MSE235H1S MATERIALS PHYSICS Jan-Apr 2015

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UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO
Faculty of Applied Science & Engineering
MSE235H1S
MATERIALS PHYSICS
Access via: weblogin.utoronto.ca
INSTRUCTORS
Professor
Nazir Kherani
Office
GB254
Teaching Assistants
Joel Loh
J. Kenji Clark
Jan-Apr 2015
(Sign-in using your UTORid and look for MSE235)
GB448
SF2206
Tel
Email
946-7372
-
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
LECTURE SCHEDULE (1 hour lectures)
DAY
COMMENCING
ROOM
Tuesday
13:00 (1pm)
GB120
LEC0101 Wednesday
13:00 (1pm)
GB120
LEC0101
10:00 (10am)
GB303
LEC0101
Thursday
TUTORIAL SCHEDULE (1 hour tutorials)
DAY
TUT0101
Friday
TUT0102 Monday
COMMENCING
ROOM
TEACHING ASSISTANT
13:00 (1pm)
HA 401
Joel Loh
15:00 (3pm)
BA 2165
J. Kenji Clark
GRADING (tentative)
1. Tutorial Problem Sets (12 Sets corresponding to 12 tutorials; Assigned in
each tutorial, open book, to be solved individually and
handed in at the end of the hour)
12%
2. *Term Tests (~1.5 h, 2 term tests, each 16.5%, numerical problems &
conceptual questions, no aids allowed except non-programmable
calculator, and Aid Sheet provided)
33%
Term Test 1: Friday Feb 6, 2015 -­‐ from 4pm to 6pm (Room TBA) Term Test 2: Friday Mar 27, 2015 -­‐ from 4pm to 6pm (Room TBA) 3. Final Exam: (2.5 hr, numerical problems & conceptual questions,
Type B exam: Aid Sheet provided, non-programmable
calculator permitted)
55%
Total 100 %
*There will be No Make-up Term Tests
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RECOMMENDED TEXTBOOK (available at the UofT Bookstore (College & St.George))
COURSE TEXT
Principles of Electronic Materials and Devices
by S.O. Kasap, 3rd Edition, McGraw Hill
REFERENCE TEXTS
Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering: An Integrated Approach
by William D. Callister and David G. Rethwisch
Introduction to Solid State Physics
by Charles Kittel
Semiconductor Physics And Devices
by Donald Neamen
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TUTORIAL PROGRAM
1. Students are expected to attend each and every one of the scheduled 12 tutorials.
Notes:
a. Tutorials commence as of the second week of the term:
i. TUT0102: Monday January 12th
ii. TUT0101: Friday January 16th
b. Due to the Good Friday holiday on Friday April 3rd, the Friday tutorial will be rescheduled to the Thursday prior, April 2nd. Room and time TBA.
2. All students are required to attend their respective tutorial sections, no exceptions. Do
Not Switch Tutorial Sections!
3. All students are expected to solve the HomeWork Problems prior to coming to the
tutorials.
4. At the start of each tutorial, the TA will field any questions, conceptual or otherwise,
pertaining to the HomeWork Problems or Example Problems or Lecture Material.
5. Concurrently, at each weekly tutorial, the TA will handout a Tutorial Problem Set (on
average comprising 2-3 problems) that students are required to solve and hand-in at the
end of the tutorial. The TAs will only assist by answering conceptual questions and
providing hints as appropriate to solve the Tutorial Problem Set. Students are more than
welcome to discuss with TAs, but should not completely rely on TAs to help solve the
Problem Set.
6. Since the Tutorial Problem Set will be similar to the HomeWork Problems and Example
Problems (from the text book and lectures), students are strongly urged to have worked
through these problems prior to coming to the tutorials.
7. Students will work individually and each student will submit a Tutorial Problem Set for
marking. Textbook and any handouts are allowed during the tutorial section.
8. In order to succeed in this course, solving the assigned problems and attending the
tutorials is essential. Practicing to solve as many problems as possible is the key to
success.
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Sessional Dates of Note
2015 CALENDAR
•
Lectures commence Monday January 5th
•
Tutorials commence:
o
o
TUT0102, Monday January 12th
TUT0101, Friday January 16th
•
Term Test 1: Friday February 6th, starting at 4pm
•
Family Day: Monday February 16th
•
Reading Week: Tuesday Feb 17th to Friday Feb 20th
•
Term Test 2: Friday March 27th, starting at 4pm
•
Good Friday: Friday April 3rd (University Closed)
o
•
Make-up Tutorial on Thursday April 2nd (room
and time TBA)
Last Day of Lectures: Friday April 10th
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SYLLABUS
This course introduces the student to the underlying physics of materials that gives rise to the
range of material properties and devices thereof. Both classical and quantum solid state physics
are used to describe the properties of materials – electrical, thermal, magnetic, optical, … .
Further, these fundamental descriptions form the basis of fundamental engineered devices that
render a variety of applications in the fields of computing and communications, sensing, energy
generation, lighting, and beyond. Accordingly, a number of fundamental and specialized device
constructs are presented.
The tentative list of topics to be covered is presented below (under Lecture Schedule).
Students are encouraged to attend each and every lecture so as to effectively learn and
become cognizant of the material covered vis-à-vis its precise breadth and depth. Further,
considering that much of any subject matter is self-taught, students are strongly encouraged to
read the relevant sections of the course text to gain a thorough understanding of the concepts.
Moreover, it is essential that students work through the examples in the text, solve homework
problems, and attend and solve the tutorial problems in order to completely apprehend the
subject matter.
Students that effectively follow the above-prescribed approach will accordingly be prepared to
successfully tackle the two term tests and the final examination. These exams will test the
students knowledge through a series of conceptual questions and understanding through a
series of problems. The majority of the problems will be similar to the example problems (in the
text and lectures), homework problems, and tutorial problems.
Homework problems will be posted at the start of each chapter and the corresponding solutions
will be posted sufficiently in advance of the next tutorial covering the said subject matter.
Previous years’ term tests and exams (without solutions) will also be posted on Blackboard.
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LECTURE SCHEDULE
(Tentative topics and schedule; actual topics and schedule may differ.)
TOPICS (estimated number of lectures)
Chapter 1 (3 lectures)
Elementary Materials Science Concepts
Sections
1.1 Atomic structure and atomic number
1.2 Atomic mass and mole
1.3 Bonding and types of solids
1.4 Kinetic molecular theory
1.5 Molecular velocity and energy distribution
1.6 Heat, thermal fluctuations and noise
1.7 Thermally activated processes
1.8 The crystalline state
1.11 Glasses and amorphous semiconductors
Chapter 2 (3 lectures)
Electrical and Thermal Conduction in Solids
Sections
2.1 Classical Theory: The Drude model
2.2 Temperature dependence of resistivity: Ideal pure
2.3 Matthiessen’s and Nordheim’s Rules
2.6 Thermal conduction
2.7 Electrical conductivity of nonmetals
2.9 Thin metal films
metals
Chapter 3 (5 lectures)
Elementary Quantum Physics
Sections
3.1 Photons
3.2 The electron as wave
3.3 The infinite potential well: A confined electron
3.4 Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle
3.5 Tunneling phenomenon: Quantum leak
3.7 Hydrogenic atom
3.8 The helium atom and the periodic table
3.9 Stimulated emission and lasers
Chapter 4 (5 lectures)
Modern Theory of Solids
Sections
4.1 Hydrogen molecule: Molecular orbital
4.2 Band theory of solids
4.3 Semicondutors
4.4 Electron effective mass
4.5 Density of states in an energy band
4.6 Statistics: Collections of particles
4.7 Quantum theory of metals
4.8 Fermi energy significance
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Chapter 5 (5 lectures)
Semiconductors
Sections
5.1 Intrinsic semiconductors
5.2 Extrinsic semiconductors
5.3 Temperature dependence of conductivity
5.4 Recombination and minority carrier injection
5.5 Diffusion and conduction (drift) Equations
5.6 Continuity equation
5.7 Optical absorption
Electronic band structure (4.11)
Direct and indirect bandgap semiconductors (5.11)
Hall effect (2.5)
Chapter 7 (4 lectures)
Dielectric Materials and Insulation
Sections
7.1 Matter polarization and relative permittivity
7.2 Electronic polarization: Covalent solids
7.3 Polarization mechanisms
7.4 Frequency dependence: Dielectric constant and dielectric loss
7.5 Gauss’ law and boundary conditions
7.6 Dielectric strength and insulation breakdown
7.7 Capacitor dielectric materials
7.8 Piezoelectricity
Chapter 8 (4 lectures)
Magnetic Properties
Sections
8.1 Magnetization of matter
8.2 Magetic material classifications
8.3 Ferromagnetism
8.4 Saturation magnetization and Curie temperature
8.5 Magnetic domains: Ferromagnetic materials
8.6 Soft and hard magnetic materials
Chapter 9 (5 lectures)
Optical Properties of Materials
Sections
9.1 Light waves in a homogeneous medium
9.2 Refractive index
9.3 Dispersion: Refractive index – wavelength behavior
9.4 Group velocity and group index
9.5 Magnetic field
9.6 Snell’s law and total internal reflection
9.7 Fresnel’s equations
9.8 Complex refractive index and light absorption
9.9 Lattice absorption
9.10 Band-to-band absorption
9.11 Light scattering in materials
9.12 Attenuation in optical fibers
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Chapter X (4 lectures)
Devices and More
Sections
pn junction (6.1, 6.2)
LEDs (6.9)
Photovoltaics (6.10)
Schottky junction (5.9)
Metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (6.8)
FinFETs
Quantum wells
Nano materials & devices
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LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the conclusion of this course, the student should be able to:
1. Describe and apply elementary concepts of kinetic molecular theory.
2. Explain classical solid state theory and apply it vis-à-vis electrical and thermal
conduction in solids.
3. Explain elementary quantum physics and describe some of its counter-intuitive
applications.
4. Explain modern theory of solids vis-à-vis electronic band structure.
5. Describe the physics of semiconductors, intrinsic/extrinsic semiconductors, temperature
dependence of conductivity, transport in terms of diffusion and drift, and generation and
recombination processes.
6. Describe the construction and operation of fundamental semiconductor devices.
7. Explain various applications of semiconductor devices; for example, LEDs,
photovoltaics, FETs, … .
8. Describe the physics of dielectric materials vis-à-vis polarization concepts.
9. Explain dielectric strength and insulation breakdown.
10. Explain the classification of magnetic properties of materials.
11. Describe optical properties of materials.
12. Explain the functioning of several optoelectronic devices.
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STUDY POINTERS
Studying
Effective studying consists of taking lecture notes, active reading of the primary reading
material, tutorial attendance and note taking, and solving various exercises on your own. Begin
studying your lecture notes by reviewing the lecture outlines. Ask yourself questions about the
material; for example, ask yourself to provide definitions, to summarize the purpose, method
and results of studies.
Read the chapter "in chunks". The size of these chunks should be determined by natural
breaks in the text, and by your ability to assimilate the material being read. Make brief notes in
the margins of the text as necessary. It is inadvisable to make extensive notes from the
textbook. However, it is helpful to make one- or two-page summary notes per chapter showing
the major headings and key concepts.
Note-Taking in Lectures
If you can, read all the relevant text material before attending the lectures on a given
topic. Much of learning involves discovering how new information relates to knowledge you
already possess. The more you know about a particular subject the easier it is to use new
information to expand your current knowledge basis. If you read the relevant text chapters
before you attend the lectures on a particular topic, you will learn more from the lectures and
you will be able to take better notes. Your familiarity with the key concepts and major theories in
a specific area will help you judge what is important in a lecture. Review your lecture notes soon
after each lecture and proceed to read and study the required text.
Problems
§
Solving assigned problems is absolutely essential in developing a complete understanding
of the concepts introduced in the lectures and corresponding chapters/sections.
§
The term tests and final exam are largely based on the assigned problems as well as
conceptual/definition type questions to test your grasp of the subject matter.
§
Please take advantage of the tutorials to clarify issues you do not understand. Do this as
questions arise rather than wait until just before a test or exam. Ask specific questions on
how to solve a given problem, rather than “What is the answer to question 5?”
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