinced me that it would indeed be possible
to set up an experimental research programme
at the ICTP (he took me to Elettra and the
Optics Lab), and explained why someone like
me would be good for the ICTP at that time.
Later he was like an older brother to me, giving
guidance and advice when asked, rarely pushing a personal agenda and never demanding
N O . 73 O C T O B E R 2 0 07
things in return. He made me feel good about
myself on occasion – heaven knows that there
are many reasons to feel otherwise – and provided as input his immense experience when
critical decisions had to be made.
Now that Gallieno is gone for good I have to
find people to take on all of the responsibilities
that he shouldered so capably without pretence.
No doubt the ICTP will rise to the occasion
and things will turn out fine at some level, but
it will never be the same without him. We will
miss the wealth of information that resided in
Gallieno’s mind, and the compassion and effectiveness with which he used it.
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Recently the ICTP celebrated Africa Day at the
instance of the Africa department of the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Several African
scientists, young and old, spoke at the meeting.
For those who knew of Gallieno’s involvement
in Africa it came as no surprise that the meeting
turned out, unplanned, to celebrate Gallieno’s
contributions to African science. Nearly everyone acknowledged the warmth and personal
involvement that he invested in the ICTP’s
projects in Africa. In his usual unassuming way,
he brushed off this honour simply by saying that
people were exaggerating. Those who knew the
details were aware that the truth was different:
Gallieno deserved everything that was said of
him that day.
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Gallieno did many things for the ICTP but this
is no place to attempt a list. I should, however,
mention three aspects: the Office of External
Activities (OEA); his mentoring of an important training activity on lasers and optics; and his
special interest in eastern Europe. In all of these
his vision was not grandiose but pragmatic and
practical. He built the OEA over time and with
patience, and he cultivated deserving scientists
all over the world. He was keenly aware of their
shortcomings and knew their little problems
and difficulties, but he also knew what measures would be appropriate to solve them. Even
though his own field of research was not optics
he saw its importance for a number of areas of
basic sciences and, through the involvement of
many interested people over the world, created
a great optics community around the ICTP. For
areas in which the ICTP does not have local
expertise, as has been the case with lasers and
optics, I believe this to be the most effective way
to forge ahead. Gallieno had strong feelings for
central European cultures, particularly Slavic
(he spoke fluent Slovenian), and he devoted
much energy to creating strong links with the
ICTP. Naturally he had many friends in that
part of the world. He was also keen to nurture
the ICTP’s relationships with the International
Atomic Energy Agency, which he considered
vital and strategic.
I know that different people have their different ideas of what happens after death. I must
confess that I don’t know my own thinking well
in this respect – let alone knowing about those
of others. However, if it is true that there is a soul
that survives the collapse of the physical body, I
have no doubt that Gallieno’s soul hovers over
the ICTP, taking pride in its accomplishments
and cheering us on to do better when it falls
short of expectations. But he would be neither
jealous nor complaining. That thought lessens
my sadness at the knowledge of his death.
Katepalli R Sreenivasan, ICTP director and
Abdus Salam honorary professor
Many scientists have benefited from ICO–ICTP links
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N O . 73 O C T O B E R 2 0 07
Contact between ICO and the ICTP started in
1991 with collaborations “on schools” and on
“information ‘on and to’ optical scientists in the
third world” (an item at the ICO Bureau meeting
in 1991). The ICO president at the time, Chris
Dainty, was invited by Gallieno Denardo to serve
as a director in the 1992 ICTP training college.
The official collaboration started with the
joint organization of the Winter College on
Optics (8–26 February 1993), where ICO took
care of the scientific organization. ICO devoted
considerable importance to this initiative, with
the involvement of the ICO president and two
vice-presidents (P Hariharan and me) as directors, and several ICO Bureau members or past
members as teachers.
A set of hands-on experiments for the students was also planned in the laboratory,
which was at that time located at the ICTP.
The organization of the experiments deserves
some detailed explanation. As the laboratory
was mainly equipped with instruments donated
by different institutions for laser measurements,
the teachers were asked to organize the experiments of interest by borrowing the necessary
material from their home laboratories for the
duration of the winter college.
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I first had an opportunity to work with Gallieno Denardo in Trieste, selecting the students
for the college in the summer of 1992, and I
realized the kind of organizer and hard worker
he was, and also how great his humanity was.
There were many more suitable applicants than
places available and he was very concerned
about this. Without doubt the college was very
much appreciated and he immediately started
thinking of another one to allow others to
attend. The second Winter College took place
IC O N E W S L E T T E R
35
in 1995, including the laboratory experiments.
Since 2000 the ICO/ICTP award has been
delivered during the college. Here is a short
background to the award.
In previous years Denardo had established and
personally funded the Sarwar Razmi prize, to
honour the memory of an ICTP associate and
personal friend. Denardo worried that the prize
would not last for many years. Meanwhile, I was
6ii]ZL^ciZg8daaZ\Z'%%)!
involved with the problem of the ICO awards:
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there were the well known ICO prize and the
l^ccZghGZkVi^[email protected]`Vgc^VcY
Galileo Galilei award, but I felt the need also to
>bgVcV6h]gV[OV]^Yadd`dcVh>8D think of young people from developing countries.
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Denardo and I considered that a solution might
i]Z>8IE)%i]Vcc^kZghVgnXV`Z#I]^h be to propose to the ICO and ICTP authorities
^hVine^XVae]did\gVe]d[9ZcVgYd! the creation of a joint award. I presented the idea
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to the ICO Bureau meeting in San Francisco in
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1999, and I spoke about making a formal proposal the subsequent year. The bureau found the
idea of immediate interest and solicited the proposal for the meeting of the old and new bureau
a few days later. The subsequent days were very
productive as Gallieno and I, working by telephone, prepared the proposal by establishing in
detail the contribution of the two institutions.
That same week the ICO Bureau and the ICTP
approved “a proposal by Gallieno Denardo and
Anna Consortini” to establish a joint prize, the
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ICO/ICTP award, devoted “to young researchers from developing countries who conduct their
research in a developing country”.
The award has now been delivered to nine
young scientists from eight countries from across
the world. This may be the moment to begin an
official proposal to call this award the “ICO/
ICTP Gallieno Denardo award”. This would be
an act by the optics community to promote the
permanent dissemination of his legacy.
Anna Consortini, ICO past-president (1997–1999)
Denardo created TSOSA to support developing countries
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IC O N E W S L E T T E R
36
I am stunned and saddened by the sudden loss
of my friend and colleague of nearly 20 years,
Prof. Gallieno Denardo. The significance of his
loss is difficult to express in words, but my fond
memories of this distinguished humanitarian
are easy to articulate.
I met Gallieno for the first time in 1988,
when Prof. Abdus Salam, the late Nobel laureate and founding director of the ICTP, created
the Edward Bouchet Abdus Salam Institute
(EBASI*). Gallieno was the primary facilitator
for Prof. Salam and three of the primary objectives of EBASI, which were:
● to provide a mechanism for synergistic scientific and technical collaborations between African and African-American scientists;
● to increase the technical workforce pool
working in Africa today;
● to facilitate the training of PhD students from
African universities.
As one of the founding members of the
American Council of EBASI, I started working
with Gallieno at the ICTP and found him to
be one of the most gifted, visionary and compassionate of individuals, totally dedicated to
disseminating excellent science to developing
countries, not only in Africa but also in Asia
and Latin America. What seemed to many like
an insurmountable task was made agreeable
and enjoyable, owing mostly to Gallieno’s congenial, affable nature. I found that his remark-
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E]nh^XhVcYIZX]cdad\n!]ZaYVii]Z>8IEdc.Ä&&?jcZ
&.--#HiVcY^c\Vii]ZZmigZbZaZ[i^hVndjc\9ZcVgYd!
l]dXddgY^cViZYi]ZXdc[ZgZcXZ#Egd[#HVaVb^hhZViZY
^ci]ZÒghigdl!h^mi][gdbaZ[i!VcYhZkZgVad[i]Zbdhi
gZcdlcZY6[g^XVcVcY6[g^XVc"6bZg^XVce]nh^X^hihd[i]Z
YZXVYZVgZegZhZci#6ci]dcn?d]chdc!i]ZcVndjc\7Zaa
AVWhhX^Zci^hi!^hhZViZY^ci]ZÒghigdl!Ò[i][gdbg^\]i#
able energy galvanized me and countless others
into supporting this noble cause. Already an internationally recognized centre for theoretical physics, the ICTP became a
mecca for scientists from developing countries
to learn the latest advances in theoretical physics from the top scientists in the world. Gallieno,
with his background in elementary particle
physics, recognized early on that the field of
optics and photonics was an exceptional vehicle to expand the scientific breadth of the ICTP
N O . 73 O C T O B E R 2 0 07
to a wider audience in the developing world. As
the organizer of the ICTP activities in lasers and
optics since 1985, he simultaneously served as
head of the the ICTP Office of External Activities (OEA) from 1989 to 1997. With the passing of Prof. Salam in 1996, Gallieno became the
principal spearhead to implement Prof. Salam’s
mandate that the ICTP should “foster advanced
studies and research, especially in developing
countries”. Even mandatory retirement did not
sway his enthusiasm and commitment, as evidenced by Gallieno’s activities as a consultant
to the OEA since 1998.
I]ZÒghiL^ciZg8daaZ\Z
During his tenure with the ICTP, Gallieno
organized more than 50 scientific meetings and
training courses in the field of lasers, atomic
and molecular physics. I remember when he
organized his first conference on optics and
photonics in 1985, which was entitled the Winter College on Lasers, Atomic and Molecular
Physics (21 January – 22 March). The directors
of this college were G Amat, T Arecchi, R Bonifacio, A Dymanus, F P Schäfer and O Svelto
– all internationally recognized members of
the optics community. These were extremely
well organized workshops, with 60–80 students
having completed or almost completed their
PhD from universities in developing countries
around the world. The lectures were quite comprehensive, covering the basics to the latest
advances in optics and photonics. I recall Gallieno had “rock star” status among the students,
who revered him for his scientific prowess as
well as his charismatic personality. His attention to detail and concern for scientific excellence was nothing short of extraordinary. For
nearly two decades now I’ve admired Gallieno
because I have seen the impact that he has had
on so many promising students and practising
scientists all over the world. It was a pleasure
to lecture in two of his early workshops, and
subsequently to discuss strategies for the future
of the centre
DH6VcYHE>:hjeedgiZY>8IEXdaaZ\Zh
I was president of the Optical Society of America (OSA) when it signed a memorandum of
understanding with the ICTP to support the
annual Winter Colleges at a level of $5000, and
authorizing this was one of the most satisfying
tasks of my term. Given the size of the budget
required to run the colleges, this contribution
was quite small, but to Gallieno it was priceless
simply because it had the approval of the OSA.
When SPIE followed with a similar memorandum of understanding the following year, Gallieno was equally delighted.
Many times he and I discussed the possibility of getting support and advice from the
international optics community, so in 2003 he
formed the Trieste System for Optical Sciences
N O . 73 O C T O B E R 2 0 07
9ZcVgYdVcY6ci]dcn?d]chdcVii]Z'%%)L^ciZg
8daaZ\ZdcDei^XhVcYE]didc^Xh!l]ZgZi]ZnY^hXjhhZY
^YZVh[dgi]ZcZmiL^ciZg8daaZ\ZVcYi]ZIHDH6VYk^hdgn
\gdjebZZi^c\#ÆI]ZhZY^hXjhh^dchlZgZValVnhXdgY^Va
VcYfj^iZXdciZbeaVi^kZ!VcYjhjVaanejcXijViZYl^i]
dcZd[]^h[Vbdjhan^c[ZXi^djhaVj\]h!ÇhV^Y?d]chdc#
and Applications (TSOSA) Advisory Group
to promote optical sciences in the developing
world. TSOSA includes representatives from
SPIE, ICO, OSA, the European Optical Society, Optics Within Life Sciences, the IAEA,
UNESCO and science programmes across
Europe. In addition to advising the centre’s
leaders about programmes for the annual Winter College on Optics, TSOSA offers a vehicle
for sharing centre news with the global optics
community. It gave Gallieno a professional
and international framework to continue his
mission of offering assistance and training to
young researchers from the developing world.
For his efforts, Gallieno received the 2005 SPIE
Educator award, a well deserved accolade that
recognized his work in organizing optics and
photonics schools, colleges, conferences and
workshops for the past 20 years.
6i^gZaZhhVYkdXViZ
When Gallieno retired we still managed to
keep in touch. He continued to give his time
and attention to making science and engineering education accessible to grateful students in
developing countries around the world. I found
him to be one of the warmest and most caring individuals that I have ever met and I will
never forget our friendship. The ICTP outreach
programmes have lost a tireless advocate, an
esteemed mentor and a benevolent leader in
Prof. Gallieno Denardo. I can’t imagine who
could fill his very large shoes.
* EBASI was named in honour of Edward
A Bouchet who, in 1876, was the first AfricanAmerican and the first-known person of African descent to earn a PhD degree in physics.
Anthony M Johnson, director, Center for
Advanced Studies in Photonics Research,
University of Maryland Baltimore County;
OSA past-president (2002)
IC O N E W S L E T T E R
37
African scientists have lost a great friend and supporter
It all started with an article that I wanted to
submit as a reprint to the ICTP in August
1986. I had been told to contact Prof. Gallieno
Denardo in the first instance, and I must say
that on that day I had the opportunity to meet
a formidable man. In particular I was struck
by his bursts of friendly laughter. Since then,
each year when I returned to Trieste for various
activities at the ICTP, and particularly for the
Winter Colleges organized by Prof. Denardo, I
was always very happy to meet and work with
him to organize the seminars on lasers, atomic
and molecular physics. It was very special and
comforting to work with him. I remember we
used to meet very early in the morning in his
office because he was always an early bird at
the ICTP. After these meetings I always left his
office with at least one positive answer to the
AZ[iidg^\]i/6]bVY]djLV\j‚!
many problems involved in the development of
<Vaa^Zcd9ZcVgYdVcY9g7VggnVii]Z sciences in Africa.
&..*W^Zcc^VaXdc[ZgZcXZd[hX^ZcXZ
During the two decades when I had the priviVcYiZX]cdad\n!6;G>HI:8=!^c
lege to work with Prof. Denardo, he helped the
9V`Vg!HZcZ\Va#9ZcVgYdlVh
African scientific community, working with the
[email protected]^\]id[i]ZA^dcCVi^dcVa ICTP, to make qualitative steps in the develDgYZg!i]Z]^\]ZhiY^hi^cXi^dc
opment of the optical sciences in Africa. He
VXXdgYZYWni]ZegZh^YZcid[i]Z
created, with the support of Prof. Abdus Salam
GZejWa^Xd[HZcZ\Va#
and several African scientists, the African
Laser, Atomic, Molecular and Optical Sciences
(LAM) Network. He initiated the creation of
all of the ICTP-affiliated centres in Africa. In
addition, he helped and supported the organization of several meetings on physics or mathematics in many African countries (e.g. Ivory
Coast, Benin, Senegal, Ghana, Sudan, Cameroon, Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, South Africa,
Zimbabwe, Namibia, Botswana, Ethiopia, Gambia, Mozambique and Zambia).
6]bVY]djLV\j‚
YZhXg^WZh]dl9ZcVgYd
XgZViZYa^c`hWZilZZc
6[g^XVchX^Zci^hihVcY
i]Z^ciZgcVi^dcVa
Xdbbjc^in#
6[g^XVÉhÈ\ddY[V^gnÉ
Thanks to Denardo, many African researchers, who at the beginning were very isolated,
became associate members of the ICTP, and
many others have benefited from fellowships
on the Sandwich Training Educational Programme, which was initiated by him with the
IAEA. Many other African scientists also
benefited from the fellowship programme that
he initiated with the International Centre for
Science and High Technology. In addition, during the last three years, Prof. Denardo fought to
make TSOSA operational, with the tentative
creation of the mentoring programme and of a
permanent optics group at the ICTP. In fact,
it can be said that Prof. Denardo was Africa’s
“good fairy” at the ICTP. He established useful
and fertile interactions between African scientists and the international scientific community. Thus, with the ICTP’s support, the LAM
organized several international conferences,
workshops and schools on lasers and optical
IC O N E W S L E T T E R
38
sciences all over Africa.
Thanks to these activities the LAM became
an international society member of ICO. And
thanks to Denardo’s continuous intermediation, several African countries became members or observers at the International Union of
Pure and Applied Physics. Moreover, he helped
to create bonds between African scientists and
several international optics societies, such as
ICO, the Optical Society of America, the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers and Optics within Life Sciences. In the
same way, he was at the beginning of the fertile scientific co-operation that exists between
the LAM Network and the University of Lund
in Sweden, and with the International Programme in Physical Sciences at the University
of Uppsala in Sweden, which receives financial
support from the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency. With Prof. Abdus
Salam, Prof. Denardo supported the creation of
bonds of scientific co-operation between the
African diaspora in the US and the African scientific community of physicists and mathematicians by creating the Edward Bouchet Abdus
Salam Institute.
9ZcVgYdlVhVigjZ^ciZgcVi^dcVa^hi
Prof. Denardo was an untiring combatant, and
that to the last breathe, for the development of
optical sciences in Africa, and he was a friend
who was always present to create opportunities
for scientific co-operation. Each visitor at ICTP,
whether African, Asian, European or American, believed that he was the best friend of Prof.
Denardo. That shows how much he was open
with all, and in truth one must say that Prof.
Denardo was a true internationalist. In fact at
ICTP one can say that he incarnated truly the
ideal of Prof. Abdus Salam to make universal
the sharing of science.
Prof. Denardo, you left us suddenly this Monday 23 July of the year 2007, but to paraphrase
the Senegalese poet Birago Diop, in Africa we
believe that the dead are not dead, that they are
in the running water, that they are in the blowing wind, that they are in the newborn child.
But you Prof. Denardo, moreover, you are in the
laser light of our laboratories that we created
together, you are in the pages of the books, in
the memories and on the screens of the computers that we are using at the ICTP affiliated centres, you are in the doctoral theses and in the
articles written by our students. You will always
be with us during the activities of the LAM
and ICO. In the corridors, the offices, seminar
rooms and lecture halls of ICTP we will always
hear your bursts of laughter so sincere and so
friendly.
On 31 May 2007 in Trieste, at the Africa Day
N O . 73 O C T O B E R 2 0 07
ceremony dedicated to Africa by ICTP, like a
premonition African scientists unanimously paid
sympathetic homage to your person, urbi et orbi.
Today, Prof. Denardo, Africa with endless
acknowledgement from the depths of the savan-
nas, deserts and forests, beyond the frontiers of
space and time, wants to say: “Thank you Prof.
Denardo. Lie in peace, dear Gallieno.”
Ahmadhou Wagué, LAM Network coordinator
and president
Denardo was awarded the SPIE Educator award in 2005
BVg^VNojZaXZaZWgViZh
9ZcVgYdÉhXdcig^Wji^dc
idigV^c^c\]jcYgZYh
d[hijYZcihVcY
egd[Zhhdgh^cdei^Xh#
N O . 73 O C T O B E R 2 0 07
Prof. Gallieno Denardo did an enormous
amount of work organizing activities in optics
and lasers at the ICTP. Since 1985, colleges and
schools in optics have been held each year to
train PhD students, postdoctoral researchers
and young professors, mainly from developing
countries. Some students and young researchers from developed countries also participated
in the school seminars. The collaboration of
professors and students from different countries
has proved to be very fruitful.
About 80 people typically participate in the
colleges, and more recently the number has
been close to 100. Some 75% of attendees are
from developing countries and most of them are
fully funded by the ICTP. Denardo organized
the colleges and took care of the financial support of the students until his death in July.
The faculty – that is lecturers and directors
– includes a much smaller percentage of scientists from developing countries. Denardo always
tried to have some lecturers and, if possible, a
director from those countries. The academic
level of the schools is high. The average scientific level of the participants is a PhD. Participants are selected based on merit and also on
a balanced geographical distribution. Mainly
young scientists are invited. These relationships
continue for more than one year (i.e. individuals
are often invited to attend colleges in more than
one year) to create a link between their institutions and the ICTP, and also between scientists
from different developing countries. The college offers opportunities to meet people working in the same field, sometimes from the same
country or region. Much collaboration among
scientists in developing countries stemmed from
their meetings at the the ICTP colleges.
Moreover, the colleges provide an opportunity to meet the ICTP coordinators of the
external activities that take place in developing countries with the ICTP’s support. In this
way the ICTP is the place where coordinators
of different optics projects meet, which stimulates the networking of optics activities in the
different regions.
Denardo was also active in the Trieste System for Optical Sciences and Applications,
the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation
Engineers (SPIE), Optics within Life Sciences,
ICO, the Optical Society of America, the European Optical Society and the Italian Society of
Optics and Photonics participates in the group.
As the SPIE representative on the TSOSA
HE>:8:D9g:j\ZcZ6gi]jghegZhZcihi]ZHE>::YjXVidg
6lVgYid<Vaa^Zcd9ZcVgYdVii]Z'%%+L^ciZg8daaZ\Z#
I]Z'%%,L^ciZg8daaZ\ZdcDei^XhVcYE]didc^Xh#AZ[i
idg^\]i/B?NojZa!<9ZcVgYd!HK7dg^h`^cV>8D$>8IE
6lVgY'%%,!68dchdgi^c^!>6h]gV[OV]^Y!BA8Vakd
VcY6LV\j‚#
board since 2004, I know the work developed
by Denardo. I was deeply impressed by his
enthusiasm and organizational abilities, as well
as by the influence of his initiatives in training hundreds of scientists and keeping fruitful
scientific links between the ICTP and academic
and research groups in developing countries.
In 2005 the SPIE Educator Award committee and the SPIE board of directors recognized
Denardo for his outstanding contribution to
training in optics hundreds of postdoctoral students and professors, mainly from developing
countries, by organizing international schools
and colleges at the ICTP for 20 years. In an
article that appeared in oemagazine (June/July
2005), Denardo wanted to share the award
with the ICTP. He said: “I feel that the ICTP,
together with me, deserves this honour.” He
cited the important support of the ICTP direc-
IC O N E W S L E T T E R
39
tor, Prof. Katepalli Sreenivasan. “Without the
ICTP I couldn’t have done anything,” he said.
Both Denardo and the the ICTP activities in
optics and lasers deserved the award.
All of us will miss Prof. Gallieno Denardo and
will always remember him. I am sure that the
ICTP will continue the enthusiastic collaboration with international societies, to continue
the legacy of Gallieno.
Maria J Yzuel, SPIE vice-president (2005)
A champion of optics development in Latin America
6c\ZaV<jobVc
gZÓZXihdc9ZcVgYdÉh
^cÓjZcXZ^cAVi^c
6bZg^XV!VcYZmeaV^ch
IHDH6ÉhXdbb^ibZci
idZchjg^c\i]Vi]^h
aZ\VXn^ci]ZÒZaYd[
dei^XhXdci^cjZh#
9ZcVgYdlVhVhigdc\VYkdXViZd[
AVi^c"6bZg^XVc^c^i^Vi^kZh^cdei^Xh#
IC O N E W S L E T T E R
40
I received word of Gallieno Denardo’s death
with a profound feeling of loss and grief. He
had a tremendous influence on my development
as a scientist and as a professional, and had also,
over a 20 year period, grown to be a good friend.
I know that he had a similar influence on many
other researchers and students from developing
countries, who benefited from his gentle guidance and from the programmes in optics that
he fashioned.
My memories of Denardo’s many achievements
centre largely on the great influence that he
had on the development and growth of research
in optics in Latin America. What has become
RIAO/OPTILAS, the principal international
conference on optics in the Iberian-American
region, was conceived in the early 1980s at the
ICTP, where Latin-American physicists had the
opportunity to meet and learn about the work
of colleagues from their neighbouring countries. Long before the now-international optical
societies were pursuing international outreach,
the ICTP supported their initiative and helped
to fund the first Latin-American Meeting on
Lasers (later OPTILAS), which was held in
Medellin, Colombia, in 1984.
After assuming responsibility for the ICTP’s
activities in optics in 1986, Denardo became a
strong advocate of Latin-American initiatives
and strongly supportive of OPTILAS. Through
his involvement in the organization of a series
of conferences on fibre optics at the ICTP, he
established contact with leading Brazilian scientists involved in the successful development of
the communications industry in Brazil, along
with Italian and other European industries
and research institutes, to prepare scientists and
engineers from developing countries for optical
fibre research and, at a minimum, to be educated
consumers of the technology.
Denardo also organized workshops on lasers at
the ICTP, where attendees had the opportunity
to do experiments in the the ICTP Laser Lab
that he built with donations and support from
prestigious European labs. Gallieno supported
an Argentinean initiative to create the Multipurpose Optical Network, which, through travel
grants from the Third World Academy of Sciences, favours scientific collaboration between
Latin-American researchers.
On the occasion of the merging of OPTILAS
with RIAO (the Iberoamerican Conference on
Optics, created by the Spanish in 1992), Denardo
again played a decisive role by introducing me
to Anna Consortini, then ICO’s past-president and, in his words, his “good friend”. She
advised me on the intricacies of international
conference schedules, international support and
diplomacy. Denardo’s long-term support of the
development of optics in Latin America was
recognized formally by the Latin-American
optics community at the general assembly of
RIAO/OPTILAS in Margarita, Venezuela, in
2004. It was at that meeting that the conference series also welcomed its first Nobel prize
laureate lecturer, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji.
HX^Zci^ÒX^hdaVi^dc
It is difficult to imagine now the scientific isolation that researchers in developing countries
experienced before the internet age, but for
many of us the ICTP and the Winter Colleges
presented the only opportunity to keep up to
date and to establish international collaborations, because our home institutions could not
pay for our attendance at international conferences or for subscriptions to scientific journals.
The ICTP library was an invaluable resource for
our research and teaching activities, and I still
remember Denardo’s happiness not so long ago
when the Optical Society of America offered free
access to its journals for the ICTP Winter School
participants for the duration of the school.
Many of us appreciated both the understanding and the encouragement that Denardo
gave us when we experienced difficult family situations, as well as his warm congratulations when we achieved professional success or
celebrated happy family events. Many of the
participants in his early programmes became
senior researchers and internationally recognized scientists. Helped by his efforts and those
of the ICTP, many of us feel like members of a
large international family of optics researchers,
sharing a common reference point rather than
operating as isolated individuals.
The TSOSA Advisory Group was established
in 2003 with the aim of advising the ICTP in
the area of optics activities. The members of
that group, many of whom represent the major
international scientific and technical societies
and organizations concerned with optics, care
deeply about what Gallieno Denardo achieved
on behalf of optics, and are committed to seeing
that his achievements survive him and that generations to come can benefit from his legacy.
Angela M Guzman, TSOSA chair, ICO
vice-president
N O . 73 O C T O B E R 2 0 07
AOS News Volume 21 Number 4 2007
www.lastek.com.au
41
[email protected]
Contacts
International Commission for
Optics (www.ico-optics.org).
7jgZVjbZbWZgh'%%*Ä'%%-
EgZh^YZci A T Friberg
EVhi"egZh^YZci R Dändliker
IgZVhjgZgA Sawchuk
HZXgZiVgn M L Calvo,
Departamento de Óptica,
Universidad Complutense,
28040 Madrid, Spain.
E-mail [email protected]
6hhdX^ViZhZXgZiVgn G von Bally
K^XZ"egZh^YZcih!ZaZXiZY
S N Bagayev, A M Guzmán,
G F Jin, B Y Kim,
M Kujawinska, H Lefèvre,
J Love, I Yamaguchi
K^XZ"egZh^YZcih!Veed^ciZY
J Braat, M Gu, I C Khoo,
G Sincerbox, P Stahl,
A Wagué
HZc^dgVYk^hZgVYeZghdcVb
P Chavel
>JE6E8djcX^agZegZhZciVi^kZ
Y Petroff
Forthcoming events with ICO participation
8Vbe^cVh"HE!7gVo^a#
;dg[jgi]Zg^c[dgbVi^dcVWdjiVcnd[i]ZhZ
ZkZcih!hZZlll#^Xd"dei^Xh#dg\$ZkZcih#]iba# 8dciVXi/?V^bZ;gZ_a^X]![gZ_a^X]5^Ò#jc^XVbe#
Wg]iie/$$g^Vd"dei^aVh#^Ò#jc^XVbe#Wg
-Ä&'DXidWZg'%%,
Advanced Infrared Technology and
Applications (AITA 2007)
AZ‹c!<jVcV_jVid!BZm^Xd#
8dciVXi/Egd[#BVg^_VHigd_c^`!bhigd_c^`5Vda#
Xdb]iie/$$gdcX]^#^hi^#Xcg#^i$6>I6'%%,
'&Ä'+DXidWZg'%%,
RIAO/OPTILAS’07
'.Ä(%DXidWZg'%%,
Environmental Monitoring for Sustainable
Development
8VeZ8dVhi!<]VcV#
8dciVXi/Egd[#EVja7jV]"7VhhjV]!
WjV]WVhh5]dibV^a#Xdb
Encuentro de Óptica Aplicada/Meeting on
Applied Optics
,Ä&&?jan'%%7jZcdh6^gZhVcYAVEaViV!6g\Zci^cV#
ICO-21, Triennial Congress of the
lll#X^de#jcae#ZYj#Vg$:D6
International Commission for Optics
9Vga^c\=VgWdjg!HnYcZn!6jhigVa^V#
&.Ä')CdkZbWZg'%%,
8dciVXi/Egd[#?d]cAdkZ!_Ya&')5
ICO Topical Meeting 2007 on Optics
ghe]nhhZ#Vcj#ZYj#Vj
and Laser Applications in Medicine and
lll#^XZVjhigVa^V#Xdb$>8D'%%-
Responsibility for the accuracy of this information rests with ICO. President: Ari T Friberg, Royal Institute of Technology, Optics, Electrum 229, SE-164 40 Kista,
Sweden; e-mail [email protected] Associate secretary: Gert von Bally, Laboratory of Biophysics, Medical Centre, University of Münster, Robert-Koch-Str.
45, D-48129 Münster, Germany; e-mail [email protected]
N O . 73 O C T O B E R 2 0 07
42
IC O N E W S L E T T E R
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