Implementing a Three Phase Nine

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Proceedings of the 14th International Middle East Power Systems Conference (MEPCON’10), Cairo University, Egypt, December 19-21, 2010, Paper ID 319.
Implementing a Three Phase Nine-Level Cascaded
Multilevel Inverter with low Harmonics Values
Hussein A. Konber and Osama I. EL-Hamrawy
Mahmoud EL-Bakry
Department of Electrical Engineering
University of Al-Azhar
Cairo, Egypt,
[email protected]
Department of Power Electronics
Electronics Research Institute
Cairo, Egypt
[email protected]
The switching angles α1, α2, α3, and α4 are first calculated at
different values of the main harmonics, so as to obtain zero
values of the 5th, 7th, and 11th harmonics, using a selective
harmonic elimination technique [6, 7]. All the undesired low
order harmonics till the 11th harmonic are eliminated in the
output line voltage of the three phase cascaded multilevel
inverter. Noting that the odd tripled harmonic, i.e. (3th, 9th,
15th, …etc.) are self cancelled by the three phase balancing.
The harmonic values and total harmonic distortion till the 31st
harmonic are registered.
Next the construction of the implemented three phase ninelevel cascaded multilevel inverter is described and
experimental measures when applying the calculated
switching angles are recorded under no load and inductive
load.
Abstract – A three phase nine-level cascaded multilevel
inverter with very low values of the undesired low order
harmonics is implemented. The switching angles of the
inverter power switches are calculated to obtain zero values
of the low order harmonics till the 11th harmonic for
different values of the output voltage. These values of the
switching angles are then applied to the constructed
multilevel inverter and the harmonics are measured till the
31st harmonic. The paper presents experimental results,
which show very low values of these harmonics as well as for
the total harmonic distortion under no load and inductive
load.
Index Terms –Multilevel inverter implementation, Multilevel
inverter harmonics, Selective harmonic elimination, Total
harmonic distortion.
I. INTRODUCTION
Multilevel inverters are widely used in high power
industrial applications such as ac power supplies, static VAR
compensators, drive systems, etc., [1]. One of the significant
advantages of multilevel inverters is the low values of the
produced undesired low order harmonics, even when using
low switching frequencies, [2].
Cascaded multilevel inverter is a well-known multilevel
inverter topology. It is superior to other multilevel inverter
topologies, such as diode–clamped and flying capacitor
multilevel inverters [3], due to its simple modular structure,
ease of control, least number of component and no need for
clamping diode or voltage balancing capacitors, [4, 5].
The selection of the level of a multilevel inverter is a critical
issue, since multilevel inverters of higher levels produce lower
values of undesired harmonics and need power switches of
lower ratings, but at the cost of increasing the number of
components and control complexity.
In this paper a three phase nine-level cascaded multilevel
inverter is considered. Fig. 1 shows the structure of a single
phase of this inverter. It consists of four simple H-bridge
inverters, each can produce three output voltages +Vdc, 0 or –
Vdc, thus the whole inverter can produce nine voltage levels.
Fig.2 shows an odd-sine symmetric waveform that each phase
will be designed to produce. Each H-bridge will be switched
on and off only once each half cycle of the main harmonic.
The harmonics produced by this way will be the main
harmonic in addition to odd sine harmonics only.
Fig. 1 single-phase structure of a nine-level multilevel cascaded inverter
983
v1 =
4E
π
[cos α1 + cos α 2 + cos α 3 + cos α 4 ]
4E
[cos 5α1 + cos 5α 2 + cos 5α 3 + cos 5α 4 ]
5π
4E
v7 =
[cos 7α1 + cos 7α 2 + cos 7α 3 + cos 7α 4 ]
7π
4E
v11 =
[cos11α1 + cos11α 2 + cos11α 3 + cos11α 4 ]
11π
v5 =
These four relations will be turned to be four equations
that are solved to obtain the values of the switching angles α1,
α2, α3, and α4; by setting:
v1 = The required amplitude of the main harmonic
v5 = 0, v7 = 0, v11 = 0 .
B. Solution results
The above four nonlinear equations are solved using the
"Newton-Raphson method" [4, 8and 9] for the values
v1 = 4E, 3.8E, 3.6E, 3.4E, 3.2E, and 2.8E
Table 1 gives the obtained values of α1, α2, α3, and α4, as well
as the percentage total harmonic distortion (THD) in the
output line voltage till the 31st harmonic for each value of v1 ,
as defined by
Fig. 2 Output phase voltage waveform of a nine-level cascade inverter
(taking equal values of the dc voltage sources)
II.
THD =
CALCULATING THE SWITCHING ANGLES
Vout (ωt ) =
∑
m=0
4
π
∫V
out
sin(2m + 1)ωtdωt
0
s
4
=
Vk cos(2m + 1)α k
∑
π (2m + 1) k =1
Where
Vk is the increase in voltage value from each
switching angle to another. Assuming regular staircase
waveform (V1=V2=.....=Vs=E), the amplitude of the harmonic
voltage v2 m +1 is given by the values of a 2 m +1 i.e.
v2 m +1 =
) 2 / v1 × 100
Table 1.1the switching angles at different value of
π
with a 2 m +1 =
2 m +1
Noting that the tripled odd harmonics (2m+1=3, 9, ….) are not
considered.
a2 m +1 sin(2m + 1)t
2
∑ (v
m =1
A. Formulation of the problem
The Fourier series of the general quarter wave symmetric
waveform, similar to that of Fig.2, with switching angles α1,
α2, α3..., αs per quarter cycle is given by
∞
15
v1
v1
4E
3.8E
α1
10.015°
11.549°
14.409° 19.099° 24.699° 36.118°
α2
22.140°
27.392°
33.539° 39.722° 45.530° 47.876°
α3
40.752°
46.720°
51.290° 55.586° 57.039° 61.072°
α4
61.768°
64.444°
66.546° 66.978° 68.888° 76.297°
THD %
5.1635
7.1598
5.3259
3.6E
3.4E
7.3345
3.2E
6.2731
2.8E
7.471
Figure 3 shows the variations of THD with v1 .
Figures 4 and 5 show the harmonic spectrum of the line
voltage till the 31st harmonic for v1 =4E and 2.8E respectively.
s
4E
∑ cos(2m + 1)α k
π (2m + 1) k =1
It should be noted that under pure inductive load the total
harmonic distortion in the current will be much lower, since it
is given by:
For the nine level inverter four switching angles α1, α2, α3, α4
are available, and the first four non zero harmonics in the
output line voltages of the three phase inverter are
THD =
15
m =1
984
v2 m +1
∑ ( 2 m + 1)
2
/ v1 × 100
Fig.3 the voltage THD versus
v1
Fig.4 Harmonic spectrum of the line voltage at
Fig.5 Harmonic spectrum of the line voltage at
Fig.6 Construction of a three-phase nine-level cascaded inverter
The hardware prototype shown in Fig. 6 consists of four main
parts as follows:
1) The control circuit;
An Atmel AT89C52 microcontroller is used as the main
processor, which provides the gate logic signals. The
microcontroller board is a part of the control unit. It receives
the control command from the key button to enter the value of
the switching angles, and generates the control signals for the
gate drives. The microcontroller board consists of one
microcontroller chip as the master processor and three
microcontrollers as slave processors for generating the control
signal for each gates of the module board. The generation of
the control signals is realized inside the microcontroller chip.
To control the gate signals, the command program, which is
implemented in C++ language, is generated on a personal
computer and then transferred to the microcontroller on the
control circuit board.
2) The gate-driver circuit:
NE555 is used as a gate-driver, which receives a TTL logic
signal from the microcontroller and provides +10 V for the
turn on the gate signal and 0 V the for the turn off the gate
signal to obtain the proper gate voltages necessary for proper
switching of the MOSFET.
It is important to isolate the output signal from the drive
circuit to avoid the propagation of fault voltages. Isolation is
achieved by using optocouplers (type 4N35).
3) The power stage:
Four MOSFET, IRFP260, are used as the main switches,
which are connected in full-bridge configuration. Each power
stage is supplied by a separate dc source E=72 V.
Figure 7 shows the experimental configuration
v1 =4E
v1 =2.8E
III. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS
A. Experiment setup
The construction of the three phase wye-connected, nine-level
cascaded multilevel inverter is illustrated in Fig.6. The power
electronics switch used for this particular multilevel inverter is
IRFP260 MOSFET with voltage ratings of 200V and current
ratings of 46A.
985
H-bridge
power stage
Separate
DC source
Fig. 10 No load peak phase voltage at
v1 =2.8E=200v
Fig. 7 Experimental configuration
B. Experimental results
1-under no load:
Figure8 shows the peak phase voltage of the inverter with no
load at v1 =4E=288v and f=50Hz.
Figure9 shows the voltage harmonic spectrum at v1 =4E=288v
The THD measured by a power harmonic analyzer is 4.48%.
Figures 10, and 11 show the same at v1 =2.8E=200v.
The THD measured by a power harmonic analyzer is 7.46%.
Fig. 8 No load peak phase voltage at
Fig. 11 Harmonic spectrum of line voltage at
v1 =2.8E
2-under inductive load:
The inverter is loaded by a three phase step down transformer
380v/133v connect to a three phase inductive load each
inductance has L=125mH, r =0.9Ω.
Figures 12 and 13 show the phase voltage and phase current
waveform respectively of the inductive load at the secondary
output of the transformer at v1= 4E.
Figures 14 and 15 show the harmonic content of phase voltage
and phase current at different voltage values respectively. The
experimental phase voltage THD measured by the power
harmonic analyzer 5.79 %.
The experimental phase current THD measured by the power
harmonic analyzer is 2.67 %.
v1 =4E=284v
The value of each of the dc voltage sources was taken 72 v.
This value can be changed to obtain any desired value of the
output voltage.
It is clear that the inverter produces very low values, nearly
negligible, of the undesired low order harmonics.
Fig. 9 Harmonic spectrum of line voltage at
v1 =4E
986
IV. CONCLUSIONS
A three phase nine-level cascaded multilevel inverter is
implemented that produces very low values of the low order
harmonics. The switching angles of the inverter power
switches are calculated such that the low order harmonics till
the 11th harmonic are eliminated. Digital generation of
switching signals using a microcontroller allows generating
the required switching angles for different voltage values. The
harmonics measured till the 31st harmonic are very low for
different values of the output voltage, as well the value of the
total harmonic distortion under no load and inductive load.
REFERENCES
Fig. 12 Output voltage with inductive load,
Fig. 13 Inductive load current,
v1 =4E
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v1 =4E
Fig.14 Voltage harmonic spectrum at
v1 =4E
Fig.15 Current harmonic spectrum at
v1 =4E
987
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