Electricity www.sciencekids.co.nz Electricity requires moving electrons • A difference in potential energy causes charges to flow. • Electrons flow from places of higher potential energy to places of lower potential energy. • Potential energy is measured in Volts “V” Current • A flow of charge is called a current • Electric current is the amount of charge that passes a given point per unit of time • Use “I” to stand for current What makes the electric charges move? • A device that uses some form of energy to move the charges. Ex. Battery Electric generator photo cell Battery A battery is a device that produces electricity by converting chemical energy into electrical energy So which way would the electrons move from the battery if we were to attach a wire? www.soundcloud.com Circuits • Circuit = a closed path through which electrons can flow (current). • Electrons flow in a circuit as long as there is a potential difference and an unbroken path Types of Circuits A. Series circuit – a circuit with one path for the electrons to flow. B. Parallel circuit – a circuit with two or more pathways Household circuits • Two wires run parallel (potential difference), third wire is a ground (no current goes through here) Electrical Safety • To much electricity = fire!! • Due to heat build up Fuses • Thin strip of metal through which current flows. If too much current, metal strip melts, pathway is broken. • Reset by changing fuse Circuit breakers • Use a switch that will flip open when current is too high. Stops flow of current • Reset by switching switch back to on.