6th International Conference on Innovation in Architecture, Engineering & Construction (AEC) June 9-11, 2010 The Nittany Lion, Pennsylvania State University, USA Conference Program Organized by The Pennsylvania State University Department of Architectural Engineering 104 Engineering Unit A University Park, PA 16802 USA Telephone: 814-865-6394 Fax: 814-863-4789 http://www.engr.psu.edu/ae and Centre for Innovative Construction Engineering (CICE) Department of Civil and Building Engineering Loughborough University Loughborough LE11 3TU United Kingdom Telephone: 01509-228549 Fax: 01509-223982 http://www.lboro.ac.uk/cice CONFERENCE ORGANIZATION CONFERENCE CHAIRS: Chimay Anumba, Penn State University, USA Dino Bouchlaghem, Loughborough University, UK CONFERENCE ORGANIZING COMMITTEE Chimay Anumba, Penn State University, USA Dino Bouchlaghem, Loughborough University, UK John Messner, Penn State University, USA Kevin Parfitt, Penn State University, USA Nancy Smith, Penn State University, USA Jo Brewin, Loughborough University, UK CONFERENCE SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE Vian Ahmed, Salford University, UK Omer Akin, Carnegie Mellon University, USA Burcu Akinci, Carnegie Mellon University, USA Ghassan Aouad, University of Salford, UK David Arditi, Illinois Institute of Technology, USA Godfried Augenbroe, Georgia Tech, USA Ioannis Brilakis, Georgia Tech, USA Paul Chinowsky, University of Colorado-Boulder, USA Jonathan Dougherty, Davis Construction, USA Mohammed Dulaimi, BUiD, UAE Elma Durmisevic, Univ. of Twente, The Netherlands Charles Egbu, Salford University, UK Bilge Erdogan, Heriot-Watt University, UK Dongping Fang, Tsinghua University, China Jim Freihaut, Penn State University, USA Jim Garrett Jr, Carnegie Mellon University, USA Jack Goulding, UCLAN, UK Kevin Houser, Penn State University, USA Ray Issa, University of Florida, USA Lisa Iulo, Penn State University, USA Ammar Kaka, Heriot-Watt University, UK John Kamara, University of Newcastle, UK Mark Konchar, Balfour Beatty Construction, USA J.J. Kim, Hanyang University, Korea Mohan Kumaraswamy, University of HK, HKSAR Will Hughes, University of Reading, UK Kincho Law, Stanford University, USA M. Zaimi Bin Abdul Majid, UTM, Malaysia Kurt Moldovan, Jacobs, USA Yasemin Nielsen, METU, Turkey Paul Olomolaiye, UWE, Bristol, UK Jiayi Pan, Tsinghua University, China Moonseo Park, Seoul National University, Korea Feniosky Pena-Mora, Columbia University, USA Srinath Perera, Univ. of Northumbria, UK Ute Poerschke, Penn State University, USA Valerie Robillard, Emerald Insight Publishing, UK Kirti Ruikar, Loughborough University, UK Boong Ryoo, Florida International University, USA Sevil Sariyildiz, TU Delft, The Netherlands Alfredo Serpell, Catholic University of Chile, Chile Geoffrey Shen, Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ, HKSAR Amarjit Singh, University of Hawaii, USA Lucio Soibelman, Carnegie Mellon University, USA Rudi Stouffs, TU Delft, The Netherlands Karen Sweeney, Turner Construction, USA Tony Thorpe, Loughborough University, UK Bige Tuncer, TU Delft, The Netherlands Ron Wakefield, RMIT, Australia Dan Willis, Penn State University, USA CONFERENCE SPONSORS The Pennsylvania State University Department of Architectural Engineering Centre for Innovative Construction Engineering (CICE) Department of Civil and Building Engineering Loughborough University Turner Construction Company Clark Construction Company Balfour Beatty Construction Company Best Paper Award and Best Student Paper Award BEPAM Journal Best Paper on Public Private Partnerships (PPP) Sponsored by: Best Paper Award for Innovations in Sustainability Sponsored by: Keynote Speakers John Findlay Director JDF Works, Ltd. (UK) Keynote Topic: “UK Construction Executives‟ Views about Innovation Potential Influence on the Future of the Built Environment” John Findlay set up his own company, JDF Works Limited, in 2008 to pursue his interests in innovation, knowledge sharing and business management systems. Prior to this he was Innovation Director at Balfour Beatty Infrastructure Services for 5 years. Before that he was a Director and Chief Engineer at Stent for 15 years. During that time he instigated and contributed to the development of the ICE Specification for Piling and Embedded Walls, which has become a de-facto national standard. His deep interest in innovation and business process improvement led to involvement with the sector‟s CRISP (Construction Research and Innovation Strategy Panel) now transformed into the National Platform. R&D involvement was deepened in 1997 with a 2-year partial secondment to the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council as Sector Programme Manager for the theme of Construction as a Manufacturing Process within the Innovative Manufacturing Initiative. He has been involved in the Steering Groups of many CIRIA reports; the most recent being Whole–Life Infrastructure Asset Management. From the formation of CICE at Loughborough University he was chairman of the Management Board until 2007. He is now on the Strategic Advisory Board for Systems Engineering EngD at Bristol/Bath Universities and is a Visiting Professor at Salford University. Ronald McCaffer Emeritus Professor Loughborough University, UK Keynote Topic: “Innovation: Imagination and Knowledge” Professor McCaffer is an Emeritus Professor at Loughborough University where he held the posts of Professor of Construction Management, Head of Department of Civil and Building Engineering, Dean of Engineering, Deputy Vice-Chancellor and Director of Business Partnerships, Innovation and Knowledge Transfer. He is a Visiting Professor to the School of the Built and Natural Environment at Glasgow Caledonian University A Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering, The Royal Society of Edinburgh the Institution of Civil Engineers, and the Chartered Institute of Building. After graduating in Civil Engineering at Strathclyde University, he gained industrial experience with Babtie, Shaw and Morton, the Nuclear Power Group and Taylor Woodrow Construction Ltd before joining Loughborough University. He is co-author of Modern Construction Management, Worked Examples in Construction Management, Estimating and Tendering for Civil Engineering Works and Management of off-Highway Plant and Equipment and is also the Editor of the International Journal „Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management‟. Research work has been funded by EPSRC, Government Departments, The European Union and industry. From 1998 Professor McCaffer was the leading UK academic in the development of the British University in Egypt which opened in 2005 and had its first graduates in 2009 and is still involved in offering advice on operational and staffing matters. He is the author of MERIT a WEB based management simulation that has been used by the Institution of Civil Engineers as their national Construction Business Game since 1988 and has attracted over 25,000 participants. See www.mccaffer.com Michael McLaughlin Corporate Preconstruction Leader Southland Industries Keynote Topic: “Outside the Box”: Opportunities for the AEC Community Michael McLaughlin is the Corporate Preconstruction Leader for Southland Industries. Southland Industries is a national mechanical engineering, construction and maintenance company, specializing in design-build for a wide range of projects types, both large and small. Over his 15 year career with the company, Mr. McLaughlin has served in a number of key roles in both engineering and construction, including Division Principal Engineer, Estimating Manager and Project Manager. Mr. McLaughlin‟s current focus is on the preconstruction efforts of major design build and design assist projects and works to improve the interaction and knowledge sharing between the engineering, estimating, detailing and construction resources of the company. Mr. McLaughlin is the Vice Chair for TG3 – the ASHRAE Task Group titled “HVAC Contractors and Design Build Firms”. This task group routinely provides seminars, forums and workshops at the national ASHRAE meetings that focus on improving the knowledge sharing and interaction of both the engineering and contracting members of ASHRAE. Mr. McLaughlin lives in Northern Virginia and is a graduate of the Architectural Engineering Program of Penn State University. He holds a Masters in Business Administration from the University of California – Irvine and is a registered Professional Engineer. CONFERENCE PROGRAM 6th International Conference on Innovation in Architecture, Engineering & Construction (AEC) PROGRAM WEDNESDAY, June 9, 2010 8:00 a.m. - 8:30 a.m. 8:30 a.m. - 9:00 a.m. Registration Opening Ceremonies Nittany Lion Inn (Ballroom CDE ) Welcome: Renata Engel, Associate Dean for Academic Programs, College of Engineering;, Penn State Welcome: Chimay Anumba, Head, Department of Architectural Engineering, Penn State Welcome: Dino Bouchlaghem, CICE Director, Loughborough University, UK 9:00 a.m. - 10:00 a.m. Keynote: Ronald McCaffer, Emeritus Professor (Loughborough University, UK) Keynote: John Findlay, Director JDF Works, Ltd. (UK) 10:00 a.m. - 10:20 a.m. 10:20 a.m. – 12:00 p.m. Coffee Break (Boardroom Rotunda) Coffee Break (Boardroom Rotunda) Coffee Break (Ballroom Atrium) Session 1A: Theoretical and Conceptual Aspects of Innovation (Boardroom 1) Session Chair: Dan Willis Session 1B: Developments in Information and Knowledge Management (Boardroom 2) Session Chair: John Kamara Session 1C: New Construction Methods and Processes (Ballroom A & B) Session Chair: Ioannis Brilakis Overcoming Challenges in Applying Learning Theory to Projects Through Learning Praxis, P. Fuller, A. Dainty, T. Thorpe and D. Bentley Preliminary Case Studies of Knowledge Flow in Construction Supply Chains, S. Konukcu, C. Anumba, P. Carrillo Bearing Capacity of Granular Soil Overlying Soft Clay Reinforced with Bamboo-Geotextile Composite at Interface, A. Marto, A.M. Makhtar, and A. Khatib Defining Appropriate Metadata for Facetted Search, A. Sheriff, D. Bouchlaghem and A. El-Hamalawi Adopting Construction Industry Institute (CII) Best Practices in Malaysia, N. Azmy, J.S. Shane, and K. Strong A Tool for Design Information Integration in Hybrid Projects, K. Adeyeye, D. Bouchlaghem and C. Pasquire The Effect of Time on the Performance of Fly Ash as Backfill Materials for Embankment Construction, Muhardi, A. Marto, K.A. Kassim, A.M. Makhtar, W.Z. Yaacob A Fuzzy Logic Decision Making Approach for Using Innovations in the Construction Industry Case Study: WeldLess Pipe Joining, M. Safa, M. Gouett, C. Haas, P.Goodrum and C. Caldas Competency-Based Theory for Achieving Innovation: The Case of Post-Disaster Reconstruction, J. Von Meding, L. Oyedele, D. Cleland, A. Konanahalli, J. Spillane and E. McKenna Branding In AEC Firms: Consideration of Drivers, Processes and Associated Concepts as Applied to Construction, E. McKenna, L.O. Oyedele, J. Spillane, Learning From Post Project Reviews, P. Carrillo, J. Harding, A. Choudary, & P. Oluikpe Future of Construction: Scenarios for Year 2030, B. Erdogan, C. Abbott, and G. Aouad An Eigenvalue-Based Defect Recognition Method and its Application to Bridge Coating, S. Lee Functional Requirement Oriented Modeling Framework for Schedule Generation, Q. Nguyen, D. Chua and K. Yeoh J.K. Von Meding, A. Konanahalli Aligning Project Stakeholder Motivation Through Incentivisation: A Client-Driven Approach, T. Rose and K. Manley 12:00 p.m. - 1:00 p.m. 1:15 p.m. - 2:55 p.m. Lunch (Ballroom CDE) Session 2A: Theoretical and Conceptual Aspects of Innovation (Boardroom 1) Session Chair: Dino Bouchlaghem Session 2B: Developments in Information and Knowledge Management (Boardroom 2) Session Chair: Patricia Carrillo Session 2C: Innovative Approaches to Environmentally Conscious Architecture (Ballroom A & B) Session Chairs: Ute Poerschke/Lisa Iulo From Border Skirmishes to Strategic Alliances: Barriers to Design Innovation and Collaboration Between Architects and Engineers, and an Opportunity for Moving Beyond Them, D. Willis, T. Simpson, R. Henn, S. Hunter, M. Parkinson, D, Celento, R. Barton, S. Purao A Construction Safety Monitoring System Using Building Information Modeling and Radio Frequency Identification-Based Real-Time Locating System, K.-P. Lee, H. Lee, M. Park, and H.-S. Kim Innovation in Education: Implementing Environmentally Conscious Design In Architecture Curricula, L. Iulo and U. Poerschke The Impact of a Strategy for Increased Intra-Organisational Innovation in a Construction Firm, N. Shaw, D. Bouchlaghem and P. Demian Is Fragmentation of the UK Construction Industry the Main Barrier to Innovation? The Architects' View?, S. Naoum, K. Lock and D. Fong Computer-Supported Collaborative Design in Global Virtual Engineering Team Networks, G. Peschiera, L. Korpela and J. Taylor Innovating the Design Process: Energy Simulations and Building Information Modeling in the Early Design Stage, R. Haksar A Web-based Environment for Buildings' Life Cycle Cost Analysis, M. Gheisari, A. Abdullah, J. Irizarry and C. Pillai Innovation in the Academy: Technology And Form, Ulrike Passe Design and Operation of Air-Conditioned Facilities to Reduce Exposure to Ozone Initiated Chemistry Products and Improve Perceived Air Quality, M.O. Fadeyi Achieving Sustainability And Energy Reduction Through Innovative Lighting System, K.H. Chan Building Commissioning as an Opportunity for Training Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring Algorithms, M.E. Berges, L. Soibelman and H.S. Matthews Invention To Innovation: The Implementation of Innovative UserBased Construction Technologies in the Australian Construction Industry, J. Shelton, C. Chen Optimization of Resource Leveling in Shipbuilding with Variation-Float Tradeoffs, Z. Liu*, D. K. H. Chua, E.L.S. Abbott, K.W. Yeoh 3:00 p.m. - 3:20 p.m. Coffee Break (Boardroom Rotunda) Coffee Break (Boardroom Rotunda) Coffee Break (Ballroom Atrium) 3:20 p.m. – 5:00 p.m. Session 3A: Innovation in Design (Boardroom 1) Session Chair: Burcu Senyapili Session 3B: Virtual Models and eReadiness (Boardroom 2) Session Chair: Paul Stephenson Session 3C: Delivering Sustainability/Innovations in Sustainable Construction (Ballroom A & B) Session Chairs: Esra Kurul Review on the Status of the Design Excellence Agenda in Association to the Development of the NHS Estates, Z. Ren, D. Jenkins and L. Jiang Integration Of Virtual Models And Physical Construction, A. Akanmu, C. Anumba, J. Messner Dash: A Quest to Collect More and Better Quantifiable Data for Green Buildings, A. Sharrard Re-Shaping Domesticy: Dynamics of Appropriation, Burcu Senyapili and Giorgio Gasco Value-Focused Design, Glenn R. Bell, James C. Parker and Andreas F. Phelps Evaluation of Rapid Prototyping Materials for Selection Based On Material Properties, H. Christensen, C. Raebel and M. McGeen Using Second Life for Life Cycle Costing and Wayfinding in Virtual Buildings, R. Pathmeswaran, V. Ahmed, C. Rooke and C. Abbott Implementation of Waste Management Plan: Importance, Contents, Procedures, Problems and Solutions, O.J. Oladiran Driving Green Building Product Innovation in Pennsylvania, A. Sharrard Identification of Key Process Areas in the Production of an E-Capability Maturity Model for UK Construction Organisations, R. Eadie, S. Perera and G. Heaney Improving Organisations Carbon Emissions Reduction: The UK Government’s Policies Perspectives, E. Itoya, A. El-Hamalawi, K. Hazell, M. Frost and S. Ison Information Technology (IT) in the UK Construction Industry: How is it Working?, P. Stephenson and R. Strachan Incorporating System Complexity In Sustainability Assessment for Civil Infrastructure Systems: An Innovative Approach, B. Alsulami and S. Mohamed An Innovative Approach to E-Learning Space Design in Higher Education Institutions, F.T. Dare, D. Heesom and P. Olomolaiye 5:00 p.m. 6:00 p.m. – 7:30 p.m. Sessions End Welcome Reception – Hintz Alumni Center Each delegate will be given 15 minutes for presenting his/her paper followed by 5 minutes of questions and answers. 6th International Conference on Innovation in Architecture, Engineering & Construction (AEC) Thursday, June 10, 2010 (Industry Day) 8:00 a.m. - 8:30 a.m. Keynote: Dr. Michael McLaughlin (Southland Industries, USA) Panel Discussion on Innovation in AEC: 8::30 a.m. – 9.45 a.m. Scott Bulera (Turner), Brian Krause (Turner), Charles DeBenedittis (Tishman Speyer), Nicolas Holt (SOM), Steve Maruszewski (Penn State OPP), John Findlay (JDF) 9:45 a.m. – 10:00 a.m. Dr. Michael J. Horman Memorial 10:00 a.m. - 10:20 a.m. Coffee Break (Boardroom Rotunda) 10:20 a.m. – 12:00 p.m. Session 4A: Innovation in Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) (Boardroom 1) Session Chair: Sam Chan Session 4B: Building Information Modeling (BIM) Innovations (Boardroom 2) Session Chair: John Messner Session 4C: Innovative Approaches to Construction and Project Management (Ballroom A & B) Session Chair: Srinath Perrera Contractual and Policy Challenges to Developing Ecocities, A. Gunawansa Analysis of Key Performance Indicators of the Integration Between Building Information Modeling and Enterprise Information Systems, S. Ghosh, S. Negahban, O. Tatari and M. Skibniewski Evaluating Contractor Quality Control Under Material and Non-Material Models, A. Khalafallah, A. Eishennawy, N. Yousef and M. Abdel-Raheem Public Private Partnership: An Innovation Solution to Malaysia Construction Industry, K. Ismail, S. Saidan-Khaderi, R. Takim, A.H. Nawawi Mega-Collaboration, Mega-Coordination: An Anatomy of the Organizational Framework Of Expo 2010 Shanghai China, Y. Deng and S.W. Poon Effects of a Lack of Support for Public Private Partenerships, The Swedish Case, K. Widén and S. Olander Coffee Break (Boardroom Rotunda) Quantitative Benefits of Building Information Modeling Measured in Construction, B. Giel and R. Issa Research and Application of Building Information Modelling (BIM) in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) Industry: A Review and Direction for Future Research, J. Wong and J. Yang BIM Enabled IPD, P.L. Leonard and C. Leary Transaction Cost in Public-Private Partnerships, M. Farajian and Q. Cui Determining the Frequency and Impact of Applying BIM for Different Purposes on Projects, R. Kreider, J. Messner and C. Dubler Coffee Break (Ballroom Atrium) An Innovative Technique to Measure Complexity of a Construction Project Activity, S. Sinha, B. Kumar, A. Thomson, S. Kumar Improving Performance Measurement Practices In Construction Organisation, A. Latiffi, P. Carrillo, K. D. Ruikar, C J. Anumba Confined Site Construction: Issues Regarding Implementation of Health and Safety, J. Spillane, L.O. Oyedele, A. Konanahalli, E. McKenna, J.K. Von Meding Innovatively Applying the Principles of Lean Production to Timber Construction, R. Hairstans Lunch (Ballroom CDE) 12:00 p.m. - 1:00 p.m. 1:15 p.m. - 2:55 p.m. Session 5A: Innovation in Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) (Boardroom 1) Session Chair: Asanga Gunawansa Session 5B: Developments in Information and Knowledge Management (Boardroom 2) Session Chair: Ray Issa Session 5C: Delivering Sustainability/Innovations in Sustainable Construction (Ballroom A & B) Session Chair: Abbas Elmualim Hospital Concessions: Incentives for Flexibility, A. Blanken and G. Dewulf Customization of Corporate Accounting Software, B. Nichols, J. Cunningham, M. Bower, C. Smith, M. Lucas, A. Dalla-Piazza The Usage and Contributions of Construction Waste Minimization Strategies, O.J. Oladiran Innovation and Partner Strategies in Public Private Partnerships, A. Roumboutsos and C. Liyanage Public Interest Performance in PublicPrivate Partnerships, M. Smit and G. Dewulf Two Sets of External Variables Influencing the Partnership Arrangements, Dynamics, and Performance Levels in Public Private Partnerships Projects, W. Zou, M. Kumaraswamy, G. Mahesh and S. Chan An Innovative Mobile Application for Construction Programme Managers, M. Fathi, C. Anumba and P. Carrillo Development of an Innovative Framework For Clients’ Requirements Information Management In Construction Projects, A.K. Jallow, P. Demian, A.N. Baldwin and C.J. Anumba The Potential of Multi-Agents in the Live Capture And Reuse of Project Knowledge, C.E. Udeaja and J.M. Kamara Podcasting in Project-Based Learning Environments: Findings of a Pilot Study, K. Ruikar 3:00 p.m. - 3:20 p.m. 3:20 p.m. – 5:00 p.m. Coffee Break (Boardroom Rotunda) Session 6A: Innovative Approaches to Project Delivery (Boardroom 1) Session Chair: Jennifer Shane Leveraging The Value of Preconstruction Services in Construction Manager-At-Risk Project Delivery, J.S. Shane and D.D. Gransberg Communication Specifications and Implementation Plans: Getting the Most out of Building Information Modeling, J. Reece and Jesse Whalen Identification and Analysis of the Issues That Might be Slowing the Adoption of Integrated Project Delivery: Perceptions of Construction Industry Participants, M.E. Ozbek and T. Youssef Estimating Productivity Emission Rates and Cost Emission Rates of Diesel Construction Equipment, W. Rasdorf, P. Lewis and H.C. Frey Does The UK Built Environment Sector Have the Capacity to Deliver Sustainability?, E. Kurul, J.H.M. Tah, F. Cheung Construction Equipment Emission Monitoring System - Opportunities, Benefits & Challenges, R. Shiftehfar, F. Pena-Mora and Z. Aziz Engineering Sustainable Built Environment Systems: International Student Research Case Studies, E.A. Obonyo, R. Ries, P.M. Odira, Z. Oonge, G. Munga and K. Fredrick Coffee Break (Boardroom Rotunda) Coffee Break (Ballroom Atrium) Session 6B: Innovations in Construction eBusiness (Boardroom 2) Session Chair: Kirti Ruikar Cloud Computing and its Application in the Irish Construction Industry, A. Hore, R. West and A. Redmond Session 6C: Developments in Building Envelope Systems (Ballroom A & B) Session Chair: Ali Memari Transparent Glazing Systems for Free-Form Building Skins - Parametric Modeling Meets Curved Glazing Engineering, W. Laufs, and G. Vilkner Exploring the Status of E-Procurement: The Case of Construction Industry in Sri Lanka, A.R.S. Ahamed, G. Karunasena, S. Jayasena, I. Seneviratne and S. Perera An In-Depth Analysis of E-Procurement Use in UK Construction Organisations, R. Eadie, S. Perera and G. Heaney E-Auctions: A Construction Industry Perspective on Achieving Stakeholder Satisfaction and Value Creation, B. Ingirige Development of a Transparent Sustainable Wall System with Load Bearing Backup Framing for Residential Construction, J.A. Standley and A.M. Memari Design and Characterising the Performance of Hybrid Shortglass Fiber/ Clay/ Polypropylene Nanocomposites for Building Envelopes, E. Obonyo and J. Iroh Developments in Below-Grade Waterproofing, An Internet Approach to Efficient Bid Document Delivery-Larson Design Group Bid Plan Website, J.C. McQuown and J.A. Cunningham and U. Kulatunga A. Nicastro and C. Allender Delivering Sustainability by Means of Modern Methods of Construction, P.A.E. Piroozfar, H. Altan,and O.P. Larsen 5:00 p.m. Sessions End 5:30 p.m. Conference Attendees will Assemble for Bus Tour – Nittany Lion Inn Lobby 5:45 p.m. - 7:15 p.m. 7:30 p.m. – 10:00 p.m. Tour of Solar House & Beaver Stadium Gala Dinner (Penn Stater President's Hall) – (Dress Code: Business Casual) Gala Dinner Entertainment Provided by FIRE n ICE Entertainment 6th International Conference on Innovation in Architecture, Engineering & Construction (AEC) FRIDAY, June 11, 2010 8:00 a.m. – 8:20 a.m. 8:20 a.m. – 10:00 a.m. Coffee Break (Boardroom Rotunda) Session 7A: Innovations in Healthcare and Facilities Management (Boardroom 1) Session Chair: Ren Zhaomin Integrating AEC and FM Activities Within a Client Organisation, J.M. Kamara RFID Building Maintenance System, C.-H. Ko Development of a Framework for Improving Building Operating Decisions: Findings from the Questionnaire, A. Lewis, D. Riley And A. Elmualim Maximising the Value and Use of Standard Tools and Datasets in Healthcare Building, E. Ricks, S. Austin, A. Price and E. Osaji Parametric Environmental Design for Innovations in Healthcare Facility Design And Construction, E.E. Osaji and A.D.F. Price Coffee Break (Boardroom Rotunda) Coffee Break (Ballroom Atrium) Session 7B: New Approaches to Collaborative Working and Options Valuations (Boardroom 2) Session Chair: Peter Demian Investigating the Responsibility of Principal Contractors in Assessing Construction Projects Through Post-Occupancy Evaluation in the UK Construction Industry, T. Williams, D. Bouchlaghem, D. Loveday and C. Law Session 7C: New Construction Methods and Processes (Ballroom A & B) Session Chair: William Rasdorf Emotional Intelligence: It’s Effect on Expatriate’s Cross-Cultural Adaptation in International Construction, A. Konanahalli, L.O. Oyedele, E. McKenna, J.K. Von Meding, J. Spillane, Preliminary Studies for the Development of an Integrated Design-Related Contractual Risks Information Toolkit, K. Adeyeye, D. Bouchlaghem and C. Pasquire Towards Automated Progress Tracking of Erection of Concrete Structures, Y. Turkan, F. Bosche, C.T. Haas and R. Haas An Innovative Approach to QC/QA Highway Construction Data Analysis, K. Mahboub, M. Uddin and P.M. Goodrum Intelligent Learning and Detection of Concrete Regions in Construction Site Images, Z. Zhu and I. Brilakis D4AR Models for Automated Remote Progress Tracking and Support of Decision-Enabling Tasks in the AEC/FM Industry, M. GolparvarFard, F. Pena-Mora and S. S Savarese A Real Options Valuation Model of Highway Project Under Multistage Construction Mode, J. Lu and B. Ashuri A Valuation Model for Choosing the Optimal Minimum Traffic Revenue Guarantee (Mrg) in a Highway Project: A Real-Option Approach, B. Ashuri and H. Kashani 10:00 a.m. – 10:20 a.m. Coffee Break (Boardroom Rotunda) Coffee Break (Boardroom Rotunda) Coffee Break (Ballroom Atrium) 10:20 a.m. – 12:00 p.m. Session 8A: Designing in Resilience for Emergencies and Disasters (Boardroom 1) Session Chair: Lee Bosher Session 8B: Novel Construction Planning and Scheduling Methods (Boardroom 2) Session Chair: Bilge Erdogan Counter-Terrorism Complexity: Identifying Opportunities for Innovation, S. HarreYoung, L. Bosher, A. Dainty and J. Glass An Empirical Study of Risk Analysis and Their Impact on Construction Projects - The Case of Ghana, A.A. Baah and N. Chileshe A Heuristic Process Inspired by Foraging of Honeybees for Equipment Distribution in Disaster Response, A. Chen and F. Penamora Awareness, Usage and Benefits of Risk Assessment and Management Practices (RAMP) - The Case of Ghanaian Medium and Large Construction Related Organizations, A.A. Baah and N. Chileshe Decision Support for Incorporating Counter-Terrorism Design Innovations into Public Places, L. Bosher and J.G. Kappia Quantifying Schedule Risk for Residential Construction with Linear Schedule Simulations, C. Lopez del Puerto and D.D. Gransberg Risk Based Planning, H.R. Thomas 12:00 p.m. - 1:00 p.m. 1:30 p.m. – 2:30pm 1:30 p.m. – 5:00 p.m. CLOSING LUNCH (Ballroom CDE) TOUR OF PENN STATE’S ARCHITECTURAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH FACILITIES OPTIONAL GOLF (University Blue/White Courses) CONFERENCE VENUE FLOOR PLAN The Nittany Lion Inn CONFERENCE VENUE FLOOR PLAN CONFERENCE VENUE LOCATION MAP A C B A—Nittany Lion Inn B—Department of Architectural Engineering (Engineering Unit A) C—Hintz Alumni Center PAPER ABSTRACTS (BY SESSION) Session 1A: Theoretical and Conceptual Aspects of Innovation (Boardroom 1) Session Chair: Dan Willis Overcoming Challenges in Applying Learning Theory to Projects Through Learning Praxis, P. Fuller, A. Dainty, T. Thorpe and D. Bentley Learning lessons from projects and measurement of the resulting benefits from applying what is learnt are not well covered in the literature or developed in practice. This paper reports on a longitudinal case study in the support services sector focusing on how praxis can act as a key enabler in achieving successful outcomes in this field. The research is practice driven and develops a methodology for improving lessons learnt capture, implementation and measurement of resulting benefits. It extends the application of existing theory in the fields of knowledge management and organizational learning. A series of workshop events were held which revealed that the emphasis should be on demonstration of the efficacy of the approach to achieve the key objectives of capturing lessons and encouraging benefits measurement rather than understanding the complex and often abstract theories involved. The events, based on open space “facilitation, create a „ba” environment which encourages the creation of knowledge (Nonaka et al, 2000). Measurement of benefits is enabled through the production of „benefits realization cards‟ which make the learning more explicit and therefore more easily quantifiable. The methodology is based on creating a continuous cycle of learning events at the end of each phase of a project rather than a single event at the end. This praxis based approach is designed to overcome some of the traditional barriers to effective lessons learnt capture and actual implementation on projects. It allows the theories to be practically enabled by busy practitioners who would not have the time to engage with the relevant literature. The research addresses the issue of how we get research to have an impact in the business community i.e. how we bring quite abstract theory into very practical use. This paper provides a foundation for other researchers to further develop the approach for use in other contexts. A Fuzzy-Logic Decision Making Approach for Using Innovations in the Construction Industry Case Study: Weld-Less Pipe Joining, Mahdi Safa, Michael C. Gouett, Carl T. Haas, Paul M. Goodrum and Carlos H. Caldas Construction managers and engineers appreciate the potential of innovations to advance their goals and their clients‟ goals, so when deciding whether to pursue an innovation, understanding clients‟ needs and how they relate to their goals is vital. In this study, the fuzzy logic decision making technique is applied to assess innovations with respect to clients‟ needs and strategic goals. A promising innovation on which to focus is weld-less pipe joining. Pipe installation has a significant impact on both construction budgets and schedules. The productivity of pipefitters is greatly influenced by the selected method of pipe joining. Pipe welding is a traditional method that is both costly and time consuming. Innovations have been developed to eliminate the costly and cumbersome process of pipe welding. Push-to-connect technology is a new innovation in weld-less pipe joining that has many potential benefits, such as reduced labor costs, but also higher material costs. Thus, adopting this innovation is not a straight forward decision. Criteria in the decision making process and uncertainty factors affecting these criteria are identified. Then, the importance weights and effect ratings of different criteria assigned by decision makers are expressed in linguistic terms. The weld-less pipe joining case study demonstrates the potential usefulness of the model. Competency-Based Theory for Achieving Innovation: The Case of Post-Disaster Reconstruction, Jason Von Meding, Lukumon Oyedele, David Cleland, Ashwini Konanahalli, John Spillane and Enda McKenna For those working in the humanitarian sector, achieving positive outcomes for post-disaster communities through reconstruction projects is a pressing concern. In the wake of recent natural disasters, NGOs have become increasingly involved in the permanent reconstruction of affected communities. They have encountered significant barriers as they implement reconstruction programmes and this paper argues that it is important to address the visible lack of innovation that is partially to blame. The theoretical bedrock of a current research project will be used as the starting point for this argument, the overall goal of which is to design a competency-based framework model that can be used by NGOs in post-disaster reconstruction projects. Drawing on established theories of management, a unique perspective has been developed from which a competency-based reconstruction theory emerges. This theoretical framework brings together 3 distinct fields; Disaster Management, Strategic Management and Project Management, each vital to the success of the model. The objectives of this paper are a) to investigate the role of NGOs in post-disaster reconstruction and establish the current standard of practice b) to determine the extent to which NGOs have the opportunity to contribute to sustainable community development through reconstruction c) to outline the main factors of a theoretical framework first proposed by Von Meding et al. 2009 and d) to identify the innovative measures that can be taken by NGOs to achieve more positive outcomes in their interventions. It is important that NGOs involved in post-disaster reconstruction become familiar with concepts and strategies such as those contained in this paper. Competency-based organizational change on the basis of this theory has the potential to help define the standard of best practice to which future NGO projects might align themselves. Branding in AEC Firms: Consideration of Drivers, Processes and Associated Concepts as Applied to Construction, Enda McKenna, Lukumon Oyedele., John Spillane, Jason Von Meding, Ashwini Konanahalli A lot of authors have contributed to the success and development of brands within the business context of selling their products. However, these studies are largely based around those that are mass produced such as foodstuff etc. Little or no research has looked into the issues of building brands and branding projects for construction firms within their industry. The purpose of branding is to establish an identity that conjures up a positive image. Branding has been used as a source of competitive advantage in other industries, its usage within construction is still not common. This paper will set out to explain branding, its perceived benefits and how to build brands from existing literature. It will then go on to discuss marketing within the context of construction and try to provide a link between the existing literature and construction. Aligning Project Stakeholder Motivation Through Incentivisation: A Client-Driven Approach, Timothy Rose and Karen Manley The use of appropriate financial incentives within construction projects can contribute to strong alignment of project stakeholder motivation with project goals. However, effective incentive system design can be a challenging task and takes skilful planning by client managers in the early stages of a project. In response to a lack of information currently available to construction clients in this area, this paper explores the features of a successful incentive system and identifies key learnings for client managers to consider when designing incentives. Our findings, based on data from a large Australian case study, suggest that key stakeholders place greater emphasis on the project management processes that support incentives than on the incentive itself. Further, contractors need adequate time and information to accurately estimate construction costs prior to their tender price submission to ensure cost-focused incentive goals remain achievable. Thus, client managers should be designing incentives as part of a supportive procurement strategy to maximize project stakeholder motivation and prevent goal misalignment. Session 1B: Developments in Information and Knowledge Management (Boardroom 2) Session Chair: John Kamara Preliminary Case Studies of Knowledge Flow in Construction Supply Chains, Selda Konukcu, Chimay Anumba, Patricia Carrillo A critical issue in Construction Supply Chain Management (SCM) is the effective management of knowledge through the whole project lifecycle. This issue involves the enhancements of the flow of knowledge within and between different sectors of construction supply chain as well as the accumulation, coding, and storage of knowledge in the organizations. A typical construction project is one-of-a-kind, temporary, and involves different tasks which are held by different professional and trade disciplines of construction supply chains. These different disciplines of the supply chain have to work closely in an intense environment over a period of months or even years. The information shared between these organizations varies from technical drawings and legal contracts to purchase orders, project reports, and schedules. Moreover, project knowledge which has to be shared within and between the organizations is interconnected and includes all the knowledge about the end product. Within such a complex environment, the efficient flow of project knowledge between all the sectors of construction supply chain will directly improve all the SCM efforts. This paper presents the findings of preliminary case studies on knowledge flow in construction supply chains. The supply chain management approach and the main problems regarding the supply chain and the knowledge management practices in two supply chains are discussed. It also presents the research method to identify the knowledge requirements of different sectors of the construction supply chains. It concludes that the application of a systematic approach to knowledge management in construction supply chains will bring enhance knowledge flow and enable these supply chains to become construction knowledge chains. Defining Appropriate Metadata For Facetted Search, Abdullahi Sheriff, Dino Bouchlaghem and Ashraf El-Hamalawi For an organisation looking to implement a metadata based facetted search solution, a problem arises in identifying the right metadata attributes to be used as suitable facets to meet the needs of the end user community. This research presents a case study in which a metadata based facetted search solution was developed for a multidisciplinary construction industry based organisation using the literary warrant approach. A review was first conducted of seven existing international standards to establish a baseline of suitable metadata attributes. This was then built into an online questionnaire capturing the requirements of the broad end user community. To further contextualise the findings, a detailed case study was then conducted into the file and folder naming patterns of a target group within the company. The collective outcomes were analysed from which six attributes were proposed to be adopted as facets. The findings show that particularly in multidisciplinary organisations, a basket of attributes tailored to the needs of each discipline may be more suitable than a single standard for facetted search adopted across the organisation. It also shows that indeed even within uncontrolled content management environments, there is a strong correlation between the file naming patterns of individuals and their respective search preferences, thus analysis user file naming patterns can be a useful basis for identifying and selecting the most appropriate facets to be used for facetted search. A Tool for Design Information Integration in Hybrid Projects, Kemi Adeyeye, Dino Bouchlaghem and Christine Pasquire The research, on which this paper is based, focused specifically on hybrid building projects. These projects involve the adaptation of an existing building through a combination of refurbishment, rehabilitation and adaptive reuse. Where new elements or components are combined with existing structures in order to provide better functionality and meet increased spatial requirements. The research hypothesis was that as-built information is fundamentally important for making effective design decisions about hybrid projects. Generally, the hypothesis was further expounded to provide answers to questions such as: „What is the role and impact of as-built information for the delivery of hybrid projects?‟ and „How can as-built information processes be improved to facilitate better design decision making?‟ The latter resulted in the development of an integrated design information management demonstrator tool to support the acquisition of quantitative and qualitative as-built information, and integration of these with design decision making as part of a developmental and collaborative process. In this paper, the demonstrator tool is introduced together with the supporting hybrid building process framework. Some characteristics and functionality of the tool are also described. Finally, summary findings from the evaluation exercise and scope for future work are discussed. Learning From Post Project Reviews, Patricia Carrillo, Jenny Harding, Alok Choudhary, Paul Oluikpe Post Project Reviews (PPRs) can provide a valuable source of learning for project teams. Many construction organisations now have policies towards the conduct of PPRs, with the intentions of providing a rich and valuable source of learning. However, because many companies do not have the resources to examine their review reports, either individually or collectively, important insights are missed thereby leading to a missed opportunity to learn from previous projects. Text mining offers a potential solution to companies that do not have the resources to analyze these reports. Text mining analyses large volumes of text to identify patterns and trends in order to extract information and knowledge that could improve process, and identify both good and bad practice. It is a relatively new approach and uses unstructured text, as found in PPR reports. It is thus ideally suited to overcoming the problem with organisations possessing a large number of PPRs that may provide very useful information and knowledge without the requirement for extra human resources to analyze them. This paper investigates the potential use of text mining to identify vital sources of knowledge that can lead to learning from Post Project Reviews. Two UK construction contractors provided PPRs reports. The companies‟ reports were first pre-processed to allow then to be used in a text mining tool. Both companies were asked to identify key knowledge areas that are important to their businesses; these formed the basis of the key words and phrases that were used for text mining. Two techniques, namely Link Analysis and Dimensional Matrix Analysis were used to identify correlations between key words and phrases that appear across a range of different Post Project Review reports. The initial results are very promising because they help to identify links and trends that would otherwise be difficult to identify without a substantial amount of manpower. One of the advantages is the graphical representation of the strength of correlations between key words that makes it easy to select areas for further investigation. Future of Construction: Scenarios for Year 2030, Bilge Erdogan, Carl Abbott, and Ghassan Aouad Since the earliest times there has been a desire to know, and prepare for, the future. This interest has resulted in various efforts such as future studies, strategic planning, scenario thinking and planning, foresight, and futurology activities. The research effort presented in this paper was aimed at identifying the future of construction industry and construction information Technology (IT). In order to achieve the aims of the research, the research followed a modified version of the La Prospective scenario planning approach which involved a combination of different methods such as strategic conversations, surveys, prospective workshops and horizon scanning. Whilst developing a future vision, it is important to understand the forces, issues and trends in order to inform and enable further thinking and action towards achieving a preferred future state whilst being prepared for what might come round the corner. These forces were not only investigated at the technological level but societal, economic, environmental and political factors were also explored. After presenting a background for the research, this paper presents the driving forces of change and main trends, issues and factors related to society, technology, environment, economy and politics. Following this, four future scenarios developed for the year 2030 are described. These scenarios start from the global view and present the images of the future world. They then focus on the construction industry and the ICT implications. The paper concludes with explanation of future research steps. Session 1C: New Construction Methods and Processes (Ballroom A & B) Session Chair: Ioannis Brilakis Bearing Capacity of Granular Soil Overlying Soft Clay Reinforced With Bamboo-Geotextile Composite at Interface, A. Marto, A.M. Makhtar, and A. Khatib The problem of soft clay is associated with low bearing capacity and high compressibility. The improvement and stabilization of these soils usually involve expensive soil improvement methods. Research has been carried out, aimed at determining the effect of bamboo-geotextile composite reinforcement system on the ultimate bearing capacity of soft clay overlain by granular soil. Loading tests were carried out to determine the bearing capacity of 50 mm width (b) strip footing model, resting on various thicknesses (u) of medium dense sand layer overlying soft clay. Three types of reinforcement were installed at the interface of the sand-soft clay layers; geotextile layer, bamboo poles and bamboo-geotextile composite. This paper discusses the ultimate bearing capacity obtained from the used of these reinforcements. Overall results suggest that bamboo reinforcement would provide both tensile and bending reinforcement of the clay, while the geotextile would principally act to separate the sand from the clay. Incorporating geotextile with bamboo poles exhibited that a greater increase in the ultimate bearing capacity would be achieved as compared to using only a geotextile layer or only bamboo as reinforcement. When bamboo reinforcement with tensile and bending stiffness was used in conjunction with the geotextile, the strain behavior of the system was modified. The end product of this research could be economically scaled towards cost reduction in construction on soft clay such as the construction of road embankment or where shallow footing is used, in particular when using bamboo as locally available materials in the country, such as in Malaysia and Indonesia. Adopting Construction Industry Institute (CII) Best Practices in Malaysia, Nurhidayah Azmy, Jennifer S. Shane, and Kelly Strong The construction industry in the US has been practicing new, innovative construction methods and processes for the past ten years. Due to globalization and international education, these methods and processes have spread to different parts of the world and have already made substantial impacts on the construction industry in many developing countries, including Malaysia. As a sizeable contributor to the Malaysian economy, the construction industry must be ready to cope with globalization issues to achieve global standards. Therefore, it is necessary the Malaysian construction industry embraces all measures to improve its construction methods and processes; thus, becoming competitive globally by adopting the Construction Industry Institute„s (CII) best practices. This paper provides an overview of the construction practices in Malaysia, and how CII best practices could be developed and applied in the future. It was determined that partnering and constructability are new, introduced concepts, still in their infancy in Malaysia. Because of this, many contractors are still unaware of the execution of constructability activities during the early phases in construction, by making the subcontractors more involved in the process. An extensive literature review was conducted and recommendations on how to adopt the other CII best practices are discussed. Three different ways to adopt the best practices in Malaysian construction industry are by looking at other countries„ approaches through case studies, roles played by government agencies, and by virtue of iterations of their successes and failures. It is believed the benefits of adopting these best practices will bring the Malaysian construction industry to a higher level. The Effect Of Time On The Performance Of Fly Ash As Backfill Materials For Embankment Construction, Muhardi, A. Marto, K.A. Kassim, A.M. Makhtar, W.Z. Yaacob Fly ash, the by-products of coal burning to produce electricity, has been used for many years in construction. High shear strength, low compressibility, self-hardening, and relatively lightweight of compacted fly ash makes the material to be suitable as a replacement for backfill material in embankment construction. This paper investigates the effect of time on the performance of fly ash embankment model constructed on very soft soil and hard soil foundations. The model tests were carried out using mini-centrifuge modelling of 0.5m radius. Embankment, constructed using residual soils, was used as a comparison to the fly ash embankment. The paper concludes that the use of fly ash as backfill material for embankment on hard soil can give a tremendous effect in terms of decreased settlement and increased height of prototype, safety factor and time of failure, compared to the residual soils embankment. Comparing the settlement of fly ash embankment at 28 days with residual soils embankment, it is observed that the settlement was reduced by about 6% for embankments on very soft soils and 75% for embankment on hard soils. An Eigenvalue-Based Defect Recognition Method and its Application to Bridge Coating, Sangwook Lee As existing infrastructure systems are aged and deteriorated rapidly, state agencies started searching for more advanced ways to maintain their valuable assets to the acceptable level. One of them is the application of digital image processing. Recently, in the civil engineering domain, digital image processing methods have been developed to the areas of pavement conditions, underground pipeline inspection, and steel bridge coating assessment. The main reasons to count on the advanced technology are due to such advantages as accuracy, objectivity, speed, and consistency. These distinct advantages have brought attention to state agencies to minimize the shortcomings of existing inspection practices. This paper deals with a digital image processing method to apply it to the evaluation of steel bridge coating conditions. Infrastructure condition assessment can be made more accurately and quickly with the aid of computerized processing system. Also, people can expect more consistent inspection results than human visual inspections. The developed method in this paper can be used to recognizing the existence of bridge coating rust defects. An automated defect recognition method can make a decision whether a given digitized image contains defects. Functional Requirement Oriented Modeling Framework for Schedule Generation, Q. Nguyen, D. Chua and K. Yeoh Construction requirements represent a project‟s prerequisites and constraints. From the scheduling perspective, these construction requirements directly transform into schedule constraints, which govern construction schedules. Construction requirements not only originate from client and design requirements but are also affected by technologies or construction methods. Critical impacts of construction methods and requirements on schedules should be investigated and integrated in the planning phase in order to achieve feasible schedules. This paper presents a modeling framework for schedule generation that helps planners incorporate both construction methods and requirements. This framework further provides a modeling method to translate complex construction requirements into schedule constraints. The proposed scheduling approach will help improve the feasibility and practicality of construction schedules. Session 2A: Theoretical and Conceptual Aspects of Innovation (Boardroom 1) Session Chair: Dino Bouchlaghem From Border Skirmishes to Strategic Alliances: Barriers to Design Innovation and Collaboration Between Architects and Engineers, and An Opportunity for Moving Beyond Them, Dan Willis, Tim Simpson, Rebecca Henn, Samuel Hunter, Matthew Parkinson, David Celento, Russell Barton and Sandeep Purao To elucidate the advantages and pitfalls of collaboration between architecture and engineering, we attempt to map the “terrain” of these two disciplines of design. We begin by exploring the cultural geography of the disciplines/professions, and then identify a few significant areas of conflict. We discuss how and when the two disciplines began to diverge and explore the resulting ideologies that now dominate each profession. We also investigate the resistance to these dominant ideologies within each profession and in the field of building construction. While it is only one possible approach to finding a new language that allows for a collaborative exploration of the “contested territory” between the disciplines, we find in the language and beliefs most commonly associated with craftwork an opportunity for innovative design thinking that “bridges the gap” between the disciplines of architecture and engineering. The Impact of a Strategy for Increased Intra-Organisational Innovation in a Construction Firm, N. Shaw, D. Bouchlaghem and P. Demian The need for increased innovation and improvement in the construction sector is well documented. In response to this many construction firms are seeking ways to exploit innovation in a more proactive and conscientious manner. However, there is little practical guidance for professionals and progress towards the optimization of intra-organizational innovation in construction is widely considered to have been slow. The research presented in this paper forms part of an ongoing effort to bridge this gap and provides a pre- and post-intervention evaluation of a strategy for increased intra-organizational innovation in a large UK construction, facilities and associated services firm. Good practice developed in other industry sectors assisted in the formulation of the strategy, which included a process for the capture, selection, development and exploitation of ideas, a simple web-based system for supporting the process, and a network of „innovation champions‟ responsible for driving the initiative within the firm. Pre- and postintervention evaluations provided an insight into the impact of the strategy on employee perceptions and innovation performance, suggesting that the strategy for innovation significantly impacted idea input and perceived support for innovation across the firm. However, the research also revealed that the strategy was better suited to supporting modes of innovation that were characterized by a longer-term focus, sitting outside the traditional boundaries of a project, rather than the project-orientated and incremental modes of innovation that are known to prevail in the construction context. Firms seeking to optimize intra-organizational innovation will need to address all modes of innovation and therefore a more holistic solution is called for. Ongoing research will aim to address this need and further explore the nature of innovation in the construction firm. Is Fragmentation of the UK Construction Industry the Main Barrier to Innovation? The Architects' View?, Shamil Naoum, Kevin Lock and Daniel Fong There is much concern about the lack of innovation in the UK construction industry in comparison with other industries. According to the UK innovation surveys commissioned by the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), the construction industry lags behind other UK sectors in innovation. This paper reports on past and recent literature on innovation, in particular, it provides a follow up to the study of Bowley (1966) into the resistance to change in the British Building Industry. Primary research in the form of a questionnaire was carried out in conjunction with secondary research. In total, 29 architects were surveyed and analysis of the results suggests that the „attitude‟ of the construction industry and the „risk‟ of the new innovation were perceived to be the main barriers to innovation, more so than the „fragmentation‟ of the industry. The perceived main driver of integration does not instantly stand out as a solution to removing these barriers. Invention to Innovation: The Implementation of Innovative User-Based Construction Technologies in the Australian Construction Industry, Jacquetta Shelton, Chuan Chen This research aims to assess whether the Australian construction industry is providing an environment where user-based innovation is being supported and implemented. The users of construction technologies such as builders, contractors and trades people have been acknowledged as sources of potentially important innovations and modifications. These innovations may be in the form of safer, less labour intensive or cheaper methods and processes. Improved construction methods and technologies are likely to have cost incentives at the subcontractor level by providing a more efficient workforce. An explorative study was undertaken to provide an insight into actual experiences of the implementation of user-based innovation. The data was collected through a number of face-to-face semi structured interviews providing case studies on multiple aspects of the implementation of innovative construction technologies. The cases studied provided a cross section of technologies, including a product, two tools and two system technologies. The main motivations behind developing the technologies were that of problem solving; finding a better, cheaper, quicker way. The associated industries of manufacturing and retail, as well as consultants within the construction industry provided the greatest barriers to implementation. This research provides a better understanding of the factors that are preventing the successful implementation of user based innovative construction technologies. Optimization Of Resource Leveling In Shipbuilding With Variation-Float Tradeoffs, Z. Liu, D. K. H. Chua, E.L.S. Abbott, K.W. Yeoh Shipbuilding is a complex production system characterized by the complicated work and organization structure, very prolonged production lead time, and heterogeneous process and resource requirements. Thus effectively planning all involved activities presents a challenging task and requires the timely coordination between the successive building stages at the plant level and effective resource allocation at the workshop level. Besides that, multi-project environment further complicates the overall planning work. With the breakdown list of all projects and their corresponding building strategies, the optimal aggregate production plan for each production stage must consider the available resources, particularly the critical ones. Starved or jammed production should be avoided by leveling production so that resources are used on a more constant basis over the planning horizon. The operation to reduce variation in resource usage is to adjust production rate by forcing work items in the over-planning period to be started earlier and thus introduce the float or slack between current and subsequent stages. However, the manual iteration of “cut and try” would induce a mass of undesirable inventory/backlogging for completed items, which would consume the resource of limited space and contravene the concept of lean construction. Meanwhile, the logical building sequence for the project could not be consistently maintained. In this study, we focus on the intermediate-range production planning in a multi-project environment and propose a mathematical model to capture resource leveling problem in shipbuilding, which aims to minimize variation in terms of critical resource usage and meanwhile minimize the float/inventory issue. In the view of combinatorial optimization nature and computational complexity, a genetic algorithm-based solver has been developed to tackle the twoconflicting-objective optimization problem. Based on the result from case study, the proposed algorithm has shown certain efficiency and effectiveness in searching Pareto front, along which alternative optimal solutions for various scenarios can be observed. Session 2B: Developments in Information and Knowledge Management (Boardroom 2) Session Chair: Patricia Carrillo A Construction Safety Monitoring System Using Building Information Modeling and Radio Frequency Identification-Based Real-Time Locating System, Kwang-pyo Lee, Hyunsoo Lee, Moonseo Park, and Hyun-Soo Kim To enhance efficiency, construction projects have concentrated upon the reduction of costs and time. The ineffective state of safety management in many construction companies is indicative, however, of the lack of priority given to safety management. Indeed, safety management, which is based on safety standards and rules, currently emphasizes management only after an incident. Although safety management has improved and fewer accidents occur compared to the past, the increasingly large scale and complexity of recent construction projects result in accidents of greater severity and that involve greater monetary loss. A paradigm shift is occurring, however; the priorities of the construction industry increasingly include safety management in addition to the costs and duration of projects. In response, this study proposes a more efficient system for safety management that integrates techniques such as a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)-based Real Time Locating system (RTLS), monitoring based on Building Information Modeling (BIM), alarming technology, and Data Mart Module. The proposed system increases the effectiveness and applicability of safety management through its ability to manage the human factor and to adapt to changing situations on the construction site. In fact, a safety manager using this system will be able to systematically apply advanced and human-factor dominated safety management. Computer-Supported Collaborative Design in Global Virtual Engineering Team Networks, Gabriel Peschiera, Lasse Korpela and John Taylor Managing increased design and construction complexity, dynamic uncertainties and diversity of cultures on global projects is creating significant challenges for design and construction firms. Researchers have separately examined the impact of globalization and of computerbased tools on design and construction activities. However, little research has focused on the intersection of these two research trends. Computer-supported collaborative work tools have the potential to integrate the design activities of globally distributed teams, but need to substantially evolve to allow the complex task interdependent work of engineers to be executed effectively. In this paper we discuss the development of a global virtual design team collaborative work environment for a global project design course jointly taught between Columbia University, the Indian Institute of Technology (Madras), and the Helsinki University of Technology. The exercise of developing this virtual collaborative workspace raised fundamental questions these work environments must address to support new forms of distributed collaborative design. Results from the first running of the course are presented, as well as current efforts to convert the global virtual collaborative workspace into a research instrument to study how engineers work collaboratively in globally distributed virtual teams. Innovating the Design Process: Energy Simulations and Building Information Modeling in the Early Design Stage, Rohan R. Haksar Current technological advancements coupled with the energy crisis and climate change are influencing architectural design and necessitating changes in the design process. Energy simulation software (ESS) has been around for the past 30 years but architects have been wary of using it especially in the early design stage (EDS). This is partly due to the fact that it requires a lot of data for calculations, which is not available at the early design stage. In addition, the simulation results, whether it is text, numbers or even images are not always easy to comprehend with reference to the design, potential design decisions and subsequent changes. Building information modeling (BIM) is another tool which has been used by architects for the past 10 years yet the data from ESS is not easily related to the building model thus undermining the usefulness of BIM as a single comprehensive building data repository and model. At the early design stage, architects require data which will support intuitive decision-making and the current state of ESS does not allow this. Nevertheless, ESS has the potential to impact the design early on by providing information such as climatic data, daylight, shading, ventilation and thermal analysis, Thus it can help the designer incorporate sustainable strategies early on. Moreover, it would be greatly beneficial if ESS data could be visually integrated in the building design information model to allow the architect to read the data with reference to the building model, thus simplifying the decision making process. This paper proposes a visual framework integrating ESS and BIM in the early design stage. To achieve this, it examines the various steps of early design, identifies the required energy simulation and the data relevant at these stages. Eventually, this research proposes a framework of visualizations and the relevant workflows for integrating BIM – ESS in the early design stage. A Web-based Environment for Buildings' Life Cycle Cost Analysis, Masoud Gheisari, Arham Abdullah, Javier Irizarry and Chitrakala Pillai The broadened perspective in the inclusion of operational, maintenance, repair, replacement and disposal costs in addition to the design and construction costs of a construction project is called Life Cycle Costing (LCC). Costing plays a significant role in planning, construction and facilities management. In Malaysia, for estimating the total ownership cost of a new public or private residential housing project, a comprehensive engineering system, the Life Cycle Cost for Multi-Storey Housing (LICCOMS), was developed. All the analysis and evaluation within the LICCOMS is only based on an out of date database and its standalone characteristic would not let its system to be frequently updated with real time data. So the output provided by the standalone LICCOMS cannot be reliable and accurate. To overcome this problem, we proposed a web-based environment based on LICCOMS. This web-based environment gets accurate data for LCC calculations through local or remote embedded databases of some governmental organizations in Malaysia. This web-based environment with highly precise and consistent data will facilitate the local building design professionals to appraise the life cycle performance of building developments in Malaysia. This environment can lead to developing a website for calculation of LCC within Malaysia. Session 2C: Innovative Approaches to Environmentally Conscious Architecture (Ballroom A & B) Session Chairs: Ute Poerschke/Lisa Iulo Innovation in Education: Implementing Environmentally Conscious Design in Architecture Curricula, Lisa Iulo and Ute Poerschke In response to a new consensus about climate change and new accreditation criteria for sustainability and carbon-neutral design issued by the National Architectural Accrediting Board (NAAB), the sole agency authorized to accredit professional degree programs in architecture in the United States, an increasing number of architecture departments are revising and innovating their curricula in order to define environmentally conscious design as a major priority. Recognizing the importance of this discourse, the Pennsylvania State University Department of Architecture hosted a symposium to discuss exemplary and innovating curriculum scenarios for teaching environmentally conscious architecture. The symposium, entitled Environmentally Conscious Design – Educating Future Architects, was held at the Penn State University Park Campus on October 23-25, 2009. Organized by the Department‟s Committee for Environmentally Conscious Architecture (CECA), the symposium brought together experts in teaching environmentally conscious design from nine different universities. Emphasis for discussion was placed on the redefinition and innovation of curriculum content concerning aesthetic, ethical and technical sustainability in architecture and urban design, and the definition of the appropriate structures and mechanisms to ensure the implementation of this knowledge and approach. This paper reflects how a sample of academic institutions recognize the imperative to respond to the discourse of sustainability that is becoming prevalent in architectural practice, in order to stay at the forefront of architectural education. It collects faculty, student, and administrative perspectives, approaches for exemplary curriculum scenarios, and structures for teaching environmentally conscious architecture. Innovation in the Academy: Technology and Form, Ulrike Passe Innovations in science and technology have always influenced architecture. With the rise of industrial mass production at the beginning of the 20th century, the image of the machine shaped the iconic appearance of architecture of the Modern Movement most vividly expressed in Le Corbusier‟s Vers une Architecture (1927). But only in a few cases did these buildings learn from the actual innovations of the technological processes. In most cases progress was mirrored in the buildings as formal imagery (Chris Abel 2004) and constituted a purely visual revolution. Since the late 1970s and the advent of computerized customizable production, new formal trends have emerged and fluid, organic shapes dominate in many high-profile buildings. But again, merely the form has changed. In general, the building systems are not more sophisticated (Koralevic, 2003, p.6). This paper will argue that one cause of this discrepancy between architectural progress and that of science and technology is the dominance of an exclusively visual design culture. Another explanation is the academic orientation of architects to art and the professions self-conscious detachment from building processes. Both of these notions are reflected in the current status of environmental technology pedagogy in US architectural education, which largely developed after an adoption of the French Beaux-Arts pedagogical model. This model favors the studio format with heavy emphasis on design education. Unfortunately, the dominance of form over content is intrinsically related to the disregard for environmental resources and building energy consumption. To overcome this neglect, innovative architectural pedagogy is needed in order to integrate form and technology and to enable architects and engineers to better collaborate with each other. After sketching the development of architectural education in the U.S., this paper will examine the participation of a Midwestern university in the 2009 DOE Solar Decathlon as a case study for integrative design where environmental performance was utilized as a form giving parameter for the design studio and for promoting a more holistic approach to green and sustainable design. Design and Operation of Air-Conditioned Facilities to Reduce Exposure to Ozone Initiated Chemistry Products and Improve Perceived Air Quality, Moshood Olawale Fadeyi This study examines the impact of filtration, ventilation and recirculation rate on concentration of condensed-phase, ozone (of outdoor origin) -derived oxidation products (SOA) in a model room with ventilation system that re-circulates large percentage of its supply air. Additionally, it critically evaluates potential approach for filtering re-circulated air and, also, avoiding the negative consequence of having loaded filters in a ventilation system. Increased recirculation rate not only influences the surface removal rate constant, but also increases the fraction of pollutants removed by building filters. Increased ventilation rate dilutes pollutants with indoor sources and ozone-derived products. Activated carbon filters are more effective at reducing ozone and SOA particle than filters without carbon. Even filter with quarter amount of the standard carbon content of commercially available bag-type stand-alone combination filter incorporating activated carbon significantly improves Perceived Air Quality (PAQ) than filter without carbon. This study has implication on health and building sustainability. Achieving Sustainability and Energy Reduction Through Innovative Lighting System, Kwok Hung Chan Energy consumption has been increasing globally. Being a highly commercial city like Hong Kong, there is no exception. According to the statistics from local government, at least 25% of the total energy consumption goes to lighting. With the worldwide trend in energy saving to target for enhancing sustainability, the adoption of various energy mitigation measures sounds imminent. In this research, we‟ll concentrate on investigating the performance of an essential building services design/equipment, electronic ballast in mitigating energy consumption through (1) practical experiments, (2) accounting techniques such as internal rate of return, total life cycle costs, net present values, and (3) case studies to justify further the technicality and financial approach to be adopted in selecting an appropriate energy reduction measure. Building Commissioning As An Opportunity For Training Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring Algorithms, Mario E. Berges, Lucio Soibelman and H. Scott Matthews In this paper we explore the synergetic relationship that could exist between the building commissioning process and the necessary training for Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring (NILM) algorithms. First we describe the application of NILM as a tool to support building commissioning, by obtaining individual electrical load profiles and equipment health indicators from a single measurement point in the building. Then we argue that, since the training process is usually one of the stumbling blocks for the deployment of NILM technology, taking advantage of the commissioning process for this end could facilitate the procedure. We present a number of ideas for achieving this vision inspired primarily by early results obtained from a residential building in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania where we have installed a prototype NILM system. Session 3A: Innovation in Design (Boardroom 1) Session Chair: Burcu Senyapili An Innovative Approach to E-Learning Space Design in Higher Education Institutions Fadeke Taiye Dare, David Heesom and Paul Olomolaiye The UK Industry is yet to define the most appropriate and effective design parameters for elearning spaces. Design parameters which do exist, focus mainly on cost, budget and timely delivery i.e. the process only not the product. There is therefore a need for an innovative approach to e-learning space design that will address the problems of space efficiency, effectiveness, quality, innovativeness, performance and client satisfaction. This paper thus reports a study that aimed to develop a novel methodology for e-learning space design; that will provide guidance on how to integrate innovative design approaches into the process of delivering e-learning environments in HEI construction. the study focused on the impact of elearning on facilities and design; the design of future spaces and how we get there; the impact of blended learning on space design; designing for the learn anytime, anywhere paradigm; security issues of e-learning and e-learning space design, and the levels of design risk in an elearning infrastructure. This involved identifying key requirements from end users and stakeholders, and documenting analysis of case study examples as possible benchmarks of innovative design in future HEI construction. To obtain a holistic and in-depth understanding of the subject area, a mixed-method research design was adopted involving qualitative and quantitative approaches. A three part forum was carried out at the beginning of the desk studies followed by a pilot survey with 33participants. Site based analysis of 11 HEI‟s, 10 interviews and questionnaire survey were executed. Key findings from initial desk studies suggest that space design could affect learning outcomes. Forum participants‟ thought that it “forced fresh thinking bringing to light the need for collaboration with other HEIs.” Adding that dialogue between stakeholders, designers and users was a way forward, which could be adopted as part of future strategic estate planning in HEI construction. Analysis of results from the case studies, interviews and the survey were done using grounded theory method. The questions of how to integrate innovative design solutions into future e-learning spaces, the user requirements, are major issues which this paper attempts to address. Review on the Status of the Design Excellence Agenda in Association to the Development of the NHS Estates, Z. Ren, D. Jenkins and L. Jiang The National Health Service (NHS) plays major and fundamental role to provide vital healthcare to the local communities in the UK. To achieve this purpose, it is imperative for the NHS to create an efficient and effective environment to house its respective services in order to support the patient experience and enhance the healing process. NHS places a strong emphasis on a design excellence agenda and strategies of which has been devised to fully support the delivery of quality healthcare building projects. This research investigates the design excellence agenda in connection with healthcare organisation established in Wales. Subject matters are identified and reviewed to closely examine the processes and mechanisms being established to. This research inspected issues through both primary and secondary research techniques and focuses towards the principle objective of reviewing the status of the design Excellence agenda in association to the development of the Welsh NHS Estate by offering key evidence from a healthcare design perspective. Re-Shaping Domesticy: Dynamics of Appropriation, Burcu Senyapili and Giorgio Gasco Appropriation comprises the entire range of small-scale, personal-level domestic interventions in response to the mutant social context. Thanks to those appropriations, the modified house allows for subjective interpretations within a series of prefixed objective norms. A study is conducted to find out the appropriations done by young people in order to perform specific activities in an exemplary contemporary domestic environment. The findings put forth that even in spacious environments, ruling out any effective superimposition of activities within the house, there is need for new or converted spaces for the young people. This need may be explained by the compartmentalization of the house following the traditional activitydomesticity sequence. This subdivision does not flex to fulfil the new emerging needs, which are alien to the regular meet-eat-sleep alignment. Based on the findings of the study, this paper asserts that the traditional domestic structure of standardized activities is at the peak of change. Architecture needs to respond to this change by focusing on the changes of the regular family and their life style. If not, then the responses will be detached from the daily trends of living, and be more oriented towards fashion. This paper argues that there lies an innovative challenge for architectural design practice in adapting to the context of changing domestic trends and finding spatial solutions within the boundaries of the house. Value-Focused Design, Glenn R. Bell, James C. Parker, Andreas F. Phelps In this paper the authors propose that designers in the US Architectural, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry can increase their effectiveness and contribution to the built environment, exploit new developments in technology, drive rational industry reform, and better compete in a global environment by embracing value-focused design. Value-focused design strives to optimize the value of a constructed work to the key project stakeholders by evaluating the ratio of performance (or utility) to cost. We discuss various measures of performance and cost, as well as the challenges in quantifying them. While analysis of value is typically an ongoing, dynamic process during a project‟s development, we recognize that value is best created early in the project‟s conceptualization. Effective early project conceptualization requires creative collaboration amongst designers, suppliers, builders, and key project stakeholders. New simulation tools allow us to assess the value of various design options as never before. Leading such creative, collaborative processes may require a new breed of project professional. Evaluation of Rapid Prototyping Materials for Selection Based on Material Properties, Heather Christensen, Christopher Raebel and Michael McGeen The purpose of this research is to explore the use of rapid prototyping materials which could be used to create models utilized in structural engineering design processes. Structural analysis is an essential aspect of engineering design. Analysis techniques lead to enhanced designs, as well as failure prediction and prevention. In-house steel connection testing requires acquisition of steel, construction time and labor, and finally destructive testing which can be a lengthy and costly process. Rapid prototyping (RP) creates prototypes and fully functional models using 3D Computer Aided Drafting (CAD) software and various plastic resins and powders in an additive layering process. RP performed in-house would not eliminate steel connection testing altogether, but prototypes would allow earlier discovery of design flaws and changes in design without needing to reorder steel. In order to accurately use RP parts in connection testing, a relationship needs to exist between the material properties of various plastics and steel. This research utilizes stress-strain curves and moduli of elasticity, found via tensile loading, to determine the strength properties of the plastics examined. The plastic most resembling steel would be used in future structural connection modeling. This research explores the use of RP materials for models used in place of actual steel parts. This would be done by using reduced forces on RP connections found from mathematical plastic-steel correlations. RP would not replace steel connection testing entirely, only the iterative steps leading up to the final connection design. Finite element analysis (FEA) was done to locate theoretical stress concentrations in tensile test specimens. However, computerized FEA is a theoretical process based on mathematical algorithms and material properties assumptions. FEA could be compared to a photo stress analysis (PSA) of the specimens. PSA, a technique based on the concept of photo-elasticity, is a non-destructive and highly-efficient method of stress analysis with great capability to be used with rapid prototyping. Photo stress analysis shows stress concentrations in a physical specimen, which could be avoided in the structural component design. PSA requires specific materials or coatings that are compatible with RP materials. Session 3B: Virtual Models and e-Readiness (Boardroom 2) Session Chair: Paul Stephenson Integration of Virtual Models and Physical Construction, Abiola Akanmu, Chimay Anumba, John Messner Virtual models have proven to be highly beneficial and of great significance to the building and construction industry. One of the key benefits of developing a virtual model of a construction project is that it enhances reduced project schedule and cost, as errors and conflicts are detected and resolved prior to the commencement of construction. However, there are still much unutilized potentials of virtual models, especially in the construction and operation phases. The construction process is not self-regulating and requires real-time monitoring if events are to conform to set standards or plan. Thus, it is expected that an integration or link between virtual models and physical construction will enhance progress monitoring thereby enabling greater control, improved predictability of outcomes, and more intelligent, sustainable facilities. This paper describes a review of existing approaches to the integration of virtual models and the physical construction for a variety of purposes, focusing initially on progress monitoring and control of construction projects. It discusses different enabling technologies, highlighting the suitability of each for facilitating real time data collection and bidirectional consistency. Using Second Life for Life Cycle Costing and Wayfinding in Virtual Buildings, Raju Pathmeswaran, Vian Ahmed, Clementinah Rooke and Carl Abbott The rapid developments in Internet and the collaborative technologies enabled the rise of online computer games and recently a new media form, the virtual worlds. The emergence of virtual world applications such as Second Life provide potential for supporting architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) communities in new ways. Second Life is being used as a platform for education by colleges and universities and also as a medium for communication and collaboration with customers by various companies. It has also a great potential for research in social and behavioural sciences and also in architecture, construction and engineering. Real life architectural firms are also starting to explore the use of Second Life to enhance their realworld business. It is especially appealing for architects looking for feedback on buildings long before construction begins. Second Life allows collaborative design and creation of content where same objects can be simultaneously designed with several other residents. Buildings can be designed by considering human behaviour within the space and how users interact with the environment. Second Life can also be used for developing the understanding of wayfinding and to test its strategies within the virtual buildings. This paper first introduces Second Life and then investigates the potential of Second Life in the built environment discipline, with applications in AEC. The paper also presents a case study of a local hospital which is used for developing a virtual hospital in the Second Life. History and strategies of wayfinding have also been discussed with the virtual hospital model where the new wayfinding strategies are being tested. Second Life model of the hospital will engage hospital users, staff, patients and members of public to assess their wayfinding behaviour through the virtual environment. The paper also explains the virtual world innovations in terms of modelling hospital environment, considering all the spatial and wayfinding barriers from the cognitive, behavioural and visualisation points of the view of the end-users, in order to promote an ideal setting of hospital. Identification of Key Process Areas in the Production of an E-Capability Maturity Model for UK Construction Organisations, Robert Eadie, Srinath Perera and George Heaney Uptake of e-procurement by construction organisations has been slow (Martin, 2008). Positive ebusiness achievements in other industries, point towards the potential for the construction industry to accomplish similar results. Since the Modernising Government White paper set targets through best value indicator BV157 for implementation in the public sector, government has supported many initiatives encouraging e-procurement. These are based on documented efficiency and cost savings (Knudsen, 2003; Minahan and Degan, 2001; McIntosh and Sloan, 2001; Martin, 2008). However, Martin (2003, 2008) demonstrates only a modest increase in the uptake of eprocurement in the UK construction industry. Alshawi et al (2004) identified the significance of possessing a model to sustain the embedment of any business process within an organisation. Saleh and Alshawi (2005) describe a number of model types used to gauge maturity in an organisation. One of these models is the capability maturity model. Paulk et al (1993) released the Software Capability Maturity Model (CMM) in 1991. Since then many CMM‟s have evolved. This paper reports on how a CMM based on Drivers and Barriers to e-procurement identified in Eadie et al (2010a, 2010b) can be developed to gauge the maturity of an organisation in relation to e-procurement. This paper presents details of a research project which used factor analysis to produce a set of Key Process Areas (KPA) from the drivers and barriers identified in Eadie et al (2010a, 2010b). These KPAs were then subjected to a mapping process linking them to maturity levels to develop a CMM to analyse the e-procurement capability of construction organisations. This termed as ereadiness of organisations will indicate the current state of a construction organisation in terms of its readiness to carry out e-procurement. The paper describes in detail the identification of the KPA‟s Information Technology (IT) In the UK Construction Industry: How Is It Working?, Paul Stephenson and Rebecca Strachan The adoption of information technology (IT) to support e-commerce and e-business is becoming common place for many organisations in various industrial sectors, both in the UK and overseas. The use of such technology for on-line transactions and internal business communications is often seen as an essential part of an organisation's operating characteristics in order to promote efficiencies and services to project participants and clients. However, in the UK construction sector, the extent of technology usage to support business operations is far from clear. To assess the current take up of technology, an industrial survey was carried out amongst the top 200 contracting organisations across UK construction. Specific issues addressed in the survey included company IT structures, communications and information networks, software adoption in support of construction processes, wireless products and mobile computing technologies. Additionally, barriers to the use of IT were also addressed as part of the research. The findings revealed an awareness and appreciation of the technologies available, but with varied adoption amongst certain contractors and a reluctance to be at the forefront of technological developments and usage. Session 3C: Delivering Sustainability/Innovations in Sustainable Construction (Ballroom A & B) Session Chairs: Esra Kurul Dash: A Quest to Collect More and Better Quantifiable Data for Green Buildings, Aurora L. Sharrard There are currently many research efforts underway that collect robust and extensive building performance data. However existing project databases are often limited in scope by developer, owner, company, and /or region. Additionally, holdings of quantitative building information metrics are very commonly limited to specific categories, with little or no cross-over (e.g., real estate, energy, operations, or productivity). With so many existing databases and research studies, data collection methods are not consistent, making it extremely difficult to compare building performance across datasets. An existing effort to help address the many issues with information about buildings is DASH: Database for Analyzing Sustainable and High Performance buildings. DASH‟s mission is to facilitate consistent collection of quantitative data about green, sustainable, and high performance buildings through collaboration of existing building information databases, organizations, companies, and researchers. DASH is co-managed by Green Building Alliance and the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). DASH‟s lofty goal is to increase the quantity of, quality of , and access to information about green, sustainable, and high performance buildings by creating an building metric information clearinghouse, identifying gaps in currently collected building data, developing consistent protocols for data collection and reporting, and establishing a national green, sustainable, and high performance building data repository that will support independent assessment and analysis of investment, operation, and occupant-related building metrics. Collaborative volunteer work currently includes national stakeholders from real estate, industry, consulting, academia, national laboratories, and government in a variety of engagement levels: DASH Consortium, Advisory Board, and Corresponding Committee. This paper summarizes the DASH work to date, including an update on the progress of the four DASH working groups (Clearinghouse, Protocols, Repository, and Marketing and Outreach); the DASH business planning effort, which was completed in October 2009; and future plans for ultimate creation and operation of the DASH database. Organizing a large, national, collaborative effort that aims to increase the quantity and quality of building information data is not without both its technical and social challenges, some of which are addressed herein. Implementation of Waste Management Plan: Importance, Contents, Procedures, Problems and Solutions, O.J. Oladiran Waste management plan (WMP) is an innovative approach for waste minimization. Its usage in Nigerian projects is not rampant and with little benefits. The concept and practice of WMP is not detailed and elaborate in Nigeria as in some developed countries such as USA and UK. An inquiry into the concept and procedures for implementation of WMP in selected countries will be beneficial to construction projects in Nigeria and like countries. This research proposes to identify the various problems associated with the implementation of waste management plans (WMP) and a recipe of solutions to these problems to facilitate its usage in Nigerian construction projects. It also to examine the importance of WMP, contents and procedures for its implementation from previous works in some countries. A research methodology, consisting of a literature review and a field study, was designed to achieve the research objectives. The literature review investigated the importance of WMP; its contents and procedures for appropriate implementation in San Mateo, Los Angeles, UK and Nigeria. The field survey involves the usage of a questionnaire administered to the targeted population involving private and public construction companies in Nigeria through convenience sampling technique. Data were retrieved and coded manually from the questionnaires after they were returned. These data were tabulated and frequency count was used to identify the rate of occurrence of the problems and the usage of the solutions suggested. As many as 18 respondents suggested 22 problems facing the implementation of WMP while 16 respondents proffered 22 solutions to these problems. Nine out of the 18 respondents who submitted the problems suggested cost/capital involved in executing WMP while ten out of the 16 respondents who proffered solutions posit education/training/ enlightenment of staff on WMP as solution. It is also discovered that various governments in the world are recognizing the importance of and the need for WMP on construction projects. The study therefore recommends inter-alia that intensive awareness and training programmes for staff of construction companies be embarked on to combat these problems of implementation of WMP on construction projects in Nigeria as it is done in other countries investigated. Estimating Productivity Emission Rates and Cost Emission Rates of Diesel Construction Equipment, W. Rasdorf. P. Lewis and H.C. Frey Diesel construction equipment is used extensively in building the nation‟s infrastructure. This equipment emits high levels of pollutants, including nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and particulate matter. Currently, there is not an effective method to determine emissions estimates of building projects prior to beginning construction. As a first step to obtaining such a method, this paper presents an innovative approach that may be used to estimate the emissions footprint of a construction activity based on equipment emission rates, equipment production rates, and activity unit costs by using two emissions factors: productivity emission rate and cost emission rate. Productivity emission rates are emission factors based on units of production, such as grams of pollutant emitted per cubic yard of excavation (g/cy). Cost emission rates are emission factors based on the cost of the construction activity, such as grams of pollutant emitted per dollar of construction cost (g/$). This methodology is demonstrated by a simple case study of a bulldozer performing a topsoil stripping activity. Individual results are compared for two bulldozers with engine sizes of 200 and 300 horsepower while working under both ideal and adverse site conditions. The average productivity emission rates range from 0.22 g/cy for hydrocarbons to 447 g/cy for carbon dioxide. The average cost emission rates range from 0.20 g/$ for hydrocarbons to 397 g/$ for carbon dioxide. Recommendations for the use of this methodology in determining and improving construction air pollution emissions estimates are also provided. Improving Organisations Carbon Emissions Reduction: The UK Government’s Policies Perspectives, Emioshor Itoya, Ashraf El-Hamalawi, Katrina Hazell, Matthew Frost and Stephen Ison It is generally believed that the current mode of business operation particularly in the built environment is unsustainable. This is particularly true in areas of natural resource consumption, energy use and waste management. To this end, energy saving, carbon emissions reduction and efficient use of resources are now priorities for construction supply chain organisations. Supply chains are required to demonstrate potential to reduce both direct and indirect carbon footprints within the limit of their operations. Investment decisions on infrastructure must now account for carbon and financial costs in a balanced manner and carbon reduction performance is now a major part of tender selection criteria together with a need to deliver value for money as part of the UK government‟s projects procurement strategies. The need to deliver sustainable solutions and carbon emission reduction in the UK‟s construction market poses business challenges and opportunities requiring collaborative public and private sector solutions. The public sector is leading the approach since government-led construction projects emit significant amounts of carbon. To meet its needs, the Government is employing stringent policy measures to encourage process-driven organizations (such as the construction industry) to rethink their business delivery strategies, models and activities within environmental, economic and social limits. These measures inherently present challenges and opportunities; though imperfectly understood by the industry and its professionals. This paper thus provides a brief overview of the sources of carbon emissions, factors driving carbon emissions reduction within the UK‟s construction sector, existing and future UK‟s Government policies and legislative frameworks and business opportunities within the context of the UK‟s construction sector. The paper then evaluates how these Government policies can impact on the business environment with particular reference to organizations within the construction. By understanding and tackling these issues, businesses will be able to enhance their potential by developing robust corporate strategy to meet the risk and opportunities that businesses need to manage in the future to enhance significant commercial advantage. Although the paper concentrates on measures within the UK, it also provides some guidance for global businesses to understand the new criteria to be applied to meet the needs of this new agenda. Incorporating System Complexity in Sustainability Assessment for Civil Infrastructure Systems: An Innovative Approach, B. Alsulami and Sherif Mohamed Sustainable development (SD) is a concept with multi-dimensional aspects. Through a pattern of resource use, SD aims to enhance both economic and social growth, while minimizing negative environmental impacts. Vital contributors to SD are the civil infrastructure systems (CIS) which have a huge impact on the spatial and temporal dimensions. Examining the performance sustainability of CIS requires an interdisciplinary approach involving social, environmental, economic, and engineering sciences. This hard and complex process necessitates a proper assessment of the diverse conditions under which the CIS operates. Nevertheless, to date, many attempts have been made to develop sustainability performance assessment frameworks for CIS. All of these frameworks have failed to consider two key facts underpinning the SD concept, namely the interaction between sustainability aspects; and the temporal inter-relation between different life cycle phases for CIS. This paper introduces a novel approach utilizing fuzzy cognitive mapping to model the interaction among sustainability indicators in the context of CIS. The proposed approach considers system complexity through modelling dynamic interaction among sustainability indicators, and the dynamics interaction between the CIS itself and its neighbourhood. Also, it considers the temporal inter-relationship between the different life cycle phases for the CIS, by adopting life cycle-based sustainability indicators. Session 4A: Innovation in Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) (Boardroom 1) Session Chair: Sam Chan Contractual And Policy Challenges To Developing Ecocities, Asanga Gunawansa Development of ecocities is one of the recent responses to climate change. What is envisaged in such developments is the creation of cities that are responsive to the surrounding environment in terms of pollution control, sustainable land use, mitigation of climate change and adaptation to changing climate conditions. Development of such cities from scratch or the conversion of existing cities into ecocities will be no easy task. The enormous financial and technological resources required for such developments may lead governments to rely of private sector participation in the development and management process of such cities. This paper argues that the concept of developing ecocities requires not only the successful completion of a project, but also the long term maintenance of the sustainable features and their acceptance by the public. Thus, the paper points out that, in addition to the environmental sustainability concerns, the financial viability of the project, cultural considerations, community needs, capacity for future maintenance of the city, and the availability of a suitable regulatory and administrative framework for the administration of the city, are important considerations. Further, the paper argues that the use of traditional Public-Private-Partnership (PPP) model of project development may not be a suitable vehicle for developing ecocities. Public Private Partnership: An Innovation Solution to Malaysia Construction Industry, K. K. Ismail, S. Saidan-Khaderi, R. Takim, A.H. Nawawi Public Private Partnership has gained much prominence globally as a vital mode for the undertaking of public sector facilities and infrastructure projects construction for a host of reasons. The move towards this mode was motivated by several reasons, specifically, the need to ease financial constraints, innovation solution, efficiency of management skills, attaining value for money, and tremendous challenges in knowledge based for delivery of public project. In the Ninth Malaysian Plan, the government had the foresight to employ public private partnership (PPP) as an innovative method to address some of the restrictions in enhancing the efficiency, innovation solution and quality of public services. PPP is seen as an extremely viable alternative that can significantly help facilitate project clients and private sectors to obtain value for money, innovation solution and risk allocation, enable the public sectors to exploit private sector finance and expertise. The objective of this paper is to uncover the consequence of PPP implementation in Malaysia through a brainstorming workshop among the Malaysian academia and industry players (i.e., Universiti Teknologi MARA, International Islamic University, University Malaya, and Construction Industry Development Board). In total 52 participants were involved constituting a response rate of 50%. The results were analysed by means of content analysis techniques. The findings show that the concepts of PPP in Malaysia were lagging behind as practiced by the UK and Australia. The absence of 1) PPP guideline, 2) lack of appropriate competitive tendering mechanism 3) ineffective management 4) absence of key performance indicators (KPI), 5) lack of transparency, 6) inappropriate of training and education for PPP and 7) inadequate legal and regulatory framework in project implementation are the core criticisms towards PPP in Malaysia. Therefore, drawing from the findings, the concept of PPP could be more enviable within construction stakeholders in Malaysia by developing a clear and concise guideline to govern PPP schemes. Mega-Collaboration, Mega-Coordination: An Anatomy of the Organizational Framework of Expo 2010 Shanghai China, Ying Deng and S.W. Poon For decades, an increasing number of researchers have been focusing on mega-project development. Nevertheless, spotlighted cases predominantly come from the developed economic systems, which results in a lack of serious examinations of cases in the emerging economic powerhouse of East Asia with ample practical experiences. The discrepancy between the enormous practical opportunities and scarce academic contributions in China stands as a most disturbing problem among others. This paper presents a case study of Expo 2010 as a latest Chinese mega-project development. Drawing from domestic and international experiences, Chinese Central Government and Shanghai Municipal Government jointly put in place a “sandwich” organizational framework, featuring Shanghai Expo Bureau as the coordination headquarters in facilitating the unprecedented multi-agency collaboration. Based on extensive documentary and empirical evidence, this paper revolves around the formation and evolution of the innovative model, for which future organizers of its like may find useful to devise or adapt to fit their own particular circumstances. Effects of a Lack of Support for Public Private Partenerships, The Swedish Case, Kristian Widén and Stefan Olander Sweden is part of a small European minority in the perceived societal gain of PPP. After a pilot PPP project in late 1990‟s no additional project has been started in Sweden. Although there is interest from both public infrastructure clients and construction companies the national government has very clearly stated that infrastructure projects should be procured in a traditional way where all funding should come from the national budget. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how a lack of support for governmental interests in PPP solutions affects the innovative climate of infrastructure investments. Broadly defined, PPP solutions are arrangements where the public sector together with a private partner engages in a long-term cooperation to solve a public need. The opponents in Sweden base their arguments on the viewpoint that it if the state cannot finance a well needed infrastructure project within the national budget there is no need for a private initiative since the state can borrow funds on better terms than a private actor. However, the proponents see PPP as way of not only financing well needed project but also as a way of improving the innovative climate of the infrastructure sector. In short, the opponents only see PPP as an alternative way of financing public projects while the proponents see PPP as an opportunity to improve performance of infrastructure facilities by long-term partnerships and incentives to adopt new and innovative solutions in construction and maintenance. The study presented here shows that the main effects of a lack of PPP solutions is the following: First, the time from an identified need until finished project becomes very long since each project needs to fit in the yearly national budget. Secondly, when national funds are insufficient, well needed infrastructure projects are delayed in the planning process often with no definite new time plan, and very rarely does the government borrow additional funds. Thirdly, there is a tendency to divide large infrastructure facilities in smaller entities in order to fit them in the national budget, which has the effect that the full benefits of the investment are delayed. Finally, and maybe most importantly, the Swedish government‟s reluctance to adopt PPP solutions and to finance infrastructure projects in small entities, promotes traditional design and build contracts with very small incentives for adopting new innovative solutions to improve the construction process. Transaction Cost In Public-Private Partnerships, Morteza Farajian and Qingbin Cui Due to limited financial resources of governments, Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) have emerged as one of the most important ways of delivering infrastructure projects. Compared to traditional delivery approaches, PPPs bundle complex investments and service provisions with different project entities in a single long-term contract. Because of these special characteristics, many transactions happen during the life cycle of a PPP project, resulting in an increase in “transaction cost” of the project. Transaction costs are known in economics as the costs associated with executing projects such as searching, negotiating, contracting and enforcing. Earlier studies show transaction costs in other industries are significant. This paper covers a theoretical discussion about the definition of transaction costs and different factors affecting them. It discusses the relationship between number of bidders, procurement time, complexity of the project, program maturity and size of the project with the transaction cost of the project. It develops a general PPP process flowchart for infrastructure projects in the US, and based on the mapping of PPP transaction activities to project costs, presents a cost breakdown structure (CBS) as well as a cost coding system. This accounting model is further justified with a case study about I-595 improvements project in Florida. Session 4B: Building Information Modeling (BIM) Innovations (Boardroom 2) Session Chair: John Messner Analysis of Key Performance Indicators of the Integration Between Building Information Modeling and Enterprise Information Systems, Saumyendu Ghosh, Sam Negahban, Omer Tatari and Miroslaw J. Skibniewski With the increased acceptance and utilization of Building Information Modeling (BIM) by participants in construction projects, interoperability and integration issues between BIM and other existing back-office automation systems like Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) are becoming more prevalent. The integration between BIM and various components of an ERP system such as schedule, estimate, and cost controls can result in flexibility and availability of real-time information required to execute complex capital projects while maintaining integrity between operations and back-office automation systems. In order to establish a cohesive time sensitive information flow throughout their operation, many construction organizations that utilize both BIM and ERP would benefit from the integration of two systems to control project management tasks. In this paper, we aim to study the integration process between BIM and ERP systems. In this context, we analyze the business processes within the construction industry where BIM and ERP can integrate. We review empirical and specialized processes within the construction industry to identify integrated business processes not covered by existing literature. Common Key Performance Indicators (CKPI) that are shared among these varying systems will be identified and analyzed as a metrics in order to establish a better understanding of the operational confluence of data integration between BIM and ERP. A conceptual integration framework is proposed and advantages and disadvantages of the integration methodology are studied in detail. Quantitative Benefits of Building Information Modeling Measured in Construction, Brittany Giel and Raja R.A. Issa The recent emergence of building information modeling (BIM) and the evolution of virtual design and construction (VDC) in the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry is fundamentally changing the process by which buildings are designed and constructed. Though most contractors acknowledge the qualitative benefits of using BIM, the general lack of recorded data on BIM-assisted projects has left little quantifiable evidence of BIM's benefits to be published. This study presents data gathered from two case studies on two sets of similar projects, one a recently constructed BIM-assisted project and the other an earlier, similar project without BIM in order to present quantitative evidence of BIM's benefit to contractors. Data derived from RFI and change order logs and interviews provided by a mid-sized general contractor were analyzed to determine if there was indeed a correlation between utilizing BIM and a reduction in RFIs, change orders, and schedule delays and improved coordination. This research illustrates BIM„s ability to be utilized at different project scales. The results suggest that regardless of the size and scope of the project, the implementation of BIM is a vital tool for coordination. In the two case studies presented, the total number of RFIs was reduced by 34% on a small tilt-wall construction project and 43% on a mid-rise commercial condominium project and the number of change orders was reduced by 40% and 37% respectively. The total cost of change orders and the amount of schedule delay was also considerably less on both BIMassisted projects described. Comparative analysis of the timing of field RFIs showed noticeably earlier occurrences of RFIs on both of the BIM-assisted projects studied. Finally, general suggestions for documenting BIM-assisted construction projects are outlined based on the limitations that were uncovered during this study. Research and Application of Building Information Modelling (BIM) in the Architecture, Engineering And Construction (AEC) Industry: A Review and Direction for Future Research, J. Wong and J. Yang With an increasing level of collaboration amongst researchers, software developers and industry practitioners in the past three decades, building information modelling (BIM) is now recognized as an emerging technological and procedural shift within the architect, engineering and construction (AEC) industry. BIM is not only considered as a way to make a profound impact on the professions of AEC, but is also regarded as an approach to assist the industry to develop new ways of thinking and practice. Despite the widespread development and recognition of BIM, a succinct and systematic review of the existing BIM research and achievement is scarce. It is also necessary to take stock on existing applications and have a fresh look at where BIM should be heading and how it can benefit from the advances being made. This paper first presents a review of BIM research and achievement in AEC industry. A number of suggestions are then made for future research in BIM. This paper maintains that the value of BIM during design and construction phases is well documented over the last decade, and new research needs to expand the level of development and analysis from design/build stage to post-construction and facility asset management. New research in BIM could also move beyond the traditional building type to managing the broader range of facilities and built assets and providing preventative maintenance schedules for sustainable and intelligent buildings. BIM Enabled IPD Paul L. Leonard and Chris Leary For the Autodesk AEC Headquarters project, Autodesk challenged the project team to not only create an innovative LEED Platinum Certified headquarters, expressive of Autodesk‟s mission and values, but also to reinvent the design and construction process with a BIM-enabled Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) agreement….and to deliver the project on budget and on schedule with only eight months from start of programming to occupancy. Examples of the process innovations implemented on this project included real-time schedule and budget updates connected to the BIM design model, collaborative digital visualization, optimization and coordination of the building‟s systems with a comprehensive 3-dimensional BIM model, directto-fabrication from the BIM model to the finished construction assemblies. The IPD agreement also changed the conventional understanding of risk and responsibility. Initial concerns of unknown new risks of a new form of agreement among design and construction professionals quickly gave way to understanding the potential for reducing the risks typically associated with conventional forms of agreement and lead to a highly successful project. An IPD agreement empowers the project team to bring specific expertise to the project sooner, resulting in more informed and durable design decisions. We believe this case study will demonstrate real time industry possibilities today and a path to future innovative approaches to aspects of design, procurement and construction of built environments. Determining the Frequency and Impact of Applying BIM for Different Purposes on Projects, Ralph Kreider, John Messner and Craig Dubler The value of implementing Building Information Modeling (BIM) is challenging to quantify. Few studies illustrate the value of BIM implementation throughout a facility‟s life; especially studies based on different variables such as implementation methods and workflows. This paper presents results from a survey focused on identifying the perceived benefits and frequency of implementation of twenty-five BIM Uses which are currently being implemented on projects in the industry. The BIM Uses span the lifecycle of a project with primary categories of planning, design, construction and operation uses. The applications definitions of the BIM Uses were adopted from a study of BIM Project Execution Planning which identified and developed the descriptions through literature review, interviews and focus groups with industry experts. The survey results indicate that all twenty-five BIM Uses were perceived as beneficial and are currently being used to some degree on projects. Based on the survey, the BIM Uses of 3D Coordination and Design Reviews were perceived as both the most beneficial and the most frequently used applications of BIM. Some BIM uses seem to be underutilized based on having a low frequency of use relative to a high perception of value. The survey results can assist future teams when prioritizing appropriate uses for BIM on their projects. The results have also identified criteria to classify the level of BIM implementation on a project which can support future research efforts to more accurately study the value of BIM implementation on projects. Session 4C: Innovative Approaches to Construction and Project Management (Ballroom A & B) Session Chair: Srinath Perrera Evaluating Contractor Quality Control Under Material and Non-Material Models, Ahmed Khalafallah, Ahmad Elshennawy, Nabeel Yousef, and Mohamed Abdel-Raheem State departments of transportation (DOTs), nationwide, continue to rely on contractors in constructing and maintaining state road networks. As part of the contracting process, each contractor is often required to submit solid, well-defined quality control and quality assurance plans in order to qualify for the job and assure the DOT that the quality of the executed work will be up to the standards. Since in most cases the contractor is responsible for implementing the quality control processes, verification of these quality control processes is necessary to insure that the work is done correctly. The increasing demand for highway construction and quality control verification have forced many DOTs to outsource the verification procedures of contractor quality control (CQC) to overcome the shortage in human resources. Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) is currently debating the implementation of this new model for verifying contractor quality control on a statewide basis. The new model is referred to as the Material Model. This model is currently utilized and tested by only one FDOT district, while the other districts implement the original verification model, referred to as the Non-Material model. The basic difference between the two models is that, under the Material Model, verification testing of CQC is outsourced and conducted by external verification technicians. The implementation of the new model raises some concerns to the DOT about the impact on quality, cost and efficiency of completing the various activities of a project. This paper presents the results of analyzing and comparing 27 quality indicators for material and non-material models. The results indicate that the quality levels provided by both models are comparable. This should prove useful for other State DOTs considering outsourcing quality control activities. An Innovative Technique to Measure Complexity of a Construction Project Activity, Sanjeev Sinha, Bimal Kumar, Avril Thomson, Saurabh Kumar The management of construction projects is influenced by its complexity. This indicates that an understanding of complexity of construction project activities from the perspective of project managers is essential for the execution of a construction project. The purpose of this paper is to propose a methodology for measuring the complexity of a construction project activity by taking into consideration the skill of the worker(s) carrying out that project activity. This innovative technique is based on the concepts learnt in functional decomposition of a design activity. The results obtained from two different project activities carried out by one team of steel erectors in a construction project highlights a strong correlation between complexity of a project activity and the intuitive understanding of the complexity from the perspective of the project manager. The results thus obtained help a project manager in assigning worker (s) to different project activities, based on their complexities. Improving Performance Measurement Practices in Construction Organisation, Aryani Ahmad Latiffi, Patricia Carrillo, Kirti D. Ruikar, Chimay J. Anumba Performance measurement (PM) is being practised by a variety of construction organisations and many are aware of its importance to them. It is necessary for organisations intending to extend businesses locally or globally and as an important ingredient for the strategy development process. The paper contributes to a growing body of knowledge on PM and describes a maturity model to help organisations to structure and organise the PM practices. In particular, it explores the importance of PM and potential tools such as the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) and the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) Excellence Model. These two tools are widely known and the most used in all sectors including construction to measure organisations‟ performance. This paper focuses on current PM practices in two countries, UK and Malaysia. Information on knowledge and understanding of PM, PM processes, criteria, tools and models used and challenges in implementing PM was gathered using semi-structured interviews with twelve large construction organisations. The purpose of interviews was to seek the organisations‟ views on how they approach and conduct PM and derive benefits from it. Results indicate that organisations understand what they can gain from implementing PM. It is being practiced in organisations to help improve business and gain more profits. Involvement of all staff, managerial level to bottom level, is important either directly or indirectly in the PM process. Furthermore, all organisations agreed that the appropriate use of tools and models to measure performance simplifies the process and indicates how organisations can move in future. Financial and non-financial aspects are evaluated and measured for assessing organisations‟ performance. However, PM for organisations remains a challenge. It is seen that organisations face difficulties not only in understanding the PM process but also where appropriate data for measuring performance can be sourced. A critical analysis of the literature reviewed and the interview results lead to ways of helping organisations to target relevant performance measures, based on their maturity level. Confined Site Construction: Issues Regarding Implementation of Health And Safety, John Spillane, Lukumon Oyedele, Ashwini Konanahalli, Enda McKenna and Jason Von Meding The objective of this paper is to identify the various managerial constraints, difficulties and issues encountered and resulting strategies adopted, to aid in the management of the various and often complex health and safety concerns, which occur within a confined construction site. This is achieved through classifying the various managerial burdens encountered with the numerous strategies adopted, to ensure the successful management of such confined environments within the realm of health and safety. Through an extensive literature review and detailed interviews, a comprehensive insight into the health and safety concerns within a confined construction site environment is portrayed. The leading managerial strategies to the management of health and safety on confined construction sites may be listed as follows; (1) Traffic Management Plan, (2) Effective Resource Management Plan, (3) Temporary Facilities Management Plan, (4) Safe System of Work Plan, (5) Site Safety Plan, (6) Design Site Layout, (7) Space Management Plan, (8) Effective Program Management, and (9) Space Scheduling. Based on the research, it can be concluded, that through effective management of these issues identified coupled with implementing the various strategies highlighted; successful management of health and safety within a confined construction site environment is attainable. Innovatively Applying the Principles of Lean Production to Timber Construction, Robert Hairstans The concepts of off-site modern methods of construction (MMC) are considered in this paper relative to the UK timber frame volume house building market. The principles of Lean production are described and using case studies it is demonstrated how these principles can be applied in both the off-site production and on-site construction of timber frame housing. The principle of Lean is continuous improvement and in order to achieve this innovation is required. Going forward therefore timber off-site MMC needs to evolve through further innovation. With respect to this mechanisms to facilitate future innovation are considered including modern Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Session 5A: Innovation in Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) (Boardroom 1) Session Chair: Asanga Gunawansa Hospital Concessions: Incentives For Flexibility, Anneloes Blanken and Geert Dewulf In many countries, infrastructure projects procured under concessions, also known as PFI, DBFMO-, or BO(O)T, are expected to provide solutions to overcome the bottlenecks associated with traditional procurement. Although increasingly implemented, concessions are heavily criticised. This is for the most part related to the issue of flexibility. Flexibility is particularly needed for infrastructure projects in a dynamic context, which implicates a challenge for adopting concessions in the health sector. This applies particularly to developing hospitals, due to the characteristics of hospital facilities, and the negative effects of inflexible hospital buildings. Several authors have expressed concerns as to whether concessions are able to provide the flexibility hospital infrastructure needs in order to secure optimal qualitative hospital facilities and services in the future. However, little research has been conducted on how flexibility is actually perceived in operational hospital concessions while in an increasing number of European countries concessions are used for hospital provision. In this study, the degree to which hospital concessions accommodate flexibility is analyzed in practice. In a case study an assessment is made of the extent to which English and Australian hospital concessions incorporate the ability to respond to changing demand patterns for clinical services in the future, i.e. incorporate mechanisms that provide the flexibility. The overall flexibility of hospital concessions is analyzed within their contexts and assessed on different levels. The outcomes of the case study analysis show that hospital concessions are difficult or expensive to change during their operational phase. This is the result of sub-optimally designed concession contracts and/or procurement processes. It is argued that in order to build hospitals that are able to deliver optimal outcomes over time, health providers should stress flexibility by setting flexible output specifications and using optimal awarding criteria to select a private partner. Besides, the contract should incorporate the right incentive structures for private partners related to flexibility issues that might arise in the future. It is concluded that currently there are hardly any provisions found in hospital concession contracts for dealing with contingencies and little incentives for the private partner are incorporated to re-optimize hospitals in reaction to a fluctuating demand. Private partners are currently being rewarded on the basis of the original estimated demand patterns, and not based on the way they are managing uncertainties or changing demands. Innovation and Partner Strategies in Public Private Partnerships, Athena Roumboutsos and Champika Liyanage One of the major arguments in favour of Public Private Partnerships (PPP) has been the motivation for innovative design which would bring additional benefits in terms of operationability and maintainability to a procured asset and/or a service. However, innovation introduces an additional risk to the endeavor to be handled by the private sector from very early stages onwards in a project, especially during the bidding stage depending on the procurement method applied. This brings to the fore, the challenge of managing innovation risks in public private partnerships. Herein, emphasis needs to be placed upon strategies to be adopted for managing risks from the beginning to the successful conclusion of PPP contracts, whilst supporting the adoption of innovation. The idea of this paper is to describe the strategies developed by the parties involved in a typical PPP using a game theoretic model. In support of the model, an on-line survey is designed. The survey findings, inter alia, confirmed that the overall risks of innovations introduced are reduced when respective experts were included in the consortia during the uptake of innovation. When respective expertise and, therefore, the ability to handle innovation risk, is not included under all cases studied, only low risk innovations were foreseen as plausible private party strategies. Therefore, the issue of synthesizing the bidding consortia is highlighted and considered important for the introduction of innovation in PPPs that would, subsequently, provide value for money for the public sector and project affordability for the private sector. Public Interest Performance in Public-Private Partnerships, Marnix Smit and Geert Dewulf Research and practice consider PPPs to be an important vehicle in urban development. Given the nature of spatial problems, the need for an integrated approach and the interdependences between public and private actors, non-traditional project delivery procedures are required. However, the performance of PPPs, especially in terms of their impact on the public interest, is disappointing. Although the goal of a PPP is to create added value, including in terms of the public interest, the precise relationships and effects involved are often far from clear. Adversaries of PPPs fear that the public interest is endangered by the very concept. The private sector‟s profit seeking goals are seen as being in conflict with public and community values. The blurring of boundaries between the public and private sectors could dissolve accountability, transparency and democratic choice. Project-based partnerships, such as those for urban developments, are especially being questioned in terms of their ability to solve certain public sector problems. In this paper, we first try to provide some clarity on „the public interest‟ as a concept. We show different perspectives on the public interest and, based on a thorough literature review, identify the public interest performance issues within PPPs. An analysis of the construction sector provides us with project characteristics and, based on these, we attempt to derive the most suitable perspective for assessing the public interest in construction issues and, with a focus on the public-private interaction process, specify indicators for performance in terms of the public interest,. Based on a comparative case study of redevelopment processes in railway station areas in the Netherlands, we draw conclusions on the impact of the public-private planning process on public interest performance. Two Sets of External Variables Influencing the Partnership Arrangements, Dynamics, and Performance Levels in Public Private Partnerships Projects Weiwu Zou, Mohan Kumaraswamy, Gangadhar Mahesh and Sam Chan Private financing of large-scale infrastructure projects through public private partnerships (PPPs) has grown in recent decades. This involves long term, complex and very challenging contractual and partnership arrangements and relationships between the relevant public entities and private consortium, which will be influenced by many external and internal variables. The concept of PPP partnership arrangements and dynamics is explored in the context of three dimensions: resources, activities and personal linkages. These three dimensions are conceptualized to cover the entire „linkage‟ spectrum between the public and private parties; and will thus be influenced by many factors and variables. The aim of this paper is to investigate the impacts of two sets of relevant external variables from above that are hypothesized as critical: (1) the level of importance assigned by, and any consequential pressures from the central government; and (2) the extent of any positive and negative public pressures. These can have significant influence on the partnership arrangements and dynamics between PPP project parties, and in turn eventually on the success/ performance levels of the PPP project itself. The reported findings are based on data collected through a wide literature review and interviews of PPP experts in Australia, Singapore, Greece and China. Session 5B: Developments in Information and Knowledge Management (Boardroom 2) Session Chair: Ray Issa Customization of Corporate Accounting Software, B. Nichols, J. Cunningham, M. Bower, C. Smith, M. Lucas, A. Dalla-Piazza Larson Design Group (LDG), an Architecture, Engineering and Surveying firm, purchased and implemented a leading industry Corporate Accounting Software (referenced as CAS throughout the remainder of this paper) in February, 2008. This CAS has modules for accounting, projectfocused features and Client Relationship Management (CRM). Since that time, LDG has customized this off-the-shelf software in order to leverage the power of the information contained in this database to efficiently and effectively manage the business and provide superior service to clients. An Innovative Mobile Application for Construction Programme Managers, M. Fathi, C. Anumba and P. Carrillo Construction programme management is a complex and information-intensive environment. The construction programme management team requires access to construction information in real-time and when needed. The current increasing use of mobile devices offers an opportunity to meet this need. The efficient management of construction programmes is one of the major factors for improving stakeholders‟ satisfaction. An innovative tool is needed in accessing the right information at the right time, especially when spontaneous and urgent decision-making is needed. To this end, the innovative use of a mobile device in delivering information and services to the management team in real-time and based on their current context offers significant benefits. This paper discusses context-aware computing, the enabling technologies for geolocation and the development of a prototype, mobile, context-aware application for construction programme management. The prototype system developed is based on the findings from an earlier study of user requirements which showed that the ability to provide relevant information and services at an appropriate time and at the most appropriate location has the potential to improve the monitoring and control of construction programmes. The prototype system demonstrates the provision of context-specific information and services to construction programme managers using a mobile device. The benefits and limitations of the proposed approach are discussed and conclusions drawn about the potential impact of enhanced information delivery for the efficiency of the construction programme managers. Development of an Innovative Framework for Clients’ Requirements Information Management in Construction Projects, A.K. Jallow, P. Demian, A.N. Baldwin and C.J. Anumba Properly managing client requirements information can contribute to high construction productivity and improve the quality of built facilities. This paper presents an innovative framework which defines a life-cycle approach to managing client requirements information. The Enterprise Requirements Information Management Framework (eRIM) introduces an approach to managing client requirements throughout a project lifecycle. It defines an information-centric and process-oriented approach to requirements management and describes how Information Technology (IT) / Information Systems (IS) can serve as support tool. It supports life-cycle requirements information availability, facilitates coordination, enables visibility, traceability and dependency checking which is crucial for analysing the impact of proposed changes in requirements. The paper includes findings from three case studies of construction projects through observations of meetings and interviews with selected construction practitioners. The results indicate that implementation and incorporation of the framework in construction projects could contribute towards improved performance and more efficient and effective client requirements management. The Potential of Multi-Agents in the Live Capture and Reuse of Project Knowledge, Chika E. Udeaja and John M. Kamara Despite the extensive use of computing technology within the construction industry, the crucial issue of capturing and reusing project knowledge in a collaborative and integrated way among project or supply chain team members still remains to be addressed effectively. This has a negative impact on construction productivity and the final project outcome. The paper argues that the live capture and reuse of project knowledge using the web technology in CAPRIKON project should be augmented by multi-agent systems (MAS) in order to increase the overall system reactivity, pro-activity and there by achieving the project objective, namely to increase productivity in the industry. This paper presents a proposed framework that supports the integration and collaboration of live knowledge capture and reuse by a multi-disciplinary project team, based on MAS approach. In this paper, construction project KM and MAS are examined. The key characteristics, which support the argument for the use of MAS in project knowledge capture and reuse, are identified. This knowledge is used to propose a conceptual framework within which the complexity and organizational dynamics that characterize the construction project and supply chain processes are captured. The work concludes by arguing that MAS provides platform or environment that knowledge can be captured live and reuse before the opportunities diminishes. Podcasting in Project-Based Learning Environments: Findings of a Pilot Study, Kirti Ruikar This paper reports on the findings of pilot study that explored the potential of podcasting in a teaching and learning environment. It investigates the potential of utilising modern technologies such as podcasts as supplementary teaching methods to facilitate a creative learning experience. Such techniques have been successfully trailed at prominent universities such as Stanford. By incorporating multi-media outputs such as those facilitated by podcasts as an additional resource to lectures, it is possible to accommodate most learning abilities and facilitate self-paced learning. Podcasts enable audio/video files containing graphics, soundtracks, voice recordings and text files to be delivered over a network, then played back on media players such as iPods. Research shows that learners have different learning styles, and tend to assimilate knowledge better in some media more so than in others (e.g. VARKvideo, aural, read/write and Kinesthetic sensory modalities for learning). Thus, a multi-media podcasting approach as proposed in this pilot study, would ensure that most learning styles are accommodated. This paper explains how architectural design knowledge was captured and utilised to improve among students, the understanding of practical design-related issues. It used the example of an urban master-planning project in South of UK, which involved interviewing the lead architect involved in the conceptual design development of the master- planning project. Conceptual design drawings and other graphics were used to highlight key factors influencing the design rationale. This was captured and broadcast using podcasts to provide students with audio-visual and context-specific design information to enhance their learning experience. This was then evaluated at two levels: Firstly, for the effectiveness of podcasts as tools to capture knowledge in project-based environments; and Secondly for the effectiveness of a podcast as a tool to support learning. Feedback from students is also discussed. Session 5C: Delivering Sustainability/Innovations in Sustainable Construction (Ballroom A & B) Session Chair: Abbas Elmualim The Usage And Contributions Of Construction Waste Minimization Strategies, O.J. Oladiran Nigeria and USA differ in many ways; for instance, USA is a developed country and Nigeria is under developed. It has also been observed that Nigeria is one of the producers of best electrical cables for construction works in the world. A comparison of the two scenarios in both countries was done on the usage of waste minimization strategies (WMS), aimed at revealing areas of adjustments in both countries to enhance construction waste minimization. The study also investigates the use of 21 predetermined WMS and their contributions in Nigeria alone. The research areas are Lagos State in Nigeria; Texas and Ohio States in USA. The population of the study is construction professionals within the research areas. A well-structured questionnaire administered via convenience sampling technique, which resulted to 40-sample size, was used to gather data for the study. Descriptive and inferential statistics tools were used to analyze the data. The study reveals that WMS exist and are „always‟ used in all the construction organizations investigated in USA; while they exist in 72% of the organizations investigated in Nigeria and are „always‟ used in just 26% of them. Also, 93% and 32% of the organizations consider the usage of WMS at the pretender stage in USA and Nigeria respectively. Similarly, WMS have „very high‟ and „high‟ impacts in 43% and 57% respectively in USA‟s organizations; while it is 10% and 50% respectively in the Nigerian organizations. Site supervision and control is the most used strategy while designing-out waste is the least used in Nigerian construction projects. Also, site supervision and control; and effective communications make equal and highest contributions to waste minimization among all the 21 strategies. The study recommends that practitioners in the Nigerian construction industry should increase the usage of WMS and considers them at the pretender stage to effectively minimize waste on their construction projects. In addition, site supervision and control; and effective communications should also be employed. Driving Green Building Product Innovation in Pennsylvania, Aurora L. Sharrard In an effort to create pioneering green building products that contribute to Western Pennsylvania‟s many green buildings, Green Building Alliance created its Product Innovation Grant program, which fosters innovation and economic development in Pennsylvania by supporting partnerships between industry and academia. These collaborative groups work together to commercialize building products that contribute to the economic, environmental, and social benefits of green buildings. Through four rounds of funding, GBA awarded over $978,000 to 19 projects that translate sustainable principles to locally manufactured building products. GBA‟s Product Innovation Grants build on Pennsylvania‟s intellectual capital by providing the gap funding required to bring green products from the research and development phase to the building product market so local specifiers can start using local products in local green building projects. The intent is to support the final commercialization steps for tangible building products or processes that contribute to the economic, environmental and social benefits of green buildings. Through a competitive selection process, GBA awarded funding for projects that seek to develop new or introduce revamped existing building products as green building products to the marketplace. Projects address key product development, engineering or design challenges; show a significant degree of innovation; and/or identify a clear path to commercialization with the potential to significantly impact innovation-based companies in the region. An independent review committee composed of architects, engineers, contractors, developers, academic researchers, economic development stakeholders, industry representatives, and investors evaluated and recommended the grant recipients. Summaries of each Product Innovation Grant recipient are provided within. Replicating this program in other locations could help create and provide wonderful support and networks for green building product innovation, regional capacity and competitiveness, and economic development opportunities. Only by convening people throughout the green building industry can we truly understand which green building technologies and innovations are scientifically possible, can be supported by the economic marketplace, and will provide the social and environmental benefits green buildings demand. Does The UK Built Environment Sector Have the Capacity to Deliver Sustainability?, Esra Kurul, Joseph H.M. Tah and Franco Cheung Construction industries across the world are under immense pressure to reduce their impact on the environment. Institutional innovation will be required in order to achieve reductions at the required levels. Although there is a plethora of policy initiatives to provide incentives, and more frequently obligations, for the industry to take action, robust and rigorous evaluations of the industries‟ capacities to bring about institutional innovation are absent. This paper evaluates the UK construction industry‟s capacity to innovate in order to become more sustainable by using secondary data published by key government departments and industry bodies. It first sets the context by presenting facts on the industry‟s current impact on the environment. The second section starts by arguing that the industry needs to bring about institutional innovation in order to meet the UK Government‟s targets. A very brief review of the conceptual aspects of institutional innovation follows. This section concludes by proposing a model that will be used to evaluate the UK construction industry‟s capacity to deliver sustainability. The main body of the paper focuses on this evaluation in terms of the policy context and the industry structure (i.e. the System), the present staff, infrastructure for staff development and skills, and the tools that are available for the practitioners. The paper concludes by identifying the policy framework as the strongest aspect of the industry, whilst demonstrating that in other areas, i.e. industry structure, structural capacity, staff, skills and staff development; and tools, the industry has a very long way to go to build its capacity to bring about institutional innovation. Construction Equipment Emission Monitoring System - Opportunities, Benefits & Challenges, Reza Shiftehfar, Feniosky Pena-Mora and Zeeshan Aziz Global Warming is of prime importance and every effort is required in reducing GHG emissions from different industries. Transportation is responsible for a large portion of total global emission and construction industry has a major share in that. With recent regulations in US requiring reporting of GHG emissions resulted from certain sectors, construction sites are few steps away from being added to the list of sectors that have to monitor and report their emissions. Sensorbased measuring systems have become pervasively available in recent years and in combination with location tracking technologies, they provide a superb measuring and monitoring infrastructure to monitor and study GHG emissions during the construction phase. This paper reviews the need for a comprehensive GHG emission monitoring system on the construction sites and highlights the possibilities and challenges related to the creation of such a network. Proposed system is based on Wireless Smart Sensor Network (WSSN) in combination with widely used Global Positioning System (GPS). Through implementation of such monitoring system, real-time construction emission data will be measured and recorded. The values can then be studied to evaluate the performance of the construction activities. Having such a system on site will enable continuous monitoring of GHG emissions and will help managers to control the environmental effects of their project. The paper further studies the possibility of expanding the monitoring system beyond the construction site to cover other sectors within construction industry, including fabrication, procurement, warehousing, and transportation between them. Engineering Sustainable Built Environment Systems: International Student Research Case Studies, Esther Obonyo, Robert Ries, Patts Odira, Zablon Oonge and Kathryn Frederick This paper is based on an ongoing, NSF-supported International Research Experiences for Students (IRES) program. In 2009, students worked alongside professors from the University of Florida (United States) and the University of Nairobi (Kenya) in a project whose overarching goal is designing and constructing systems that would ensure the sustainable provision of water. One initiative within this broad goal is specifically directed at optimizing the design and construction of sand dams for use in the Arid and Semi- Arid Lands. Different areas of concern with respect to the quality and quantity of water through the use of sand dams were addressed. The students made a contribution to this initiative through focusing on three issues: 1) assessing the feasibility of using Stabilized Soil Blocks (SSBs) to minimize the reliance on concrete in the construction of the sand dam; 2) assessing the effectiveness of low cost water purification strategies currently being used by non-profit organizations, and; 3) powering the distribution of the water from the source to the end users. Possible strategies for addressing these needs were explored between May and December 2009. The introductory section of the paper provides background information outlining the overarching goal for the program. This is followed by a description of the case study context highlighting the challenges from a built environment perspective and possible technological solutions. This section also describes the essence of the IRES program. This is followed by a summary of the main findings from the research undertaken by the students. The subsequent section comprises outcome assessment and impact evaluation. The paper ends with a brief discussion highlighting the major implications from the work and the follow-up activities. Session 6A: Innovative Approaches to Project Delivery (Boardroom 1) Session Chair: Jennifer Shane Leveraging The Value Of Preconstruction Services in Construction Manager-At-Risk Project Delivery, Jennifer S. Shane and Douglas D. Gransberg Construction Manager-at-Risk (CMR) project delivery (also called Construction Manager/General Contractor or CM/GC) is an integrated team approach to planning, design, and construction of a project, whose aim is to control schedule and budget, and to assure quality for the project owner. This project delivery method engages at-risk construction expertise early in the design process to enhance constructability, manage risk, and facilitate concurrent execution of design and construction without the owner contractually giving up control over the details of the projects‟ design. CMR project delivery has long been used in the building industry to deliver projects that require early contractor involvement to optimize cost, schedule, and quality and has recently become more prevalent in the public infrastructure sector. A CMR contract has two parts: preconstruction services and construction. This research focuses on the first part and synthesizes a comprehensive literature review, solicitation document content analysis, and structured interviews with the agencies that have completed CMR projects. The results indicate preconstruction services promote innovation in four primary areas, which the study categorizes: design-related, cost-related, schedule-related, and administrative. The study concludes that preconstruction services can bring a distinct and quantifiable benefit to the project owner. It also found that when the owner properly coordinated the design contract with the preconstruction services contract that it was able to realize a quantified savings in total design costs. Communication Specifications and Implementation Plans: Getting the Most Out of Building Information Modeling, Jason Reece and Jesse Whalen It is our view that recent innovation in technology has created a misalignment between the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry's current project delivery tools and project delivery processes. The advancements in design, engineering, and construction software are part of the industry adoption of Building Information Modeling (BIM). BIM technology is revolutionizing the way information is created and exchanged. It is reshaping the AEC landscape to a degree that warrants a shift in the industry's behavior. However, while the industry is adopting technology at a rapid pace, it is not adopting at the same rate the behavioral traits necessitated by the new mode of information exchange. BIM technologies and processes have been minimally effective due to their constraint within the framework of traditional project delivery processes. Much implementation of BIM to date has appeared reactionary by AEC companies, and has sought the "low hanging fruit" without purposeful planning. BIM represents complex processes and information exchanges that are nearly impossible to manage without a purpose built plan for each project. While the increasing prevalence of BIM in the industry is creating the need for standardized implementation, every project is unique and requires a BIM plan tailored to its own circumstances. Balfour Beatty's BIM Communication Specification (COMSpec) was developed to achieve company-wide standardized implementation of BIM, and also to accommodate the unique BIM requirements of each project. The BIM COMSpec defines potential workflows (processes), model requirements, information exchanges, contractual obligations, and the roles of all project stakeholders in regards to BIM. It is the template from which a project team can derive its own unique guide for successful implementation of BIM, called a BIM Implementation Plan. Developing a BIM COMSpec will help a company consistently apply BIM across all projects and strategically apply BIM on each individual project through development of BIM Implementation Plans. A project's BIM Implementation Plan is its guide to setting expectations for behavior and information exchange. The benefits of such a plan are more purposeful development of models, clearer expectations of the team throughout the project, better defined project deliverables, and increased owner collaboration and interaction. Above all, the BIM Implementation Plan is the guide that each team member can reference to clearly understand who, what, when, and how pertaining to BIM for that project. Identification and Analysis of the Issues That Might Be Slowing the Adoption of Integrated Project Delivery: Perceptions of Construction Industry Participants, Mehmet Egemen Ozbek and Tamer Youssef Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) is believed to be one of the most innovative approaches in enhancing the overall performance of the construction industry. Although IPD is still in its development phase, several owners, contractors, and designers reported great successes in terms of cost, time, and quality resulting from the utilization of IPD in construction projects. Some examples of these projects are Giants-Jets Stadium in New Jersey, Las Vegas Convention Center, and One Market Street Autodesk Building in San Francisco. However, based on a preliminary investigation on IPD performed by the authors, there is reluctance in pursuing this system as retained by the construction industry participants. The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze the specific issues that may be slowing the adoption of IPD within the construction industry. Within this context, the study investigates the perceptions of the main construction industry entities (i.e., the owners, contractors, and designers) on IPD with respect to the areas of concern, conflicts, benefits, and applicability. To reach the purpose mentioned above, this study utilizes the qualitative research methodology and relies on the interviews made with the industry participants. This study contributes to the body of knowledge in the project delivery systems domain as the findings of this research can be utilized by the construction industry (i) to gain a better understanding of the obstacles associated with the implementation of IPD and (ii) to seek ways to address those to be able to proliferate the utilization of this innovative and promising project delivery system. An Internet Approach to Efficient Bid Document Delivery - Larson Design Group Bid Plan Website, Jordan C. McQuown and Jeffrey A. Cunningham Larson Design Group (LDG) was approached by a contractor who asked LDG to provide an improved way to deliver Construction Plans, Specifications and Contract Documents sets for their review and bidding. The previous method of delivery was slow and costly; via contractor pickup at LDG‟s offices or by mail, involving charges to the contractor, regardless if they bid on the project or not. It also involved significant time and materials to create the packages, with no knowledge of how many sets to prepare ahead of time. Development of a custom-built website was the solution. The process was developed based on comments solicited from LDG engineers and several local contractors. When projects are advertised in the newspapers and various builder exchanges, contractors are directed to the web site and can view PDF versions of all plans and specifications after registering and agreeing to the Terms of Service for use of the site. Accessing the documents in this manner saves the contractor time to travel to obtain the document, and costs, should they select the shipping option. The contractor also has an option to print the documents, either in total, or just sections that pertain to their specialty in the case of sub-contractors. If any plan addenda are needed, all contractors who had reviewed the plans for the given project are emailed notice of each addendum and directed to view it from the web site. LDG Project Managers have the ability to review within the website the names of contractors who have shown interest in the project. For contractors who do not have the technical abilities to access the website, paper versions are available, printed on demand. The website is interactive; questions can be answered by LDG Project Managers through the website as well. Delivering Sustainability By Means Of Modern Methods Of Construction, P.A.E. Piroozfar, H. Altan and O.P. Larsen This paper investigates sustainability in the UK‟s construction industry using two educational case studies. The case studies are presented with an overview of their construction methods with reference to each building‟s respective environmental impacts. The paper will compare two buildings; an old junior school which was abandoned (and recently turned into a new school for pupil with special needs) and a new one which has been built using a semi-customisable MMC to replace the old one. The two projects will be compared against their energy and environmental impacts as well as their carbon footprints. They have been monitored using the most appropriate way for each particular case. In the old building the energy (gas and electricity), and water consumption will be compared to those of the new building, which are normally expected to be higher. This will form a basis to investigate whether or not the environmental impacts of post occupancy operations of a building justifies its replacement with a new building. In this study, however, there have been other factors (mostly non-technical ones) involved which were speculated wherever pertinent but not taken into account as the influential decision factors in the analysis. Session 6B: Innovations in Construction e-Business (Boardroom 2) Session Chair: Kirti Ruikar Cloud Computing and its Application in the Irish Construction Industry, A. Hore, R. West and A. Redmond The significance of Irish Small to Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs) being more effective and efficient with eBusiness solutions in the construction industry has never been more evident than in today‟s global economy. Through the development of a strong and proactive network the Construction IT Alliance (CITA) hope to create a platform for implementing the use of eBusiness in the SME community. This network will provide SME companies with a direction on how to improve their efficiency and effectiveness through the use of technology. At present CITA has identified a potential business solution that would make construction software more accessible by SMEs. Open Source Software (OSS) has the ability to increase productivity and reduce capital expenditure and production costs. This solution offers SME companies the opportunity to streamline their fragmented operations by implementing the best applications available to the industry through the use of service providers on the World Wide Web. The SME community would now have the ability to use on-demand applications that were previously only the domain of large enterprises. Exploring The Status of E-Procurement: The Case of Construction Industry in Sri Lanka, A.R.Sabry Ahamed, Gayani Karunasena, Suranga Jayasena, Indunil Seneviratne and Srinath Perera Information Technology has radically changed the way most businesses operate in recent past. Certain inefficiencies of traditional procurement processes and cycles have been eliminated through the introduction of network based electronic procurement systems. Thus, the emerging concept of e-procurement is currently being applied in almost all types of procurement. Construction industry is no exception, which has attempted to adopt these latest technologies in its procurement process. Despite the wealth of merits of e-procurement, the practice of eprocurement in Sri Lankan construction industry is still in its infancy. Thus, this study aims to investigate the current status of e-procurement including the barriers and drivers to eprocurement in Sri Lanka. Literature review identifies an extensive range of aspects with regard to e-procurement both locally and globally. A questionnaire survey was used as the mode of data collection and fifty professionals from both private and public sector involved in construction were surveyed to ascertain their views on e-procurement. Findings of the study revealed that reduction of paper work and administrative and process cost saving were the key drivers whereas lack of policies, expertise, regulatory bodies and legal challenges were the key barriers for e-procurement in Sri Lanka. These results are confined to certain limitations where construction professionals selected were from the highest ranking construction consultancy and contractor organizations within the Colombo Metropolitan region. The study enabled to investigate the current status of the e-procurement including drives and barriers to eprocurement and highlighted barriers to overcome for successful implementation of eprocurement within Sri Lankan construction industry. An In-Depth Analysis of E-Procurement Use in UK Construction Organisations, Robert Eadie, Srinath Perera and George Heaney Eadie et.al (2007) show that there are many advantages in the adoption of e-procurement within a construction organisation. However, its uptake within the construction industry has been inadequately researched. Martin (2003, 2008) investigated e-procurement use across the United Kingdom from the standpoint of quantity surveying organisations. This left a knowledge gap in the published literature regarding the use of e-procurement in other disciplines within construction. This paper seeks to address this issue. Martin (2003, 2008) does not seek to identify the sizes or spend on procurement activities by those quantity surveying organisations who have adopted the use of e-procurement. This paper investigates the correlations between size, procurement spend and adoption of e-procurement. The survey was conducted in two parts: the initial survey looked at 70 contractors in Northern Ireland which had carried out e-procurement. This was followed by the main survey, which contained a telephone survey and was followed by a web-based survey. The telephone survey of 775 organisations identified the amount of e-procurement in construction within the United Kingdom. This was followed by a web-based questionnaire survey of the identified organisations on e-procurement for construction based activities. These produced a breakdown of e-procurement use and spend on pricing documentation completion across the construction industry. E-Auctions: A Construction Industry Perspective on Achieving Stakeholder Satisfaction and Value Creation, B. Ingirige and U. Kulatunga Increasing competition and lower margins in construction projects motivates and on certain occasions forces the various stakeholders in construction to engage in the continuous search for new and advanced methods of improving effectiveness and efficiency. Among these methods, e-Auctions appear to be gaining popularity among contractors, subcontractors and suppliers of materials and services and most often favoured by clients. E-Auctions are internet based reverse auctions carried out for bidding and is identified as a highly promoted form of B2B ecommerce. Although this technique emerged outside the construction industry, for instance in retail supply chains and in defense, it is beginning to make an impact within the construction industry too. E-Auctions are particularly becoming more popular among large scale construction contractors in their process of selecting suppliers, sub contractors and other service providers. The suppliers involved in e-Auctions can progressively lower their bid value during a given period of time of the e-Auction. In the majority of cases, e-Auctions have replaced negotiations for supplier selections and price settings and claimed to save considerable portions of money involved in bidding and construction. However, errors of judgments made by suppliers during the e-Auction can lead to reduced quality of work, lengthy negotiations and disputes within the construction industry. As a result of promoting “lowest price” against the “best value”, e-Auctions are being criticized for hampering the good practices in the construction and creating further fragmentation. The paper contextualizes this debate and addresses how best the technological improvements within a B2B setting can be leveraged to realize multi-stakeholder value and satisfaction in the construction industry. Session 6C: Developments in Building Envelope Systems (Ballroom A & B) Session Chair: Ali Memari Transparent Glazing Systems For Free-Form Building Skins - Parametric Modeling Meets Curved Glazing Engineering, Wilfried Laufs, and Gregor Vilkner The design of transparent specialty structures or building envelopes typically requires the integration of structure, form, façade, sustainability and materiality into one single interdisciplinary design approach. When the architectural vision includes non-planar transparent freeform surfaces, a detailed geometric analysis typically becomes a required part of the early design phase. Not only can it result in alteration requirements affecting the form or selected structural systems, but it can be leveraged as a comprehensive framework from analysis and design to digitally controlled fabrication. This paper explains glazed envelope systems and points out their specific advantages and disadvantages when used on curved design surfaces. We will address the differences of triangular vs. quadrilateral glazing and what techniques exist to use curved glass panels, the cold- bent strategy for example, where the impact on insulated glazing unit durability depends on the type of geometric strategy chosen and vice versa. By facing daring artistic skin-visions with thoughtful detailing, excellent geometric control, extensive analysis and design we will aim to continue to realize outstanding and innovative building envelope systems. Development of a Transparent Sustainable Wall System With Load Bearing Backup Framing for Residential Construction, Joseph A. Standley and Ali M. Memari Typical residential construction in the United States relies on light-frame wood shear walls to provide lateral and gravity load resistance and to form the exterior building enclosure. Currently, there are relatively few alternative construction materials or structural systems available to homebuilders. A new type of panelized wall system for residential construction has recently been developed at Penn State that can be used as an alternative to typical wood-frame and other light-frame wall systems. The new wall system is a prefabricated wall panel consisting of a structural steel back-up frame, transparent polycarbonate sheathing, and a curtain-wall system that contains an integrated photovoltaic glazing panel. The design motivation behind the development of this wall system was to increase day lighting and provide an electricity-generating photovoltaic system by using a sustainable, panelized product. In this paper, the performance of the proposed wall system is compared to that of light-frame wood wall construction. The structural performance of a mockup wall was evaluated under monotonic and cyclical in-plane lateral shear loads using ASTM E 2126-08, while the gravity load performance was evaluated using ASTM E-72. Thermal and energy performances were evaluated using THERM, WINDOW and Energy-10 software. Finally, a materials and systems analysis was performed using a combination of life-cycle assessment, embodied energy calculation, and reuse/recycle evaluation. The focus of this paper will be on review of the thermal and energy performance of the developed wall system as well as evaluation of its sustainable attributes. Design And Characterising the Performance of Hybrid Shortglass Fiber/ Clay/ Polypropylene Nanocomposites for Building Envelopes, Esther Obonyo and Jude Iroh The work presented in this paper discusses the potential for developing a hybrid material for building envelopes that will be 10 to 15% cheaper and lighter. The use of this material will also result in a system that is both more ecological and durable. The research described here will make a significant contribution to the existing gaps in the synthesis of innovative nanocomposites in building applications in hot-humid climates. The conventional use of fillers as reinforcement worsens their elastic as well as impact properties and could also result in a 20 30% weight increment. Under hot humid conditions, should the composites absorb water, then the interface between the fiber and the matrix material will be affected. The crysallizable Isotactic Polypropylene (iPP) has been selected as the polymer matrix for the proposed hybrid. iPP is a commonly used polymer largely because it can be produced in bulk at economical costs. However, it has low strength and stiffness, low service temperature and weak barrier properties. Over time, iPP will creep and become dimensional unstable (viscous-elasticity). The paper begins with an introduction highlighting the need for alternative building envelope materials. This is followed by a description of the outstanding issues and the proposed approach to address these. The paper ends with a summary of the key issues in designing and characterising the proposed nanocomposite. Developments in Below-Grade Waterproofing, Anthony Nicastro and Craig Allender Costly failures in below-grade waterproofing systems in recent years have driven owners and designers to seek high-performance and reliable solutions to prevent moisture infiltration. Careful consideration of site conditions and construction methodologies can lead to successful selection and installation of below-grade waterproofing assemblies so that future remedial work is limited. There are two types of installation methods for below-grade waterproofing, typically referred to as positive-side or blind-side. Negative-side remedial repairs refer to waterproofing installed after completion of construction. Membrane selection depends on construction method, the potential for hydrostatic pressure, the ground water elevation and owner tolerance for risk of water intrusion. The construction industry has utilized modern waterproofing membranes for several decades with success, but recent failures have led to the development of membranes that introduce measures of redundancy by combination of materials and techniques to create hybrid products. Various manufacturers have marketed hybrid systems with added warranty incentives to motivate the construction industry to adopt higher standards of practice. Conversely, waterproofing admixtures, when introduced into concrete mixes, offer some integral waterproofing capabilities with the option to omit a membrane. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic admixtures work in conjunction with a particular mix design to prevent transmission of moisture by preventing water transfer through small cracks. Admixtures can also be crack reducers but have not shown they prevent all cracks in concrete. The increased use of shotcrete as a wall casting method on projects has presented challenges for waterproofing below-grade spaces, and industry professionals are continuing to seek solutions to accommodate projects with shotcrete construction. Specifically, designers and manufacturers seek to marry material types and installation procedures that will remain watertight for the lifespan of the building. To avoid failures, new developments in waterproofing membranes, such as pre-installed injection ports or dual membrane hybrid systems offer the designer the ability to compensate for potential weakness in the waterproofing scheme. Below-grade spaces offer few choices for repair due to inaccessibility, and the development of new redundant waterproofing methods with more comprehensive warranties is a welcome addition to industry practice. Session 7A: Innovations in Healthcare and Facilities Management (Boardroom 1) Session Chair: Ren Zhaomin Integrating AEC and FM Activities Within a Client Organisation, John M. Kamara This paper reports on a case study into the asset development and management process of a repeat client, with a particular focus on the integration of FM with other aspects of asset development. The study involved detailed interviews with key personnel and a review of documents and specifications used in the client‟s operations. Preliminary findings suggest that information exchange between AEC and FM is process-driven, and relies more on the interactions of people rather than on defined standards for the representation and exchange of information. The updating of asset information in refurbishment projects was also found to be problematic. This study appears to support the view that greater standardization enhances the representation and exchange of AEC data for FM purposes, but further research is required to determine how best AEC information can be configured to automatically map on to FM information requirements. RFID Building Maintenance System, Chien-Ho Ko Information technology applications have proven effective in the maintenance of constructed facilities. The objective of the study is to enhance building maintenance using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology. A data management module is first developed to collect building usage and maintenance data. A statistical module is then established to graphically display the collected data. To ensure that building functions perform normally, maintenance activities are arranged using a scheduling module. These three modules are integrated into a web-based RFID building maintenance system. System performance is validated using a real building. Experimental results show that integrating RFID technology with a web-based system, database, and scheduling theory can improve facility and equipment maintenance efficiency. Development of a Framework for Improving Building Operating Decisions: Findings From the Questionnaire, Angela Lewis, David Riley And Abbas Elmualim The operations and maintenance of a building contributes up to 50 percent of the total building cost over 40 years (ASHRAE 2003). Within the United States, seventy-five percent of commercial building energy consumption is from lighting, space heating, cooling and water heating. The remaining 25 percent of is from ventilation, cooking, refrigeration, and the operation of office equipment (Swenson 1998). These two combined equate to about $70 billion (US dollars) paid annually by building owners for electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and district heat (Swenson 1998). Maintenance management and energy consumption are two key focus points of facility managers and building operators. Building automation systems (BAS) and computerized maintenance management systems (CMMS) are complex and utilizing such systems can be challenging. Organizational structure, time constraints and corporate culture often prohibit facility managers and building operators from developing new theories, models, and tools for the operation and maintenance of modern and complex commercial building mechanical and control systems. This results in increased costs for labor, energy, and maintenance. To help facility managers address the challenges of planning and implementing energy performance and maintenance management programs, a decision analysis framework is being developed. The framework will: Advance the understanding of the relationships between maintenance and energy efficiency of mechanical equipment Provide a standardized and measureable procedure for proactive decision making for building energy and maintenance management The framework is being developed using the findings of three pilot case studies, a questionnaire of 168 industry practitioners, and extensive literature review. This conference proceeding focuses on the questionnaire development, results, and how the results will inform the framework development. A companion conference proceeding written for the CIB 2010 World Congress discusses the findings of the three pilot case studies. Maximising The Value and use of Standard Tools and Datasets in Healthcare Building, Erica Ricks, Simon Austin, Andrew Price and Emeka Osaji Since the 1960s, the Department of Health (DH) in England has introduced several initiatives aimed at standardisation of hospital design; these were not maintained and each lasted for a relatively short period. The tools, guidance and data relating to these systems have continued in use, but are referred to as “best practice” and are not considered by the DH to provide mandatory standards. In the absence of any other guidance or standard tools, users in both the National Health Service (NHS) and the independent sector have assumed these standards recognising that conformance provides them with a guarantee that they are procuring, designing and building healthcare environments that conform with DH guidance. It is debatable whether this is the most effective and economic method of ensuring patients receive care in the most suitable environment. An evaluation of the costs and benefits of standardisation of tools and data is proposed, taking into account DH policy regarding the status of its publications and guidance, as well as the need for regulation and accountability. This raises the question as to what costs and benefits would accrue to patients, staff and the NHS overall by imposing standards regulating the procurement, refurbishment and maintenance of healthcare buildings? In other words, what value do standards provide in terms of improving procurement processes and the design of the healthcare environment? In relation to this, we must ask about responsibility: where does accountability for the healthcare environment lie? Thirdly, as decisions around value inevitably involve trade-offs for all stakeholders, what are the priorities: can the application of minimum standards be reconciled with achieving a quality environment for patients and staff? Parametric Environmental Design for Innovations in Healthcare Facility Design and Construction, E.E. Osaji and A.D.F. Price Increasingly challenging climatic conditions could significantly impact on the environmental performance of healthcare facilities. Current climate and environmental related challenges are complex which need to be addressed by first analysing the potential impact of climate change on building performance, and then using this to develop responsive environmental design solutions. Given the degree of complexity and the number of multiple variable parameters that need to be considered, the approach proposed by this paper is referred to as „parametric environmental design‟. The evidence to support the development of a proposed parametric environmental design framework has included related: literature review; multiple case study; post occupancy evaluation; environmental review; energy use audit; energy performance benchmarking; thermal scenario development; thermal scenario testing; focus group workshop; environmental design; and environmental monitoring. This paper focuses on the thermal scenario development and testing aspects through the use of parametric modelling and environmental simulation for thermal analysis. The aim of this paper is to assess the potential role of parametric environmental design in facilitating low energy healthcare facility design and performance, and this will be fulfilled through the use of the following methods: literature review and tool testing for evaluation of the features and capabilities of building information modeling (BIM), and parametric modelling and environmental simulation tools that support the development of purpose-built parametric models for thermal analysis; and thermal scenario development and testing for thermal analysis of 4 purpose-built parametric models of a healthcare single bedroom for the elderly to be situated in 4 cities in England. This paper determined that 4 purpose-built parametric models – all with the same volume, and representative of a healthcare single bedroom for the elderly (as a sample of a healthcare facility) situated in 4 cities in England – had differing heating requirements, and this necessitated active and passive environmental design strategies and controls to facilitate low(er) heating energy use. Furthermore, parametric modelling and environmental simulation as an aspect of a proposed parametric environmental design approach facilitated this assessment. Session 7B: New Approaches to Collaborative Working and Options Valuations (Boardroom 2) Session Chair: Peter Demian Investigating the Responsibility of Principal Contractors in Assessing Construction Projects Through Post-Occupancy Evaluation in The UK Construction Industry, Tristan Williams, Dino Bouchlaghem, Dennis Loveday and Charlie Law Client satisfaction is a key element of repeat business and for securing future work in the construction industry. There are areas still in need of improvement for contractors; these areas include the handover process to clients and the subsequent aftercare and organisational learning. Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE) offers an opportunity for a holistic perspective towards continual improvement in construction. While the challenges of POE have been well documented in the design phase, the role of the principal contractor in this area has been underresearched. Existing research has suggested that the key barriers to uptake of POE include investment of resources, time constraints and negative publicity of poor performance and costs. This paper aims to investigate and better understand the opportunities and the key issues for contractors in the UK construction industry associated with the use of POE as a tool not only to capture real performance data on construction projects but also to act as a vessel for ensuring existing and future clients are satisfied with the end product. The paper concludes by proposing a set of recommendations to improve contractor involvement in the POE process. Emotional Intelligence: It’s Effect on Expatriate’s Cross-Cultural Adaptation in International Construction, Ashwini Konanahalli, Lukumon Oyedele, Enda McKenna, Jason Von Meding, John Spillane Globally, construction companies and projects are entering into an era of increased internationalization which in turn has lead to the migration/promotion of construction professionals to different parts of the world for their specialized capabilities and skills. Thus, it is of utmost importance that these professionals adapt themselves to the new world with varied culture because international businesses require their staff to work efficiently irrespective of the cultural setting (Yamakazi & Kayes, 2004). Cross-cultural adaptation becomes extremely important and essential for both the expatriate and the organization due to its significant influence on the success of both the assignment and the expatriate (Aycan & Kanungo, 1997, Ones & Viswesvaran, 1997). Various factors influence adaptation; in order to be able to nail them down a detail literature study was carried out. The review suggests that the individual skills and competencies do, significantly contribute to the acculturation of the expatriate. This research particularly concentrated on Emotional Intelligence (EI) of the expatriate as a possible predictor of adaptation. EI skills like being persistent, flexible, self managed with good interpersonal skills could be perceived to be very important for cross-cultural adjustment on international assignments. Understanding these essential factors and the process of adaptation, can actually help organizations in selecting, mentoring individuals and even provide necessary support for a successful completion of the overseas project. Preliminary Studies for the Development of an Integrated Design-Related Contractual Risks Information Toolkit, Kemi Adeyeye, Dino Bouchlaghem and Christine Pasquire Contracts form an important instrument for ensuring that the architectural design is fully realised within constraints such as time and cost. In building contracts, risks are identified, and liabilities and responsibilities are allocated. The cost of risks (risk premiums) to contractors and consequently, the client, forms a substantial amount of the entire cost of building projects. This paper presents a preliminary review which involves identifying and mapping designrelated risks normally mitigated against using instruments such as insurance, indemnities and guarantees. The work also investigated factors of risk management or transfer in the form of risk allocation and responses especially for the design professional. Similar to the Construction Design and Management Regulations 2007 which seeks to ensure that health and safety considerations are made as early as design conceptualisation, the overall aim is therefore to develop an instrument (toolkit) through which contractual risks can be identified and reduced in order to provide better value; cost, quality and time savings to all parties. The next stage of the research will involve the development of the toolkit in collaboration with client groups, designers, construction insurance brokers and contractors. A Real Options Valuation Model of Highway Project Under Multistage Construction Mode, Jian Lu And Baabak Ashuri Building-Operation-Transfer (BOT) is commonly used in both developed and developing countries to develop and deliver infrastructures. Despite the promising features of the BOT project delivery system for highway development, there is considerable amount of evidence indicating that over-investment due to over-estimate of traffic projection and under-estimate project uncertainty subjected to political, financial and economic conditions contribute to the failure of the BOT projects. Multistage Construction Mode (MCM) is one of the strategies developed to mitigate the risk of financial failure of BOT projects, especially in developing countries where economic is growing rapidly without a mature market regulation. Under MCM, partial project with reservation of lanes space for future expansion will be delivered and operated in stage I and complete project will be delivered by expanding the revered area into lanes in stage II. It can reduce the initial investment and provide more realistic market information to support the decision-making of expansion investment to avoid the overinvestment. However, conventional evaluation methods such as NPV usually under-estimates the value of MCM, since they are not able to capture and treat the uncertainty and managerial flexibility value in the MCM. We present a novel financial evaluation framework based on riskneural valuation and least square Monte Carlo simulation technique to present the risk profile of MCM under the uncertainty of the traffic demand. It is shown that the investors can benefit in reducing the loss risk and increase the expected project value from the MCM strategy under a given uncertainty of the traffic demand. The proposed model can help public and private sectors better analyze and understand the financial risk of BOT projects. A Valuation Model for Choosing the Optimal Minimum Traffic Revenue Guarantee (Mrg) in a Highway Project: A Real-Option Approach, Baabak Ashuri And Hamed Kashani Through Public-Private Partnership (PPP) models the government can use the capability of the private sector in financing, developing, and operating infrastructure projects. Highway PPP projects are subject to great revenue risks due to uncertainty about traffic projections. Hence, the private sector is often reluctant to engage in these high-risk PPP investments unless the government shares the revenue risk and provides support instruments such as Minimum Revenue Guarantee (MRG). Improper consideration of traffic uncertainty and poor choices of MRG and Toll Revenue Cap (TRC) lead to inappropriate risk-sharing between public and private sectors. It inhibits the government from utilizing the capability of the private sector and limits the ability of the government for future spending. A model for finding the optimal MRG and TRC levels based on the Real Options methodology is presented. Our model computes the financial risk profile of different MRG and TRC mechanisms and determines the proper option premium of each mechanism. Session 7C: New Construction Methods and Processes (Ballroom A & B) Session Chair: William Rasdorf Towards Automated Progress Tracking of Erection of Concrete Structures, Yelda Turkan, Frederic Bosche, Carl T. Haas and Ralph Haas One of the main criticisms of the construction industry is that projects are too often completed behind schedule (and/or with cost overruns). Schedule delays may result from poor planning, but also from poor progress control, because, if progress deviation is identified too late, then actions can often not be taken to avoid the impact of these delays on the overall project schedule. Progress tracking of erection of concrete structures in particular is a very demanding task requiring intensive data collection. It is because erection of concrete structures involves many steps like erection of scaffolding, formwork and rebar assemblies, concrete placement, and removal of scaffolding and formwork. Current manual tracking methods, based on foremen daily reports, are typically time consuming and/or error prone. Three dimensional (3D) Laser Scanners (LADARs) are capable of capturing and recording the 3D status of construction sites with high accuracy in short periods of time and have thus the potential to effectively support progress tracking. An automated object recognition system has recently been developed to recognize project 3D CAD model objects from site laser scans. A novel system is proposed here which combines this 3D object recognition system with architect and engineer provided BIM and schedule information into a 4D object recognition system, with a focus on progress tracking. This new system improves the one originally proposed by Bosche et al. (2009). It is demonstrated with real life data acquired over the course of construction of the new Engineering V Building at the University of Waterloo. An Innovative Approach to QC/QA Highway Construction Data Analysis, Kamyar C. Mahboub, Moin Uddin and Paul M. Goodrum Skewness and kurtosis, which are common forms of statistical non-normal distributions, can potentially distortion Quality Control / Quality Assurance (QC/QA) pay analyses. To examine the potential pay distortion, a computer simulation study was performed to investigate the magnitude and the direction (overestimation or underestimation) of both single and multiple quality characteristics based pay factor calculations. Kentucky‟s percent within limits (PWL) specifications was used with various sub-lots/lot sized. The study revealed that for both one-sided and two-sided specification limits, distortion in pay factors not only did vary in magnitude but also reversed in direction over various ranges of PWL. In the case of single quality characteristic based pay factors, the simulation study showed that skewness and kurtosis induce significant distortion in pay factor calculations. These analyses revealed that for a one-sided upper specification limit, on average, a positive skewness and kurtosis can underestimate the pay factor of an acceptable quality level population by 0.90%, and overestimates a rejectable quality level population by 3.80%. This means that non-normality in QC/QA data tends to misdirect payment calculations, which can manifest in falsely penalize acceptable construction and reward the poor construction. The same was true for two-sided limits, which again varied based upon the percent of defective materials at the tails of the distribution. This is a very important issue because these distortions in pay can easily upset the relative profit margins of the contractor. The proposed innovative methodology allows for quantifying these over/under payment situations. For multiple-qualitycharacteristics-based pay factors, analyses showed that the trend of distortion is same as single quality characteristic; however, the combined magnitude of these distortions was not linearly cumulative. Findings of the study indicate that distortion in pay was higher for lots with fewer sub-lots, and higher skewness and kurtosis. Intelligent Learning and Detection of Concrete Regions in Construction Site Images, Z. Zhu and I. Brilakis The use of construction site images has been investigated in research studies to facilitate construction applications, such as inspection and progress monitoring, since the images contain a lot of project as-built information, which is represented by multiple material regions. In order to fully automate these applications, it is necessary to detect material regions in construction site images first. The existing methods made use of the special color/texture value ranges of one material in an image to achieve this goal, but they do not sufficiently discuss how to find these appropriate color/texture value ranges. Therefore, users have to define appropriate ones by themselves, which is difficult for most of them who do not have enough image processing background. This paper presents an automated method of detecting concrete regions using an artificial intelligence. The method starts with image segmentation to divide an image into several regions. The visual features of each region are then extracted using statistical data analysis. The extracted features are input into an artificial neural network trained by over one hundred concrete samples. The output value of the network indicates whether the region is composed of concrete or not. This way, concrete regions in an image can be identified. The method was implemented using C++. A database of real construction images was used to test the method and the results were compared with the manual detection ones to indicate its validity. D4AR Models for Automated Remote Progress Tracking and Support of Decision-Enabling Tasks in the AEC/FM Industry, M. Golparvar-Fard, F. Pena-Mora and S. S Savarese This paper proposes a fully automated system for construction progress tracking and as-built model visualization using unordered daily construction photo collections as well as Building Information Models (BIM). Such a task currently requires manual as-built data collection and extensive as-planned data extraction, is infrequent and error prone; and if automated can significantly impact the management of a project. Application of daily construction photographs are particularly challenging as these photographs are not taken for the purpose of virtual as-built reconstructions; rather they are taken with specific applications for monitoring progress, productivity, and safety. Moreover they are uncalibrated and extremely cluttered by equipments and people. Given a set of unordered and uncalibrated site photographs, our system first uses structure-from-motion, multiview stereo, and voxel coloring and labeling algorithms to calibrate cameras, reconstruct the building scene, traverse and label the scene for occupancy. The BIM model is subsequently fused into the reconstructed scene by a control based registration-step and is traversed and labeled for expected progress visibility. Next, a machine learning scheme built upon a Bayesian model is proposed that automatically detects physical components in presence of occlusions and demonstrates that component-based tracking at schedule activity level could be fully automated. Finally, the system enables the as-planned and as-built models to be jointly explored with an interactive, image-based 3D viewer where deviations are automatically color-coded over the BIM model. The D4AR subsequently enables AEC/FM professionals to conduct various decision-enabling tasks in the virtual environment rather than the real world where is time consuming and costly. We present our underlying hypotheses and algorithms for generation of integrated 4D as-built and as-planned models as well as automated progress tracking. We also demonstrate promising results on two challenging building datasets under different lighting conditions and sever occlusions, the first of its kind to take an advantage of unordered photo collections. Session 8A: Designing in Resilience for Emergencies and Disasters (Boardroom 1) Session Chair: Lee Bosher Counter-Terrorism Complexity: Identifying Opportunities for Innovation, Steve HarreYoung, Lee Bosher, Andrew Dainty and Jacqueline Glass As a result of the sustained and evolving threat from international and domestic terrorism, Government agendas are seeking to increase the extent to which vulnerable sites such as crowded places are protected from terrorist attacks. Recent events have highlighted the need for crowded places to be considered at higher risk, with plots and attacks in the UK alone focusing on such places in Birmingham, London, Glasgow, Exeter and Manchester. The vast majority of potential targets already exist and are therefore more complex to protect against an attack than by designing in counter-terrorism measures (CTM‟s) at the design and planning stages, although both result in complex trade-offs and scenarios. The aim of this research is to therefore examine the complexities inherent in ensuring that crowded places are appropriately and proportionately protected from terrorist attacks, as well as identifying the trade-offs involved when designing in CTM‟s and retro-fitting existing locations. The benefits of and opportunities for innovation are also discussed, utilising examples from both the UK and USA where innovative technologies and practices have enabled publicly acceptable and proportionate CTM‟s to be incorporated into site designs. Empirical research was conducted alongside an extensive literature review. Case studies are used to illustrate the implications for decision makers involved in protecting crowded places. The results highlight that despite vast complexities existing when incorporating CTM‟s into existing or planned crowded places, a lack of informed and appropriate guidance for key decision makers on best practice is exacerbating this situation. As well as this, there is a lack of understanding of the interconnectedness of the threats that are faced and the measures that are used to mitigate them. However, examples demonstrate that such complexities can lead to innovative solutions, with public spaces utilising a range of innovative, effective and publicly acceptable CTM‟s into their designs. Conclusions state that inherent complexities in such projects can act as catalysts for innovation. With the growing need for more comprehensive guidance on CTM‟s that are available for protecting crowded places, new research is examining the systemic implications and relative value of those measures. This will produce innovative guidance for key decision makers and inform future legislation, guidelines and codes of practice, in order to ensure that such places are neither under-protected nor over-protected and obtrusive, but effectively and proportionately protected. This innovative approach to proportionality will address the threats, complexities and stakeholder requirements that are present and unique to each individual site. A Heuristic Process Inspired by Foraging of Honeybees for Equipment Distribution in Disaster Response, Albert Chen and Feniosky Peña-mora After an eXtreme Event (XE) hits an urban area, well-organized response operations are required to mitigate the chaotic situation efficiently. Efficient distribution of resources is critical to the performance of disaster response operations. Proper management of resources such as construction equipment and professional personnel can improve the response time to lifesaving operations. This paper presents an innovative approach that facilitates immediate equipment distribution in response to disasters. A natural inspired control structure, based on the behavior of Honeybees, for equipment distribution is presented. Complex decisions that involve various parameters are to be made in disaster scenarios. However, these decisions are often too complex to be addressed in a satisfactory amount of time, or even to be solved by modern computers. As a result, heuristic formulations of such problems are to be investigated to meet requirements such as running time, accuracy, and other policies. Presented in this paper, is a simulation model, drawn analogy from honeybees‟ foraging behavior, for distribution of heavy equipment to disaster-affected areas. With innovative approaches for facilities management such as construction equipment distribution, disaster response becomes more efficient. Future research will be directed towards evaluation of certain policies for the behavior control structure and validation of the simulation model through interaction with emergency response officials from the local, state, and federal emergency agencies in the US and deploying the control structure to drills hold by the officials. Decision Support for Incorporating Counter-Terrorism Design Innovations Into Public Places, Lee Bosher and Joseph G. Kappia Due to the prevailing threat of terrorism both internationally and within the UK, the British government has recently redeveloped the CONTEST strategy for countering international terrorism into a new and robust form known as CONTEST2. As part of this strategy, the UK government is encouraging those responsible for the protection of the public and ensuring the resilience of public buildings and crowded public areas to incorporate Counter-Terrorism (CT) measures where appropriate. However, it is apparent that there has been a lack of investment and „buy in‟ from some key stakeholders. This is due largely to: client scepticism about the use of obtrusive, highly visible and unattractive solutions; a lack of informed guidance; differing opinions on the severity of the perceived threat from terrorism; and poor awareness of the costbenefits of such measures. The outputs from a two year project, that has utilised a pluralistic methodology, are presented in the form of a web-based Decision Support Framework (DSF). The DSF has been developed by three English universities in collaboration with the British security services. The main purpose is to ensure that good practice in the design of effective and acceptable resilient public places can be more widely adopted. The DSF achieves this by providing individuals involved with the planning, design, construction, operation and management of public places with informed guidance on the necessity and use of CT measures; and supporting their operational activities towards the structured and proportionate integration of CT solutions into the varied design, build, operation and management processes. An evaluation of the DSF suggests that it promotes the innovation of passive and more acceptable CT measures, whilst simultaneously maintaining public safety. This greatly promotes the equal weighing of total expected benefits of CT measures against the total expected costs. Session 8B: Novel Construction Planning and Scheduling Methods (Boardroom 2) Session Chair: Bilge Erdogan An Empirical Study of Risk Anyalsis and Their Impact on Construction Projects - The Case of Ghana, Adwoa Agyakwa Baah and Nicholas Chileshe The purpose of this paper is to identify and assess the likelihood of occurrence and degree of impact of the risk factors on construction projects in medium and large enterprises within the Ghanaian construction industry. Literature review is used to identify relevant risk factors which are then incorporated into the design of the survey instrument. The questionnaire is administered via a postal survey and information was collected from 103 construction professionals practising with construction client (private and public), consultant and contractor organisations within the Ghanaian construction industry. Survey response data was subjected to descriptive statistics and subsequently analysis of variance (ANOVA), post-hoc tests and other non-parametric tests were used to examine the differences in the likelihood degree of occurrence and degree of impact of risk on construction projects. The findings indicate a disparity of the ranking of the degree of occurrence and impact among the groups. There was a statistically difference at the p < .05 level significant for 5 out of 25 risk factors likelihood of occurrence as follows: „construction methods’; „inflation‟; „weather condition’; „ground conditions and contaminant conditions’; and „poor communication amongst project team‟ and only 1 for the degree of impact scores for „price fluctuation’. Based on the composite risk factors, the financial and economic factors were found to be the most likely to occur and have the most impact on projects, whereas legal risk factor was found to be a low weighted risk as it had the least likelihood to occur and the least impact score. The post-hoc comparisons using the Tukey HSD test also indicated differences between the contractor and clients in the ranking of construction methods risk variable whereas no significant differences between contractors / consultants; and clients / consultants. The paper makes some contribution of exploring the degree of risk occurrence and its impact on construction projects within a developing economy and much lesser studied context. This study further provides insights on the perception of risk among construction professions in Ghana. It also provides some insights to foreign contractors wishing to operate in Ghana on the current levels of risk. Awareness, Usage and Benefits of Risk Assessment and Management Practices (RAMP) The Case of Ghanaian Medium and Large Construction Related Organizations, Adwoa Agyakwa Baah and Nicholas Chileshe Research has shown that risk management is not a new concept due to the fact that traditionally, it has been applied instinctively. However, within the Ghanaian context, a number of construction related organisations have deployed the risk assessment and management practices (RAMP) with them not formally acknowledging the process. It is against this background that this study sought to assess the levels of awareness and usage of RAMP in order to ascertain the advocated benefits relative to the impact on project outcomes. Literature review is used to identify the impact on project outcomes (thus termed benefits) of RAMP which are then incorporated into the design of the survey instrument. The questionnaire is administered via a postal survey and information was collected from 103 construction professionals practising with construction client (private and public), consultant and contractor organisations within the Ghanaian construction industry. Survey response data was subjected to descriptive statistics and subsequently analysis of variance (ANOVA) and other nonparametric tests were used to examine the differences in the levels of agreement of the perceived benefits. Supplementary interviews were also held with key professions to elicit information that could not be captured within the survey. The findings indicate that despite the disparity in the ranking of the importance of RAMP on projects outcomes, the three different groups (clients, consultants and contractors) agreed on „improved team morale’ as the most important benefit. However, there was a statistically difference at the p < .05 level in the levels of agreement scores for the impact of risk management techniques on 2 of the 8 project outcomes for the three groups in relation to „product to the required quality‟ and „reduction in contract claims‟. Relative to the awareness and usage, the findings indicate that despite half of the respondents (58.30%) being aware of the risk assessment and management techniques, the uptake of RAMP was low with 61.90% of those aware actually implementing the RAMP. The practical implication for Senior Managers within the construction organisations are that; awareness of risk management processes through education and training; both formal and informal process including more information, and provision of expertise within RAMP could enhance the levels of awareness. Quantifying Schedule Risk for Residential Construction With Linear Schedule Simulations, Carla Lopez del Puerto and Douglas D. Gransberg Linear scheduling has been in use for several decades in the heavy civil construction industry as a tool to plan linear work sequencing. The critical path method (CPM) is the most widely used scheduling method in commercial and residential construction. The CPM depicts relationships between activities, but it cannot alert the cost estimator/ scheduler of space constraints that can negatively impact the project‟s productivity. Linear scheduling has been used extensively in horizontal projects such as highways and pipelines because of its ability to represent both time and space graphically in the same chart. This allows the scheduler/ cost estimator to visually deconflict production activities on the project space representation. However, linear scheduling is not often used in production home building. Due to the repetitive nature of production home building, linear scheduling is a good tool to graphically represent time and space and thereby avoid space conflicts that negatively impact production-based activities that drive the project‟s profitability. Any space constraints, such as two crews scheduled to do work on the same space at the same time, decrease productivity and have a negative impact on the work schedule. Additionally, as linear scheduling emphasizes production-oriented work sequencing, it furnishes an excellent tool to ensure that the salient production rates upon which the developer‟s pro forma are based are accurately reflected in the schedule. Simulations are widely used in areas such as cost estimating to quantify escalation; however they are not commonly used in scheduling. The major advantage of using simulations in scheduling is the ability to quantify the risk of not completing the project on time. This paper presents an innovative approach of using the critical method, linear scheduling and a stochastic prediction model to optimize construction scheduling. The process of preparing a linear schedule is best explained by walking the reader through an example problem. This paper uses a typical example to illustrate how linear scheduling can be used in production home building to alert the cost estimator/ scheduler of space conflicts. Risk Based Planning, H. Randolph Thomas Construction planning is a cornerstone of effective construction project management, yet there exists little or no framework or guidance on how to do effective planning. The questions of what steps should be taken, what should I do, or how should I plan remain unanswered.