Engineering Analysis for Dry-type Distribution Transformers and

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Distribution
Transformer
Standards
Rulemaking
Draft Report for Review
Engineering Analysis for
Dry-type Distribution
Transformers and Results
on Design Line 9
Prepared for:
Building Technology Program
Office of Energy Efficiency and
Renewable Energy
U.S. Department of Energy
August 23, 2002
Navigant Consulting Inc.
1801 K Street, NW
Suite 500
Washington, DC 20006
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Foreword
The U.S. Department of Energy is determining appropriate minimum efficiency levels for
distribution transformers sold in the United States. As a part of the Department’s study of the
technology, this draft report presents preliminary findings of the Engineering Analysis which
clarifies the relationship between the manufacturer’s selling price and the unit’s efficiency.
This draft report provides an overview of the engineering analysis for dry-type distribution
transformers and presents the preliminary findings for the representative unit from design line
nine, a 300 kVA, three-phase, dry-type transformer at 45kV BIL. A similar draft report on a
liquid-type unit being studied was published by the Department on December 17th, 2001. The
results in that draft report were modified following a public review and visits to several
manufacturers around the country. The updated results from the December 17th draft report were
presented in Appendix B of the Life Cycle Cost results for Design Line 1 published on June 6th,
2002. Both of these draft reports are available on the Department’s web site:
http://www.eren.doe.gov/buildings/codes_standards/applbrf/dist_transformer.html
The Department requests public review and comment on the assumptions, methodology and
results presented in this draft report. Comments will be entered into the docket for the
distribution transformers rulemaking. Please submit comments by 4 p.m. September 13th, 2002,
to:
Antonio Bouza
Program Manager
“Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers, Docket No. EE-RM/STD-00-550"
EE-2J / Forrestal Building
US Department of Energy
1000 Independence Avenue SW
Washington DC 20585-0121
Email: [email protected]
Please note that for all comments submitted, DOE requires that a signed, original document be
mailed to the address above for inclusion in the docket. However, due to possible security
screening delays in DOE’s processing of mail sent through the U.S. Postal Service, DOE
encourages stakeholders to also submit comments electronically (via email) to ensure timely
receipt.
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Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Table of Contents
1. Setting the Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2. Structuring the Engineering Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.1 Simplifying the Number of Units to Analyze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.2 Creating the Database of Transformer Designs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3. Software Inputs to Generate the Design Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.1 Material and Labor Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.2 Engineering Design Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4. Results of Analysis on the 300 kVA, Three-phase, Dry-type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5. Examples from the 300 kVA, Three-phase, 45kV BIL, Dry-type Design Database . . . . . . . . 26
5.1 OPS output for M36, Al-Al Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
5.2 OPS output for M6, Al-Al Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
5.3 OPS output for M3, Cu-Al Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Appendix A. Scaling Relationships in Transformer Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Appendix B. Optimized Program Service, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Appendix C. Engineering Analysis Database: Manufacturer Prices and Efficiencies . . . . . . . . 59
List of Tables
Table 2.1 Primary voltages and corresponding BIL levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Table 2.2 Design Lines and Representative Units for Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Table 3.1 OPS software inputs for 300 kVA 3-phase 45 kV BIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Table 3.2 Manufacturing Labor Mark-ups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Table 3.3 Design Option Combinations for 300kVA 3-phase 45kV BIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Table 5.1 Bill of Materials for M36AlAl at $1.5A and $0.5B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Table 5.2 Bill of Materials for M36AlAl at $4A and $1B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Table 5.3 Bill of Materials for M6AlAl at $1.5A and $0.5B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Table 5.4 Bill of Materials for M6AlAl at $4A and $1B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Table 5.5 Bill of Materials for M3CuAl at $1.5A and $0.5B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Table 5.6 Bill of Materials for M3CuAl at $4A and $1B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Table A.1 Common Scaling Relationships in Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Table A.2 Nominal 60 Hz, core-type, liquid-filled, 12 kV distribution transformers . . . . . . . . . 55
3
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
List of Figures
Figure 3.1 Standard method of cost accounting for DOE Rulemaking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Figure 4.1 Scatter Plot of Selling Price and Efficiency for 300 kVA 3-phase dry-type . . . . . . . 19
Figure 4.2 Scatter Plot of Selling Price and Core Loss for 300 kVA 3-phase dry-type . . . . . . . 21
Figure 4.3 Scatter Plot of Selling Price and Coil Loss for 300 kVA 3-phase dry-type . . . . . . . . 23
Figure 4.4 Scatter Plot of Selling Price and Finished Transformer Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Figure 5.1 Cost breakdown for M36-AlAl Design at $1.5A and $0.5B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Figure 5.2 Cost breakdown for M36-AlAl Design at $4A and $1B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Figure 5.3 Cost breakdown for M6-AlAl Design at $1.5A and $0.5B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Figure 5.4 Cost breakdown for M6-AlAl design at $4A and $1B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Figure 5.5 Cost breakdown for M3-CuAl Design at $1.5A and $0.5B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Figure 5.6 Cost breakdown for M3-CuAl Design at $4A and $1B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Figure A.1 Size and Performance Relationships by kVA Rating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Figure A.2 Basic three-phase transformer dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
Al
ANN
ANOPR
ANSI
BIL
CSA
Cu
DOE
HO
Hz
kV
kVA
M*
NEMA
NOPR
OPS
ORNL
SEC
US
Y
M
Aluminum
Air cooled, natural circulation
Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking
American National Standards Institute
Basic Impulse insulation Levels
Canadian Standards Association
Copper
United States Department of Energy
Laser-scribed M3 core steel
Hertz
Kilovolt
Kilovolt-Ampere (transformer size rating)
M2, M3, M4, M6 - thickness of core steel
National Electrical Manufacturers Association
Notice of Proposed Rulemaking
Optimized Program Service, Inc.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Securities and Exchange Commission
United States
Wye-type transformer terminal connection
Phase
4
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Acknowledgments
We would like to extend our sincere gratitude to several individuals who provided guidance,
data, and input to the draft report: Antonio M. Bouza and Linda Graves, both at the U.S.
Department of Energy's Office of Building Technologies; David A. Wiegand, Transformer
Engineering Services; Ben McConnell, Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Paul Goethe, Optimized
Program Service Inc.; and Jim McMahon, Robert Van Buskirk, John Stoops and Stuart Chaitkin
all of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
We would also like to acknowledge and thank the following companies for meeting with the
DOE Team this year, and providing comment on the inputs used for this analysis: ABB Power
T&D Company Inc., ACME Electric Corporation, Federal Pacific Transformer Company,
Jefferson Electric and Square D Company. We would also like to thank Ed Gray and his team at
the National Electrical Manufacturers Association.
5
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
1. Setting the Context
On November 1, 2000, the U.S. Department of Energy held a public meeting in Washington,
D.C., to discuss the Framework Document for the Distribution Transformer Energy
Conservation Standards Rulemaking. An electronic copy of this document is available on the
Department's web site at
http://www.eren.doe.gov/buildings/codes_standards/applbrf/dist_transformer.html
The Framework Document describes the procedural and analytical approaches the Department is
using as it considers energy conservation standards for distribution transformers. The formal
rulemaking process for developing energy conservation standards includes three Federal Register
notices: the Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANOPR), the Notice of Proposed
Rulemaking (NOPR), and the Notice of Final Rulemaking. With the release of this draft report,
the Department is in what is commonly called the "pre-ANOPR" stage, which means that the
Department is conducting the analysis that will be published for the ANOPR meeting next year.
This draft report provides background on the Engineering Analysis and includes a detailed costefficiency study of one of the dry-type units selected for study. The Engineering Analysis is an
integral part of the rulemaking process, as described in the following excerpt from the
Department’s Framework Document:
3.4 ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
After the screening analysis, the Department performs an engineering analysis on the
options or efficiency levels that were not eliminated. The purpose of the engineering
analysis is to estimate the relationship between transformer cost and energy efficiency
levels, referred to as a cost-efficiency schedule.
In consultation with outside experts, the Department selects the specific engineering
analysis tools to be used in the evaluation. There are three general approaches for
developing cost-efficiency schedules: the "efficiency level approach," the "design option
approach," and the "cost assessment approach" (see Sect. 4.4). The critical inputs to the
engineering analysis are data from manufacturers and/or experts in designing and costing
transformers. This includes the cost-efficiency information available through retail prices
of transformers and their existing efficiencies. However, information is also required to
estimate, for some products, cost-efficiency tradeoffs that may not be available from
current market information. This type of information may be developed by manufacturers,
from simulation models and/or by design experts.
The cost-efficiency schedules for each product class from the engineering analysis are used
in evaluations of life-cycle cost and the calculation of simple payback periods.
6
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
The Department considered three possible methods of conducting the engineering analysis and
decided on an approach that is a modified (and more transparent) efficiency level analysis. This
approach involves contracting a transformer design company that specializes in distribution
transformers. Their software tool is used to conduct literally thousands of design runs to create a
database of designs and explore the cost-efficiency relationship. The results in this draft report
represent those findings from one of the units being analyzed, a 300 kVA, three-phase, 45kV
BIL, dry-type distribution transformer.
The Department recognizes that the results in this draft report are not the definitive answer to the
question of the relationship between cost and efficiency. These results assume an ideal situation,
where manufacturers do not incur any retooling or special handling costs associated with
changing materials or core/coil dimensions. The Department requests that reviewers, and
particularly manufacturers, submit comments on what additional costs they would incur other
than for raw materials if DOE decides to introduce minimum efficiency standards.
7
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
2. Structuring the Engineering Analysis
2.1 Simplifying the Number of Units to Analyze
The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) has seventy-three different standard
kVA ratings in its TP-1-2002 document, spanning the range of liquid and dry-type distribution
transformers. These kVA ratings are based on industry standard ratings outlined in the
ANSI/IEEE C57.12.00 for liquid-type and C57.12.01 for dry-type. The Department recognizes
that it would be impractical to conduct a detailed analysis of the cost-efficiency relationship on
all seventy-three units, so it sought a method that simplified the analysis while retaining
reasonable levels of accuracy. Through consultation with industry representatives and
transformer design engineers, the DOE developed an understanding of the principles of
construction for distribution transformers. It found that many of the units share similar designs
and construction methods. Based on this knowledge, the DOE simplified the analysis by
creating thirteen “design lines,” which group together kVA ratings based on these similarities.
The thirteen“design lines” differentiated the transformers by type (liquid or dry), number of
phases (one or three), and insulation levels (BIL level). Liquid transformers use a mineral oil or
synthetic chemical as a cooling and insulating medium, while dry-type transformers use air for
cooling. Basic Impulse Insulation Levels (BIL) refer to the level of insulation wound into a
transformer, and dictate its design voltage. Generally, higher BIL levels will have lower
transformer efficiencies because the additional winding insulation and clearances will increase
the space between the core and coil, contributing to higher losses. For informational purposes,
Table 2.1 provides a breakdown of the standard BIL levels typically associated with dry-type
distribution transformer primary voltages.
Table 2.1 Primary voltages and corresponding BIL levels
Primary voltages
Dry-Type Voltage BIL
35 kV
150 kV BIL
25 kV
110-125 kV BIL
18 kV
95 kV BIL
15 kV
60 kV BIL
8.7 kV
45 kV BIL
5 kV
30 kV BIL
2.5 kV
20 kV BIL
1.2 kV
10 kV BIL
480 V
-
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Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
The DOE’s thirteen “design lines” parceled together industry’s seventy-three kVA ratings based
on construction similarities and the type of transformer, number of phases and, where
appropriate, BIL levels. Table 2.2 presents the design lines. For completeness sake, this table
shows both the liquid and dry-type design lines; however, this draft report focuses only on drytype and gives specific findings only on design line number nine.
KVA Range
Primary BIL
Range
Primary Taps,
Full Capacity
1
Liquid
Rect.
1
10-100
#95-150
kV
±2-2.5%
240/120 to 600V
50kVA, 65/C, ONAN, 1M, 60Hz,
24940GrdY/14400-240/120V, 125kV BIL
2
Liquid
Round
1
10-100
#95-150
kV
±2-2.5%
240/120 to 600V
25kVA, 65/C, ONAN, 1F, 60Hz,
24940GrdY/14400-120/240V, 125kV BIL
3
Liquid
1
167833
#95-150
kV
±2-2.5%
240/120 to 600V
500kVA, 65/C, ONAN, 1F, 60Hz,
14400/24940Y-120/240YV, 150kV BIL
4
Liquid
3
15-500
#95 kV
±2-2.5%
208Y/120 to
600V
150kVA, 65/C, ONAN, 3F, 60Hz,
12470Y/7200-208Y/120V, 95kV BIL
5
Liquid
3
7502500
#95-150
kV
±2-2.5%
208Y/120 to
600VY347
1500kVA, 65/C, ONAN, 3F, 60Hz,
24940GrdY/14400-480Y/277V, 125kV BIL
6
Dry
(LV)
1
15-333
10 kV
Universal*
120/240 to 600V
25 kVA, 150/C, ANN, 1M, 60Hz, 480 120/240V, 10 kV BIL
7
Dry
(LV)
3
15-150
10 kV
Universal*
208Y/120 to
600Y/347V
75 kVA, 150/C, ANN, 3M, 60Hz, 480 –
208Y/120V, 10 kV BIL
8
Dry
(LV)
3
2251000
10 kV
Universal*
208Y/120 to
600Y/347V
300 kVA, 150/C, ANN, 3M, 60Hz, 480 –
208Y/120V, 10 kV BIL
9
Dry
(MV)
3
15500
20-45 kV
±2-2.5%
208Y/120 to
600Y/347V
300 kVA, 150/C, ANN, 3M, 60Hz, 4160 –
480Y/277V, 45 kV BIL
10
Dry
(MV)
3
7502500
20-45 kV
±2-2.5%
208Y/120 to
600Y/347V
1500 kVA, 150/C, ANN, 3M, 60Hz, 4160 –
480Y/277V, 45 kV BIL
11
Dry
(MV)
3
15500
60-95 kV
±2-2.5%
208Y/120 to
600Y/347V
300 kVA, 150/C, ANN, 3M, 60Hz, 12470 –
480Y/277V, 95 kV BIL
12
Dry
(MV)
3
7502500
60-95 kV
±2-2.5%
208Y/120 to
600Y/347V
1500 kVA, 150/C, ANN, 3M, 60Hz, 12470 –
480Y/277V, 95 kV BIL
13
Dry
(MV)
3
2252500
110-150
kV
±2-2.5%
208Y/120 to
600Y/347V
2000 kVA, 150/C, ANN, 3M, 60Hz, 12470 –
480Y/277V, 125 kV BIL
Type
Secondary
Voltage
Range
Design Line
# of Phases
Table 2.2 Design Lines and Representative Units for Analysis
Representative Unit for
the Design Lines
*Universal Taps are 2 above and 4 below 2.5%
Note: Design line one corresponds to liquid-type rectangular tank distribution transformers, either pad-mounted or submersible.
Design line two covers the same kVA range, but it represents cylindrical tank designs, either pole-mounted or submersible.
In Table 2.2, the column labeled “Representative Unit for the Design Lines” describes the
transformer from each design line that the DOE will study in its Engineering Analysis and LifeCycle Cost Analysis. The findings of the analysis on this “representative unit” are then
extrapolated to the other kVA ratings in a given design line, thus reducing the number of units
studied from seventy-three to thirteen. The extrapolation technique employed is referred to as
the “0.75 scaling rule.” This rule states that for similarly designed transformers, cost of
construction and losses scale to the ratio of kVA ratings raised to the 0.75 power. The
relationship is valid where the optimum efficiency loading points of the two transformers being
9
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
scaled are equal. The Department demonstrated the effectiveness of the 0.75 scaling rule by
extrapolating from a few units to all the efficiency values in NEMA's TP-1 document. Appendix
A of this report contains more detail on the derivation of the 0.75 scaling rule.
In Table 2.2, dry-type distribution transformers are broken into eight separate design lines,
primarily according to their BIL levels. The Department believes this level of disaggregation is
necessary to capture important differences in the cost-efficiency relationship between units as the
BIL level varies. For example, a 500 kVA, three-phase, dry-type unit can appear in design lines
8, 9, 11, or 13 depending on whether the BIL level is 10 kV, 20-45 kV, 60-95 kV, or 110-150
kV.
For Design Lines 9 through 13, it should be noted that the representative units selected for some
of the dry-type design lines are not the standard BIL levels shown in Table 2.1. A slightly higher
BIL level was selected for the representative units from these design lines to ensure the
minimum efficiency standard would not excessively penalize customers purchasing higher BIL
levels. For example, a 300kVA with a 4160V primary is called a “5kV class” transformer and
would normally be built with a 30kV BIL level. However, customers also order a 5kV class
300kVA with a 45kV or 60kV BIL. If the minimum efficiency standard were set at the 30kV
BIL, it may be prohibitively difficult to achieve that same standard level for customers ordering
60kV BIL. Thus, the Department elected to evaluate the middle BIL level (in this example,
45kV BIL), making it slightly easier for the lower BIL levels to achieve compliance, and not too
difficult for the higher BIL level.
2.2 Creating the Database of Transformer Designs
For all the representative units, the Engineering Analysis involves exploring the relationship
between the manufacturing price and its corresponding efficiency. To explore this relationship,
the Department selected a transformer design software company called Optimized Program
Service, Inc. (OPS) to create a database of designs that span the range of efficiency levels for
each of the units being analyzed. OPS has been performing this service for manufacturers for
more than 30 years (information on OPS can be found in Appendix B of this draft report). Using
its own software, OPS prepared a database of several thousand cost-optimized designs spanning
a range of efficiencies (see Appendix C for list from design line nine).
OPS software produces an optimized, practical transformer design and bill of materials based on
a series of inputs. The design specification report includes information about the core and coil
design that would enable a manufacturer to build this unit, such as core dimensions, high and
low voltage windings, insulation, cooling ducts and labor. The software generates an estimated
cost to the manufacturer, which can then be converted to a manufacturer sales price using a
predetermined mark-up.
The OPS software also generates an electrical analysis report estimating the design’s
performance, including efficiency, at the following loading points: 25%, 35%, 50%, 65%, 75%,
100%, 125%, and 150% of nameplate load. The software provides a clear understanding of the
10
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
relationship between cost and efficiency because it provides data on the design, the bill of
materials, the labor costs and the efficiency. However, one shortcoming of this method is that
the software cannot capture retooling costs associated with changing production designs for a
specific manufacturer. Therefore, the preliminary results shown in this draft report may
underestimate manufacturer costs by excluding retooling or necessary additional capital
investment.
In order to create a database that incorporates transformer designs covering a broad spectrum of
efficiencies, the Department decided to use an approach involving loss evaluation variables.
Because the OPS software is structured to help manufacturers create economically optimized
designs to meet their client needs, it has the capability to specify the customer's valuation of
no-load (A-value) and load (B-value) losses. A and B values are expressed in dollars per watt,
and represent the present value of all future core (A) and coil (B) losses the transformer will
experience in its lifetime. The Department developed a matrix of A and B values:
A ranging from $0 to $12 by 0.5 increments
B ranging from $0 to $8 by 0.5 increments
Because B is never greater than A, the complete matrix includes 289 combinations of A and B.
The Department then used these combinations as inputs to the OPS software to create 289
different optimized transformer designs, cost-optimized to the matrix of A and B combinations.
11
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
3. Software Inputs to Generate the Design Database
3.1 Material and Labor Inputs
The Department of Energy uses a standard method of cost accounting to determine the costs
associated with manufacturing. This methodology is illustrated in Figure 3.1, where production
costs and non-production costs are combined to determine the full cost of a product.
Figure 3.1 Standard method of cost accounting for DOE Rulemaking
Full
FullCost
Costof
ofProduct
Product
Full Production Cost 1
Direct
Direct
Labor
Labor
Direct
Direct
Material
Material
Non-Production Cost
Overhead
Overhead
Indirect Labor
Mkt. research
Indirect Material
Advertising
Maintenance
Depreciation
Taxes
Insurance related
to assets
1
Selling
Selling
POS promotion
Cust. service
Sales person
salary + travel
+ commission
Logistics
- Warehousing
- Delivery
- Record
keeping
- Order entry/
processing
General
General&&
Admin.
Admin.
Costs of
service &
staff units
General
corporate
costs
- comp. etc.
RR&&DD
Interest
Interest
Costs
associated
with efforts
to find new
or improved
products or
production
processes
Costs
of
borrowing
funds
Code
compliance
Modernization
Tax Reform Act of 1986, essentially, requires companies to measure cost of goods sold as the full production cost of the goods sold.
DOE developed estimates of the costs listed in Figure 3.1 from the U.S. Industry Census Data
reports for 1992 and 1997, SEC 10-K reports for ACME Electric Corporation, Powell Industries,
Inc., Magnetek, Inc., and Hammond Manufacturing Company Limited, and industry
representatives. Note that this method of analysis does not include the profit margin associated
with the product, which is generally a mark-up applied to the full cost of the product.
In consultations with OPS and manufacturers concerning the input cost of materials, the
Department learned that when the optimizer program is running, inputs should reflect the final
marked-up transformer sales price, not the direct material cost of the materials or labor to the
manufacturer. For example, instead of having the input for core steel at $1.00 per pound as it
arrives at the manufacturer’s facility, it should be entered as $1.44 to reflect the scrap and
handling factor, factory overhead, and non-production mark-up. Table 3.1 provides all the
material prices entered into the OPS software.
12
HO steel (AK Steel laser-scribed)
M3 steel
M6 steel
M19 steel
M36 steel
Rectangular 0.1 x 0.2
Rectangular 0.1 x 0.2
Thickness Range 0.02 to 0.045
Thickness Range 0.02 to 0.045
P1, S1, Winding Form, Barrier: Nomex
0.5" dog-bone cooling duct spacer
Varnish impregnation
Start and finish terminals
Copper busbar for secondary, 10 feet
Clamp core and mount inside enclosure
14 gauge steel enclosure, base & mounting feet
Miscellaneous hardware
Core Steel
Core Steel
Core Steel
Core Steel
Copper Wire
Aluminum Wire
Copper Strip
Aluminum Strip
Insulation
Spacers
Varnish
Terminals
Busbar
Mounting Frame
Enclosure5
Hardware
Description
Core Steel
Item
ea.
ea.
ea.
ft.
set
gal.
ft.
lb.
lb.
lb.
lb.
lb.
lb.
lb.
lb.
lb.
lb.
Units
25.00
175.00
36.00
8.00
75.00
18.00
0.24
17.50
1.20
1.80
2.00
1.60
0.46
0.70
0.64
0.95
1.15
$ Cost 1
-
-
-
-
-
1.025
1.025
1.025
1.025
1.025
1.025
1.025
1.025
1.025
1.025
1.025
1.025
Handling
& Scrap2
Direct Material
1.125
1.125
1.125
1.125
1.125
1.125
1.125
1.125
1.125
1.125
1.125
1.125
1.125
1.125
1.125
1.125
1.125
Factory
Overhead3
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
Nonproduction
Mark-up4
35.16
246.09
50.63
11.25
105.47
25.94
0.35
25.22
1.73
2.59
2.88
2.31
0.66
1.01
0.92
1.37
1.66
$ Input
to OPS
2
13
Purchasing price to manufacturers from suppliers of raw materials necessary for building a transformer. Source: Paul Goethe, OPS, 2001; Manufacturer interviews, 2002.
Handling and scrap is a multiplier factor for the handling of material (loading into assembly and winding equipment). Source: Paul Goethe, OPS; Manufacturer interviews, 2002.
3
Factory overhead includes all indirect costs associated with production, energy use (e.g., furnace), light bulbs, insurance on factory and equipment, etc. Source: US Industry
Census Data for 1992 and 1997; SEC 10-K reports for Acme, Powell, Magnetek and Hammond; Manufacturer interviews, 2002.
4
Material mark-up reflects non-production costs including sales and general administrative, R&D, interest payments and profit factor mark-ups. Source: US Industry Census Data
for 1992 and 1997; SEC 10-K reports for Acme, Powell, Magnetek and Hammond; Manufacturer interviews, 2002.
5
Enclosure is 60 inches high (fixed) with variable width and depth determined by the core-coil dimensions plus a fixed amount for clearance on all sides. To simplify the pricing,
and because the primary cost is in the bending, painting and assembly of the steel, one cost was used for all enclosures.
1
Type
Table 3.1 OPS software inputs for 300 kVA 3-phase 45 kV BIL
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Variable Costs
(change with design modifications)
Fixed Costs
(does not change)
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
OPS obtained the prices of core steel for a standard quantity order from a major U.S. core steel
manufacturer. Due to current U.S. policy on steel import tariffs, the Department is conducting a
sensitivity analysis on the resulting cost-efficiency relationship, to understand how significant
changes in the cost of core steel may impact the rulemaking process. The Department will
publish this sensitivity analysis next year in the ANOPR documentation.
Labor costs are another cost component in the manufacturing of a distribution transformer. The
hourly cost of labor was developed along the same lines as the cost of materials; however, the
mark-ups used were slightly different. The mark-ups shown in Table 3.2 were developed
reviewing available literature and consulting with industry experts familiar with transformer
manufacturing in the U.S.
Table 3.2 Manufacturing Labor Mark-ups
Item description
Percent change
Labor cost per hour1
Rate per hour
$ 14.31
Indirect Production2
33%
$ 19.03
Overhead3
30%
$ 24.74
Fringe4
21%
$ 29.93
Assembly Labor Up-time5
70%
$ 42.77
Non-Production Mark-up6
25%
$ 61.16
Cost of Labor Input to OPS
$ 61.16
1
Cost per hour is from U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census of Industry, published September 1999, Table 5, page 9.
Data for NAICS code 3353111 "Power and distribution transformers, except parts" Production workers hours and wages.
2
Indirect Production Labor (Production managers, quality control, etc.) as a percent of direct labor on a cost basis. NCI
estimate.
3
Overhead includes commissions, dismissal pay, bonuses, vacation, and sick leave, social security contributions. NCI estimate.
4
Fringe includes pension contributions, group insurance premiums, workers compensation. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 1997
Economic Census of Industry, published September 1999, Table 3, page 8. Data for NAICS code 335311 "Power, Distribution
and Specialty Transformer Manufacturing", Total fringe benefits as a percent of total compensation for all employees (not just
production workers).
5
Assembly labor up-time - a factor applied to account for the time that workers are not assembling product and/or reworking
unsatisfactory units. Multiply the rate by 100/70. NCI estimate.
6
Non-production mark-up reflects non-production costs including sales and general administrative, R&D, interest payments and
profit factor mark-ups. Source: US Industry Census Data for 1992 and 1997; SEC 10-K reports for Acme, Powell, Magnetek and
Hammond; Manufacturer interviews, 2002.
3.2 Engineering Design Inputs
The purpose of this draft report is to present the methodology which the Department followed in
its study of dry-type transformers. While there are eight design lines and thus eight units that
were analyzed, design line nine was selected for presentation in this draft report. This unit is a
common kVA rating, falls in the middle of the range of transformers that may be regulated, and
is manufactured by several US companies. The results presented in this draft report on the
14
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
representative unit from design line nine are intended to show the methodology and approach
which the Department used for its Engineering Analysis.
As previously shown in Table 2.2, design line nine incorporates three-phase, dry-type, ventilated
transformers from 15 kVA through 500 kVA at 45kV BIL (medium voltage). This design line
has secondary voltages of 208Y/120 through 600Y/347V. The representative unit for this
analysis utilizes the following design parameter inputs to the OPS software:
KVA rating: 300
Number of phases: 3
Primary voltage: 4160V at 60 Hz (45 kV BIL), Delta Connected
Secondary voltage: 480Y/277V
Temperature rise: 150/C
Ambient temperature: 20/C
Taps: 4-2.5% full capacity, 2 above normal, 2 below normal
Winding Configuration: Lo-Hi
Core configuration: 3-leg, stacked, butt-lap
Impedance Range: 3.0 - 6.0%
For all distribution transformers, the Department understands there are several different ways to
build a transformer, even at the same kVA rating. Across the industry, manufacturers change
core steels (e.g., M3, M6, M19), winding materials (e.g., aluminum or copper) and core
construction methods (e.g., three (stacked) or five (wound) legs). The Department has to keep
this kind of variability in mind, in order to ensure that the most common construction techniques
are included in its analysis.
For the representative unit from design line nine, the Department selected six combinations of
core steel and winding material for analysis as shown in Table 3.3. The core steels selected
include M36, M19, M6, M3 and HO (laser-scribed M3). Although not commonly used by
industry in this design, the Department included HO material because it enables the Department
to identify the maximum efficiency level that is technically feasible, as HO is the bestperforming core steel for this unit.
Table 3.3 Design Option Combinations for 300kVA 3-phase 45kV BIL
300 kVA
Core
Conductor
Conductor
Design Option #
Material
HV
LV
1
M36, 26 gauge
AL (wire)
AL (wire)
2
M19, 26 gauge
AL (wire)
AL (wire)
3
M6, 29 gauge
AL (wire)
AL (wire)
4
M6, 29 gauge
CU (wire)
CU (wire)
5
M3
CU (wire)
AL (strip)
6
HO
CU (wire)
CU (strip)
Design
Type
3 - Leg Stacked
3 - Leg Stacked
3 - Leg Stacked
3 - Leg Stacked
3 - Leg Stacked
3 - Leg Stacked
The Department selected these six combinations of core and winding materials to cover the full
range of efficiencies (i.e., M36 covering the lower end of the scale, and HO covering the high
15
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
end). They also represent the most common design option combinations of 300kVA, threephase, 45kV BIL, dry-type transformer sold in the United States.
The Department ran each of the six design option combinations presented in Table 3.3 through
the OPS software using the matrix of 289 A and B value combinations (discussed in section 2.2)
to create a database of over 1,700 designs. These designs, which include data about the
manufacturing cost and performance of the units, are then used to evaluate the cost-efficiency
relationship for the engineering analysis.
16
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
4. Results of Analysis on the 300 kVA, Three-phase, Dry-type
This chapter presents the aggregated findings of the six design-option combinations. The plots
in this chapter show the range of prices, efficiencies, weights, and core and coil losses. Detailed
design information on the six selected units from the database is in the next chapter.
The reader should be reminded that the range of designs in the database were generated using the
aforementioned core and coil combinations and a range of evaluation formulas (A and B values).
The resulting designs in the database are not intended to reflect what is most commonly built or
sought after by installers. Rather, the database represents a range of technically feasible
efficiency levels and prices, intended to cover the full range of possible efficiencies for a 300
kVA, three-phase, dry-type at 45kV BIL.
Figure 4.1 presents a plot of the manufacturer sales prices and efficiency levels for the full
database of designs for this unit. The efficiency levels shown in this plot represent transformers
at 50% of nameplate load. Several observations can be made about this scatter plot:
•
The least expensive units employ the least expensive core steels, M36 and M19.
•
Even though extremely high evaluation formulas are being applied to M36 and M19
steels (i.e., $12A and $8B), the efficiencies are unable to improve beyond 98%.
•
NEMA’s TP-1-2002 efficiency level for this unit is 98.6% efficient. This level cannot be
achieved using the less expensive M36 and M19 core steels. This level can be achieved
by using M6 or better core steels.
•
Exponential growth in price is realized in the M3 and HO core steels, as the efficiency
level increases. For example, moving a fraction of an efficiency level (e.g., from 99.00%
to 99.25%) incurs an approximate doubling in price.
•
The increased performance and higher price of all copper windings is shown when the
M6AlAl design option combination is compared with the M6CuCu, although at several
efficiency points, M3CuAl appears to be a lower-cost option than M6CuCu.
17
Selling Price ($)
3000
96.50%
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000
M6CuCu
97.00%
97.50%
Transformer Efficiency at 50% Load (%)
98.00%
98.50%
18
Figure 4.1 Scatter Plot of Selling Price and Efficiency for 300 kVA 3-phase dry-type
HOCuCu
M3CuAl
M6AlAl
M19AlAl
M36AlAl
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
99.00%
99.50%
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Figure 4.2 presents a plot of the manufacturer sales prices and core loss in watts for the full
database of designs for this unit. Core losses are important because they occur whenever the
transformer is energized, regardless of the load.
Several observations can be made about this scatter plot:
•
The least expensive units using the lower-quality core steels (M36 and M19) have the
highest level of core loss.
•
A step improvement in core steels is apparent moving from M36 and M19 to M6 and the
other core steels. The reduction in core steel losses is dramatic, from more than 3000
watts to approximately 1000 watts.
•
Because of the different geometry enabled by the switch from aluminum windings to
copper windings, M6 core steel, which is used in both M6AlAl and M6CuCu, has
generally lower losses using copper windings.
•
As expected, M3 and HO have the lowest core loss in the database of designs. The
lowest losses for the core (about 500 watts) result from a $5000 design. Higher price
units do not reduce the losses any further.
19
Selling Price ($)
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000
0
500
1500
2500
Core Loss (watts)
2000
3000
3500
M6CuCu
HOCuCu
M3CuAl
M6AlAl
M19AlAl
M36AlAl
20
Figure 4.2 Scatter Plot of Selling Price and Core Loss for 300 kVA 3-phase dry-type
1000
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
4000
4500
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Figure 4.3 presents a plot of the manufacturer sales prices and coil loss in watts for the full
database of designs for this unit. Coil losses are dependent on the transformer’s load. The losses
depicted in this plot are at 100% of nameplate load.
Several observations can be made about this scatter plot:
•
The overall distribution of coil loss depicts steady improvement (reduction) in watts lost
as price increases.
•
As the designs approach their minimum watts of core loss (as demonstrated with the HO
core material), the price appears to increase rapidly with little or no reduction in losses.
•
M6, M3 and HO have designs that span the gamut of losses for this representative unit,
ranging from approximately 7000 watts to 1000 watts, with the majority of designs under
3000 watts.
•
The M36 and M19 core steels are more tightly grouped in terms of their watts of coil
loss. With a few exceptions of M6 designs, these units tend to have the highest coil
losses in the database.
•
The most inexpensive M6 designs, which have selling prices comparable to M36 and
M19 designs, have similar high levels of coil losses.
•
The difference between M6AlAl and M6CuCu should be noted: M6CuCu generally has a
higher selling price but slightly lower coil losses.
21
Selling Price ($)
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000
0
1000
2000
3000
Winding (coil) Loss (Watts)
4000
5000
6000
22
Figure 4.3 Scatter Plot of Selling Price and Coil Loss for 300 kVA 3-phase dry-type
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
M6CuCu
HOCuCu
M3CuAl
M6AlAl
M19AlAl
M36AlAl
7000
8000
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Figure 4.4 presents a plot of the manufacturer sales prices and weights of finished transformers.
The Department calculated these weights by summing the variable pounds of core steel, coil
windings, insulation, and enclosure size, and then adding a fixed weight for core clamps,
bushings and other fixed hardware.
Several observations can be made about this scatter plot:
•
Overall, a strong linear trend between price and weight is evident. This is due to the fact
that the sales price is driven primarily by the cost of input materials (see pie charts in
Chapter 5).
•
The slopes of the lines representing the various core steels are slightly different, with
increasing slopes for the more expensive steels.
•
Despite having the same evaluation formulas applied to create the designs, the M36 and
M19 core steels do not achieve the same weight (and size) of the other core steels. These
two are largely concentrated at the low-weight end of the spectrum.
23
Selling Price ($)
3000
1500
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000
M6CuCu
HOCuCu
M3CuAl
M6AlAl
M19AlAl
M36AlAl
2000
2500
Transformer weight (pounds)
3000
3500
24
Figure 4.4 Scatter Plot of Selling Price and Finished Transformer Weight
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
4000
4500
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
5. Examples from the 300 kVA, Three-phase, 45kV BIL, Dry-type Design Database
In order to provide a high level of detail and establish credibility with its Engineering Analysis
cost-efficiency database for design line nine, the Department selected six designs from its
database to present in this chapter. Transformer engineers can review the OPS design detail
reports, and assess the credibility of this database sample.
The six designs selected are the optimized designs for three of the core-coil combinations at two
different A and B evaluation points. The design option combinations are:
•
M36 core steel with primary and secondary aluminum windings (M36AlAl);
•
M6 core steel with primary and secondary aluminum windings (M6AlAl); and
•
M3 core steel with a copper primary winding and an aluminum secondary (M3CuAl).
The A and B evaluation points reported here are for $1.5A, $0.5B and $4A, $1B. The
differences in design become evident when one compares the core dimensions, number of turns,
and other physical attributes of the designs. Each design detail report is followed by a bill of
materials showing the cost calculation and by a pie chart providing a breakdown of the final
selling price.
5.1 OPS output for M36, Al-Al Design
The following design details report is for the $1.5A and $0.5B case for M36 core steel with an
aluminum primary and secondary.
OPTIMIZED PROGRAM SERVICE
CLEVELAND OHIO
101800
2002- 5- 7
14:59:45
3-PHASE TYPE TRANSFORMER
STRIP
FREQUENCY
CORE
60.0
KVA RATING
5.376" STRP
WINDOW:
STACK
7.206 X 20.974
WINDING FORM:INS. DIM.
300.22 @ 100.00% DUTY CYCLE
8.010
GRADE M36
EFF. AREA
5.501 X
L9M36ALAL
41.550
8.510
THICKNESS
WEIGHT
.060
THICKNESS .0185
1481.845
LENGTH 18.973
COIL SPECIFICATIONS
------------------WNDG
WIRE
LENGTH
MEAN TURNS MARGIN
WT
---------------------------------------------------------------------S1
1X 8(.1133X .4534)
AL
89.93
35.97
1.500
42.627
P1
1X 2(.0590X .2360)
AL
2118.64
53.81
1.750
65.463
NUMBER OF COILS
3
TOTAL BARE CONDUCTOR WEIGHT
25
324.270
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
WNDG TURNS LO TAP HI TAP LAYRS
T/L
LAYR INS
SEC. INS
BUILD
---------------------------------------------------------------------S1
30.0
10
3.0 1(.01000) 1(.06000)
1.323
P1
450.0
427.5
472.5 17
29.0 3(.00500) 1(.00001)
1.413
TOTAL BUILD(%)
81.02
WNDG
TAPS: TURNS( VOLTS)
---------------------------------------------------------P1
438.8( 4056.00)
461.3( 4264.00)
472.5( 4368.00)
WNDG
INTERNAL DUCTS( 90.00) %EFF EXTERNAL DUCTS( 90.00) %EFF
---------------------------------------------------------------S1
3 .500 X .500 IN. END
P1
3 .500 X .500 IN. END
.500 X .500 IN. END
WNDG
INT. DUCT AREA EXT. DUCT AREA TOTAL DUCT AREA
--------------------------------------------------------S1
1005.1800
207.2561
1212.4370
P1
1515.2910
1102.0520
2617.3430
ELECTRICAL ANALYSIS
------------------FULL-LOAD
TAP VOLTS
TEST
LOAD
RESIST. CURRNT
WNDG
VOLTS
LOW
HIGH
KV
CURRENT
@20 C.
DENS. %REG
---------------------------------------------------------------------P1
4160.00 D
3952.00 4368.00 12.0
24.604
1.07353
933.
S1
272.40 W
4.0 360.844
.00297
892. 1.7
FLUX DENS.
CORE LOSS
COIL LOSS
EXCIT. VA
EXCIT. CURR.
F.L.
12.784
2368.199
4557.040
5253.045
.421
N.L.
12.927
2420.688
.858
5459.490
.437
LEAKAGE INDUCTANCE MHYS
POWER FACTOR
IMPEDANCE %
EFFICIENCY %
OPEN ALT. DUCT 3
AMBIENT TEMP.
20.00
TEMP.RISE
115.64
OPERATING TEMP. 135.64
WINDING:
TEMP RISE:
NOMINAL LENGTH
NOMINAL DEPTH
NOMINAL HEIGHT
S1
P1
116. 105.
2
COND. I R LOSS
=
COND. EDDY CURRENT LOSS =
OTHER STRAY LOSS
=
K VALUE
=
4394.7800
30.4158
131.8434
1.0000
WIRE WRAP PER COIL
WNDG
THICKNESS
WEIGHT
------------------------P1
.00500
4.41291
S1
.00500
1.39537
26
29.762
.9999
6.79
97.75
.00
37.74
22.72
31.72
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
%LOAD
%REG
%EFF
%IR
%IX
%IZ
COIL LOSS
TEMP. RISE
-----------------------------------------------------------------------25
.32
96.59
.301 1.683 1.710
236.675
45.6
35
.45
97.34
.422 2.336 2.374
464.182
49.3
50
.67
97.81
.616 3.319 3.375
965.175
57.4
65
.93
97.95
.828 4.306 4.385
1686.616
69.1
75
1.12
97.96
.985 4.968 5.065
2313.542
79.3
100
1.70
97.75
1.457 6.637 6.795
4557.040
115.6
125
2.50
97.24
2.122 8.336 8.602
8295.920
175.8
150
3.82
96.27
3.223 10.100 10.602
15127.150
286.1
Table 5.1 provides a breakdown of costs, or the “bill of materials,” associated with this design,
M36 core steel, with an aluminum primary and secondary at $1.5A and $0.5B evaluation.
Table 5.1 Bill of Materials for M36AlAl at $1.5A and $0.5B
A$ Input
B$ Input
Material item
Winding Form (lb)
Core Steel* (lb)
Primary winding* (lb)
Secondary winding* (lb)
Primary layer insulation* (lb)
Secondary layer insulation* (lb)
Barrier insulation* (lb)
Duct Spacer* (ft)
Enclosure
Mounting Frame
Busbar (ft)
Start & finish terminals
Varnish impregnation (gal)
Misc. Hardware
$1.50
$0.50
Type
Nomex
M36
Al, wire
Al, wire
Nomex
Nomex
Nomex
0.5" dog-bone
14 gauge
HV & LV
-
Handling and Scrap Factor
Total Material Cost
Quantity
3.16
1482
196
128
24.3
6.08
1.69
199
1
1
10
5.9
1
$ each
$ total
$ 17.50 $
55.27
$
0.46 $
681.65
$
2.00 $
392.78
$
2.00 $
255.76
$ 17.50 $
424.48
$ 17.50 $
106.42
$ 17.50 $
29.51
$
0.24 $
47.81
$ 175.00 $
175.00
$ 36.00 $
36.00
$
8.00 $
80.00
$ 75.00 $
75.00
$ 18.00 $
105.98
$ 25.00 $
25.00
2.5%
Labor item
Setup & wind primary (3 phase)
Setup & wind secondary (3 phase)
Stacking core metal
Assembly (coils, yoke & clamping)
Lead dressing (3 phase)
Inspection
Preliminary and Final Test
Shipment Packing and Marking
Miscellaneous (incl. VPI)
hours
2.835
1.813
2.003
4.000
0.500
0.100
0.300
1.100
0.500
Total Labor
13.150
$
$
rate
42.77
42.77
42.77
42.77
42.77
42.77
42.77
42.77
42.77
48.46
2,539.12
$ total
$
121.25
$
77.54
$
85.65
$
171.08
$
21.39
$
4.28
$
12.83
$
47.05
$
21.39
42.77 $
562.44
$
$
$
3,101.56
317.39
854.74
Manufacturer Selling Price
$
* indicates those items to which the handling and scrap factor (2.5%) is applied
4,273.69
Manufacturing Cost (Material + Labor)
Factory Overhead (Materials only)
Selling Factor
12.5%
25.0%
27
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Figure 5.1 provides a summary of the costs
contributing to the total selling price of the
transformer detailed above. Approximately 60%
of the final selling price is material based - core,
coil, insulation and other materials. Labor
accounts for approximately 13% of the price, and
overheads account for about 27%. For definitions
of these categories, please see chapter 3 of this
draft report.
Selling Factor
20%
Core
16%
Factory
Overhead
7%
Coil
16%
Labor
13%
Insulation
Other Material
16%
12%
Figure 5.1 Cost breakdown for M36-AlAl
Design at $1.5A and $0.5B
The following design details report is for the $4A and $1B case for M36 core steel with an
aluminum primary and secondary.
OPTIMIZED PROGRAM SERVICE
CLEVELAND OHIO
101800
2002- 5- 7
15: 8:46
STRIP
3-PHASE TYPE TRANSFORMER
L9M36ALAL
FREQUENCY
60.0
KVA RATING
300.22 @ 100.00% DUTY CYCLE
CORE 5.750" STRP STACK 6.872
GRADE M36
THICKNESS .0185
WINDOW:
6.386 X 18.319
EFF. AREA
38.129
WEIGHT 1261.145
WINDING FORM:INS. DIM. 5.875 X 7.372 THICKNESS .060 LENGTH 16.319
COIL SPECIFICATIONS
------------------WNDG
WIRE
LENGTH
MEAN TURNS MARGIN
WT
---------------------------------------------------------------------S1
1X 8(.0991X .3964)
AL
79.22
33.95
1.500
28.551
P1
1X 2(.0520X .2079)
AL
1869.87
50.88
1.750
44.824
NUMBER OF COILS
3
TOTAL BARE CONDUCTOR WEIGHT
220.124
WNDG TURNS LO TAP HI TAP LAYRS
T/L
LAYR INS
SEC. INS
BUILD
---------------------------------------------------------------------S1
28.0
10
3.0 1(.01000) 1(.06000)
1.181
P1
420.0
399.0
441.0 17
27.0 3(.00500) 1(.00001)
1.294
TOTAL BUILD(%)
WNDG
TAPS: TURNS( VOLTS)
---------------------------------------------------------P1
409.5( 4056.00)
430.5( 4264.00)
441.0( 4368.00)
28
83.22
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
WNDG
INTERNAL DUCTS( 90.00) %EFF EXTERNAL DUCTS( 90.00) %EFF
---------------------------------------------------------------S1
3 .500 X .500 IN. END
P1
3 .500 X .500 IN. END
.500 X .500 IN. END
WNDG
INT. DUCT AREA EXT. DUCT AREA TOTAL DUCT AREA
--------------------------------------------------------S1
875.1730
175.1875
1050.3600
P1
1250.6590
872.9448
2123.6040
ELECTRICAL ANALYSIS
------------------FULL-LOAD
TAP VOLTS
TEST
LOAD
RESIST. CURRNT
WNDG
VOLTS
LOW
HIGH
KV
CURRENT
@20 C.
DENS. %REG
---------------------------------------------------------------------P1
4160.00 D
3952.00 4368.00 12.0
24.745
1.22126 1210.
S1
271.12 W
4.0 360.844
.00344 1173. 2.0
F.L.
FLUX DENS.
14.879
CORE LOSS
2808.597
COIL LOSS
5703.644
EXCIT. VA
11433.560
EXCIT. CURR.
.916
N.L.
15.069
2901.739
6.427
13440.600
1.077
LEAKAGE INDUCTANCE MHYS
POWER FACTOR
IMPEDANCE %
EFFICIENCY %
OPEN ALT. DUCT 3
AMBIENT TEMP.
20.00
TEMP.RISE
149.48
OPERATING TEMP. 169.48
WINDING:
TEMP RISE:
NOMINAL LENGTH
NOMINAL DEPTH
NOMINAL HEIGHT
27.746
.9993
6.49
97.24
.00
36.41
20.76
29.82
S1
P1
149. 133.
2
COND. I R LOSS
=
COND. EDDY CURRENT LOSS =
OTHER STRAY LOSS
=
K VALUE
=
5519.2450
18.8222
165.5773
1.0000
WIRE WRAP PER COIL
WNDG
THICKNESS
WEIGHT
------------------------P1
.00500
3.45985
S1
.00500
1.07986
%LOAD
%REG
%EFF
%IR
%IX
%IZ
COIL LOSS
TEMP. RISE
-----------------------------------------------------------------------25
.35
95.95
.356 1.598 1.637
279.974
49.8
35
.50
96.84
.498 2.201 2.257
546.163
54.6
50
.76
97.40
.728 3.115 3.199
1138.975
65.5
65
1.05
97.57
.990 4.037 4.156
2009.875
81.5
75
1.28
97.56
1.188 4.655 4.804
2782.728
95.6
100
2.01
97.24
1.827 6.222 6.485
5703.646
149.5
125
3.16
96.43
2.852 7.837 8.340
11134.580
247.9
150
5.61
94.44
5.070 9.592 10.850
23840.460
478.1
29
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Table 5.2 provides a breakdown of costs, or the “bill of materials,” associated with this design,
M36 core steel, with an aluminum primary and secondary at $4A and $1B evaluation.
Table 5.2 Bill of Materials for M36AlAl at $4A and $1B
A$ Input
B$ Input
Material item
Winding Form (lb)
Core Steel* (lb)
Primary winding* (lb)
Secondary winding* (lb)
Primary layer insulation* (lb)
Secondary layer insulation* (lb)
Barrier insulation* (lb)
Duct Spacer* (ft)
Enclosure
Mounting Frame
Busbar (ft)
Start & finish terminals
Varnish impregnation (gal)
Misc. Hardware
$4.00
$1.00
Type
Nomex
M36
Al, wire
Al, wire
Nomex
Nomex
Nomex
0.5" dog-bone
14 gauge
HV & LV
-
Handling and Scrap Factor
Total Material Cost
Quantity
2.57
1261
134
86
19.7
4.94
1.37
171
1
1
10
4.9
1
$ each
$ total
$ 17.50 $
44.94
$
0.46 $
580.12
$
2.00 $
268.94
$
2.00 $
171.31
$ 17.50 $
345.25
$ 17.50 $
86.39
$ 17.50 $
23.98
$
0.24 $
41.12
$ 175.00 $
175.00
$ 36.00 $
36.00
$
8.00 $
80.00
$ 75.00 $
75.00
$ 18.00 $
87.80
$ 25.00 $
25.00
2.5%
Labor item
Setup & wind primary (3 phase)
Setup & wind secondary (3 phase)
Stacking core metal
Assembly (coils, yoke & clamping)
Lead dressing (3 phase)
Inspection
Preliminary and Final Test
Shipment Packing and Marking
Miscellaneous (incl. VPI)
hours
2.646
1.711
1.718
4.000
0.500
0.100
0.300
1.100
0.500
Total Labor
12.575
$
$
rate
42.77
42.77
42.77
42.77
42.77
42.77
42.77
42.77
42.77
37.93
2,078.79
$ total
$
113.17
$
73.19
$
73.48
$
171.08
$
21.39
$
4.28
$
12.83
$
47.05
$
21.39
42.77 $
537.84
$
$
$
2,616.63
259.85
719.12
Manufacturer Selling Price
$
* indicates those items to which the handling and scrap factor (2.5%) is applied
3,595.60
Manufacturing Cost (Material + Labor)
Factory Overhead (Materials only)
Selling Factor
12.5%
25.0%
30
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Figure 5.2 provides a summary of the costs
contributing to the total selling price of the
transformer detailed above. Approximately 58% of
the final selling price is material based - core, coil,
insulation and other materials. Labor accounts for
approximately 15% of the price, and overheads
account for about 27%. For definitions of these
categories, please see chapter 3 of this draft report.
Selling Factor
20%
Core
17%
Factory
Overhead
7%
Coil
13%
Labor
15%
Insulation
15%
Other Material
13%
Figure 5.2 Cost breakdown for M36-AlAl
Design at $4A and $1B
5.2 OPS output for M6, Al-Al Design
The following design details report is for the $1.5A and $0.5B case for M6 core steel with an
aluminum primary and secondary.
OPTIMIZED PROGRAM SERVICE
CLEVELAND OHIO
101800
2002- 5- 7
11:12:24
STRIP
3-PHASE TYPE TRANSFORMER
L9M6ALAL
FREQUENCY
60.0
KVA RATING
300.22 @ 100.00% DUTY CYCLE
CORE 5.273" STRP STACK 7.228
GRADE M 6
THICKNESS .0140
WINDOW:
6.105 X 19.040
EFF. AREA
36.780
WEIGHT 1197.304
WINDING FORM:INS. DIM. 5.398 X 7.728 THICKNESS .060 LENGTH 17.040
COIL SPECIFICATIONS
------------------WNDG
WIRE
LENGTH
MEAN TURNS MARGIN
WT
---------------------------------------------------------------------S1
1X 4(.2271X .4542)
AL
71.52
33.01
1.500
33.457
P1
.1163X .2326
AL
1671.69
48.99
1.750
51.364
NUMBER OF COILS
3
TOTAL BARE CONDUCTOR WEIGHT
254.464
WNDG TURNS LO TAP HI TAP LAYRS
T/L
LAYR INS
SEC. INS
BUILD
---------------------------------------------------------------------S1
26.0
4
6.5 1(.01000) 1(.06000)
.978
P1
390.0
370.5
409.5 8
53.0 6(.00500) 1(.00001)
1.220
TOTAL BUILD(%)
WNDG
TAPS: TURNS( VOLTS)
---------------------------------------------------------P1
380.3( 4056.00)
399.8( 4264.00)
409.5( 4368.00)
31
78.01
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
WNDG
INTERNAL DUCTS( 90.00) %EFF EXTERNAL DUCTS( 90.00) %EFF
---------------------------------------------------------------S1
3 .500 X .500 IN. END
P1
3 .500 X .500 IN. END
.500 X .500 IN. END
WNDG
INT. DUCT AREA EXT. DUCT AREA TOTAL DUCT AREA
--------------------------------------------------------S1
808.1079
159.9111
968.0191
P1
1165.8540
869.4410
2035.2950
ELECTRICAL ANALYSIS
------------------FULL-LOAD
TAP VOLTS
TEST
LOAD
RESIST. CURRNT
WNDG
VOLTS
LOW
HIGH
KV
CURRENT
@20 C.
DENS. %REG
---------------------------------------------------------------------P1
4160.00 D
3952.00 4368.00 12.0
24.433
.85182
932.
S1
273.84 W
4.0 360.844
.00239
904. 1.2
FLUX DENS.
CORE LOSS
COIL LOSS
EXCIT. VA
EXCIT. CURR.
F.L.
16.732
1190.857
3593.059
3018.286
.242
N.L.
16.861
1209.377
.238
3247.553
.260
LEAKAGE INDUCTANCE MHYS
POWER FACTOR
IMPEDANCE %
EFFICIENCY %
OPEN ALT. DUCT 3
AMBIENT TEMP.
20.00
TEMP.RISE
106.40
OPERATING TEMP. 126.40
WINDING:
TEMP RISE:
S1
106.
NOMINAL LENGTH
NOMINAL DEPTH
NOMINAL HEIGHT
19.381
1.0000
4.44
98.43
.00
34.13
20.83
29.59
P1
99.
2
COND. I R LOSS
=
COND. EDDY CURRENT LOSS =
OTHER STRAY LOSS
=
K VALUE
=
3402.9220
88.0493
102.0877
1.0000
WIRE WRAP PER COIL
WNDG
THICKNESS
WEIGHT
------------------------P1
.00500
2.03860
S1
.00500
.66317
%LOAD
%REG
%EFF
%IR
%IX
%IZ
COIL LOSS
TEMP. RISE
-----------------------------------------------------------------------25
.24
98.18
.232 1.077 1.102
186.724
41.0
35
.34
98.53
.327 1.502 1.537
368.206
44.4
50
.50
98.71
.479 2.141 2.194
767.562
52.1
65
.68
98.72
.645 2.782 2.856
1340.671
63.1
75
.82
98.67
.767 3.211 3.302
1836.453
72.7
100
1.23
98.43
1.130 4.292 4.438
3593.059
106.4
125
1.79
98.00
1.633 5.387 5.629
6460.070
161.1
150
2.67
97.27
2.429 6.511 6.949
11478.180
256.8
32
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Table 5.3 provides a breakdown of costs, or the “bill of materials,” associated with this design,
M6 core steel, with an aluminum primary and secondary at $1.5A and $0.5B evaluation.
Table 5.3 Bill of Materials for M6AlAl at $1.5A and $0.5B
A$ Input
B$ Input
Material item
Winding Form (lb)
Core Steel* (lb)
Primary winding* (lb)
Secondary winding* (lb)
Primary layer insulation* (lb)
Secondary layer insulation* (lb)
Barrier insulation* (lb)
Duct Spacer* (ft)
Enclosure
Mounting Frame
Busbar (ft)
Start & finish terminals
Varnish impregnation (gal)
Misc. Hardware
$1.50
$0.50
Type
Nomex
M6
Al, wire
Al, wire
Nomex
Nomex
Nomex
0.5" dog-bone
14 gauge
HV & LV
-
Handling and Scrap Factor
Total Material Cost
Quantity
2.66
1197
154
100
17.4
1.67
1.38
179
1
1
10
4.6
1
$ each
$ total
$ 17.50 $
46.50
$
0.64 $
760.29
$
2.00 $
308.18
$
2.00 $
200.74
$ 17.50 $
303.70
$ 17.50 $
29.24
$ 17.50 $
24.21
$
0.24 $
42.94
$ 175.00 $
175.00
$ 36.00 $
36.00
$
8.00 $
80.00
$ 75.00 $
75.00
$ 18.00 $
81.97
$ 25.00 $
25.00
2.5%
Labor item
Setup & wind primary (3 phase)
Setup & wind secondary (3 phase)
Stacking core metal
Assembly (coils, yoke & clamping)
Lead dressing (3 phase)
Inspection
Preliminary and Final Test
Shipment Packing and Marking
Miscellaneous (incl. VPI)
hours
2.457
1.664
1.807
4.000
0.500
0.100
0.300
1.100
0.500
Total Labor
12.428
$
$
rate
42.77
42.77
42.77
42.77
42.77
42.77
42.77
42.77
42.77
41.73
2,230.50
$ total
$
105.09
$
71.16
$
77.29
$
171.08
$
21.39
$
4.28
$
12.83
$
47.05
$
21.39
42.77 $
531.53
$
$
$
2,762.03
278.81
760.21
Manufacturer Selling Price
$
* indicates those items to which the handling and scrap factor (2.5%) is applied
3,801.06
Manufacturing Cost (Material + Labor)
Factory Overhead (Materials only)
Selling Factor
12.5%
25.0%
33
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Figure 5.3 provides a summary of the costs
contributing to the total selling price of the
transformer detailed above. Approximately
59% of the final selling price is material based core, coil, insulation and other materials. Labor
accounts for approximately 14% of the price,
and overheads account for about 27%. For
definitions of these categories, please see
chapter 3 of this draft report.
Selling Factor
20%
Core
21%
Factory
Overhead
7%
Coil
14%
Labor
14%
Insulation
12%
Other Material
12%
Figure 5.3 Cost breakdown for M6-AlAl
Design at $1.5A and $0.5B
The following design details report is for the $4A and $1B case for M6 core steel with an
aluminum primary and secondary.
OPTIMIZED PROGRAM SERVICE
CLEVELAND OHIO
101800
2002- 5- 7
11:20: 0
STRIP
3-PHASE TYPE TRANSFORMER
L9M6ALAL
FREQUENCY
60.0
KVA RATING
300.22 @ 100.00% DUTY CYCLE
CORE 5.398" STRP STACK 8.256
GRADE M 6
THICKNESS .0140
WINDOW:
7.122 X 21.423
EFF. AREA
43.011
WEIGHT 1548.188
WINDING FORM:INS. DIM. 5.523 X 8.756 THICKNESS .060 LENGTH 19.423
COIL SPECIFICATIONS
------------------WNDG
WIRE
LENGTH
MEAN TURNS MARGIN
WT
---------------------------------------------------------------------S1
1X 4(.2607X .5214)
AL
85.75
36.75
1.500
53.290
P1
.1326X .2652
AL
2023.86
55.07
1.750
81.410
NUMBER OF COILS
3
TOTAL BARE CONDUCTOR WEIGHT
404.101
WNDG TURNS LO TAP HI TAP LAYRS
T/L
LAYR INS
SEC. INS
BUILD
---------------------------------------------------------------------S1
28.0
5
6.0 1(.01000) 1(.06000)
1.393
P1
420.0
399.0
441.0 9
55.0 5(.00500) 1(.00001)
1.483
TOTAL BUILD(%)
WNDG
TAPS: TURNS( VOLTS)
---------------------------------------------------------P1
409.5( 4056.00)
430.5( 4264.00)
441.0( 4368.00)
34
85.91
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
WNDG
INTERNAL DUCTS( 90.00) %EFF EXTERNAL DUCTS( 90.00) %EFF
---------------------------------------------------------------S1
3 .500 X .500 IN. END
P1
3 .500 X .500 IN. END
.500 X .500 IN. END
WNDG
INT. DUCT AREA EXT. DUCT AREA TOTAL DUCT AREA
--------------------------------------------------------S1
1051.7610
218.4345
1270.1960
P1
1603.8220
1162.9140
2766.7350
ELECTRICAL ANALYSIS
------------------FULL-LOAD
TAP VOLTS
TEST
LOAD
RESIST. CURRNT
WNDG
VOLTS
LOW
HIGH
KV
CURRENT
@20 C.
DENS. %REG
---------------------------------------------------------------------P1
4160.00 D
3952.00 4368.00 12.0
24.380
.78773
710.
S1
274.14 W
4.0 360.844
.00216
681. 1.1
FLUX DENS.
CORE LOSS
COIL LOSS
EXCIT. VA
EXCIT. CURR.
F.L.
13.291
973.530
3151.454
1601.564
.128
N.L.
13.391
988.263
.052
1625.713
.130
LEAKAGE INDUCTANCE MHYS
POWER FACTOR
IMPEDANCE %
EFFICIENCY %
OPEN ALT. DUCT 3
AMBIENT TEMP.
20.00
TEMP.RISE
82.29
OPERATING TEMP. 102.29
WINDING:
S1
P1
TEMP RISE:
82. 77.
2
COND. I R LOSS
COND. EDDY CURRENT LOSS
OTHER STRAY LOSS
K VALUE
NOMINAL LENGTH
NOMINAL DEPTH
NOMINAL HEIGHT
=
=
=
=
25.770
1.0000
5.77
98.64
.00
37.56
22.88
32.22
2899.5060
164.9629
86.9852
1.0000
WIRE WRAP PER COIL
WNDG
THICKNESS
WEIGHT
------------------------P1
.00500
2.79487
S1
.00500
.90941
%LOAD
%REG
%EFF
%IR
%IX
%IZ
COIL LOSS
TEMP. RISE
-----------------------------------------------------------------------25
.22
98.48
.209 1.427 1.442
173.830
37.6
35
.32
98.75
.295 1.991 2.013
342.099
40.1
50
.47
98.89
.428 2.841 2.873
708.544
45.6
65
.64
98.88
.571 3.693 3.737
1225.014
53.4
75
.77
98.84
.673 4.263 4.315
1662.902
60.0
100
1.14
98.64
.963 5.694 5.775
3151.454
82.3
125
1.60
98.33
1.328 7.139 7.262
5389.323
115.9
150
2.22
97.88
1.819 8.605 8.795
8786.483
166.6
35
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Table 5.4 provides a breakdown of costs, or the “bill of materials,” associated with this design,
M6 core steel, with an aluminum primary and secondary at $4A and $1B evaluation.
Table 5.4 Bill of Materials for M6AlAl at $4A and $1B
A$ Input
B$ Input
Material item
Winding Form (lb)
Core Steel* (lb)
Primary winding* (lb)
Secondary winding* (lb)
Primary layer insulation* (lb)
Secondary layer insulation* (lb)
Barrier insulation* (lb)
Duct Spacer* (ft)
Enclosure
Mounting Frame
Busbar (ft)
Start & finish terminals
Varnish impregnation (gal)
Misc. Hardware
$4.00
$1.00
Type
Nomex
M6
Al, wire
Al, wire
Nomex
Nomex
Nomex
0.5" dog-bone
14 gauge
HV & LV
-
Handling and Scrap Factor
Total Material Cost
Quantity
3.29
1548
244
160
21.2
2.83
1.77
204
1
1
10
6.0
1
$ each
$ total
$ 17.50 $
57.66
$
0.64 $
983.10
$
2.00 $
488.46
$
2.00 $
319.74
$ 17.50 $
370.63
$ 17.50 $
49.47
$ 17.50 $
30.90
$
0.24 $
48.95
$ 175.00 $
175.00
$ 36.00 $
36.00
$
8.00 $
80.00
$ 75.00 $
75.00
$ 18.00 $
107.88
$ 25.00 $
25.00
2.5%
Labor item
Setup & wind primary (3 phase)
Setup & wind secondary (3 phase)
Stacking core metal
Assembly (coils, yoke & clamping)
Lead dressing (3 phase)
Inspection
Preliminary and Final Test
Shipment Packing and Marking
Miscellaneous (incl. VPI)
hours
2.646
1.852
2.064
4.000
0.500
0.100
0.300
1.100
0.500
Total Labor
13.062
$
$
rate
42.77
42.77
42.77
42.77
42.77
42.77
42.77
42.77
42.77
57.28
2,905.07
$ total
$
113.17
$
79.22
$
88.28
$
171.08
$
21.39
$
4.28
$
12.83
$
47.05
$
21.39
42.77 $
558.67
$
$
$
3,463.74
363.13
956.72
Manufacturer Selling Price
$
* indicates those items to which the handling and scrap factor (2.5%) is applied
4,783.59
Manufacturing Cost (Material + Labor)
Factory Overhead (Materials only)
Selling Factor
12.5%
25.0%
36
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Figure 5.4 provides a summary of the costs
contributing to the total selling price of the
transformer detailed above. Approximately 60%
of the final selling price is material based - core,
coil, insulation and other materials. Labor
accounts for approximately 12% of the price, and
overheads account for about 27%. For
definitions of these categories, please see chapter
3 of this draft report.
Selling Factor
20%
Core
21%
Factory
Overhead
8%
Coil
17%
Labor
12%
Other Material
10%
Insulation
12%
Figure 5.4 Cost breakdown for M6-AlAl
design at $4A and $1B
5.3 OPS output for M3, Cu-Al Design
The following design details report is for the $1.5A and $0.5B case for M3 core steel with a
copper primary and aluminum secondary.
OPTIMIZED PROGRAM SERVICE
CLEVELAND OHIO
101800
2002- 5- 8
8:45:32
STRIP
3-PHASE TYPE TRANSFORMER
L9M3CUAL
FREQUENCY
60.0
KVA RATING
300.22 @ 100.00% DUTY CYCLE
CORE 5.610" STRP STACK 7.162
GRADE M 3
THICKNESS .0090
WINDOW:
6.187 X 16.817
EFF. AREA
38.173
WEIGHT 1195.203
WINDING FORM:INS. DIM. 5.735 X 7.662 THICKNESS .060 LENGTH 14.817
COIL SPECIFICATIONS
------------------WNDG
WIRE
LENGTH
MEAN TURNS MARGIN
WT
---------------------------------------------------------------------S1
.0356X11.8168
AL
73.25
33.81
1.500
36.141
P1
.1028X .2057
CU
1706.97
50.02
1.750
133.631
NUMBER OF COILS
3
TOTAL BARE CONDUCTOR WEIGHT
509.317
WNDG TURNS LO TAP HI TAP LAYRS
T/L
LAYR INS
SEC. INS
BUILD
---------------------------------------------------------------------S1
26.0
26
1.0 1(.00500) 1(.06000)
1.052
P1
390.0
370.5
409.5 9
50.0 5(.00500) 1(.00001)
1.216
TOTAL BUILD(%)
WNDG
TAPS: TURNS( VOLTS)
---------------------------------------------------------P1
380.3( 4056.00)
399.8( 4264.00)
409.5( 4368.00)
37
79.20
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
WNDG
INTERNAL DUCTS( 90.00) %EFF EXTERNAL DUCTS( 90.00) %EFF
---------------------------------------------------------------S1
3 .500 X .500 IN. END
P1
3 .500 X .500 IN. END
.500 X .500 IN. END
WNDG
INT. DUCT AREA EXT. DUCT AREA TOTAL DUCT AREA
--------------------------------------------------------S1
738.3751
146.0320
884.4071
P1
1039.5030
749.1531
1788.6560
ELECTRICAL ANALYSIS
------------------FULL-LOAD
TAP VOLTS
TEST
LOAD
RESIST. CURRNT
WNDG
VOLTS
LOW
HIGH
KV
CURRENT
@20 C.
DENS. %REG
---------------------------------------------------------------------P1
4160.00 D
3952.00 4368.00 12.0
24.349
.68451 1199.
S1
274.28 W
4.0 360.844
.00232
857. 1.1
FLUX DENS.
CORE LOSS
COIL LOSS
EXCIT. VA
EXCIT. CURR.
F.L.
16.142
751.479
2973.653
1921.907
.154
N.L.
16.248
768.364
.070
1986.095
.159
LEAKAGE INDUCTANCE MHYS
POWER FACTOR
IMPEDANCE %
EFFICIENCY %
OPEN ALT. DUCT 3
AMBIENT TEMP.
20.00
TEMP.RISE
96.02
OPERATING TEMP. 116.02
WINDING:
TEMP RISE:
NOMINAL LENGTH
NOMINAL DEPTH
NOMINAL HEIGHT
23.036
1.0000
5.17
98.77
.00
35.39
20.85
28.04
S1
P1
96. 89.
2
COND. I R LOSS
=
COND. EDDY CURRENT LOSS =
OTHER STRAY LOSS
=
K VALUE
=
2840.5150
47.9218
85.2155
1.0000
WIRE WRAP PER COIL
WNDG
THICKNESS
WEIGHT
------------------------P1
.00500
1.85361
%LOAD
%REG
%EFF
%IR
%IX
%IZ
COIL LOSS
TEMP. RISE
-----------------------------------------------------------------------25
.21
98.79
.198 1.271 1.287
156.690
37.9
35
.30
98.99
.279 1.776 1.798
309.440
41.1
50
.44
99.07
.408 2.535 2.567
644.701
48.0
65
.60
99.04
.547 3.296 3.341
1123.315
57.9
75
.73
98.99
.649 3.805 3.859
1534.826
66.4
100
1.08
98.77
.945 5.083 5.170
2973.653
96.0
125
1.56
98.42
1.342 6.376 6.516
5263.746
143.4
150
2.24
97.88
1.925 7.692 7.929
9035.580
220.1
38
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Table 5.5 provides a breakdown of costs, or the “bill of materials,” associated with this design,
M3 core steel, with a copper primary and aluminum secondary at $1.5A and $0.5B evaluation.
Table 5.5 Bill of Materials for M3CuAl at $1.5A and $0.5B
A$ Input
B$ Input
Material item
Winding Form (lb)
Core Steel* (lb)
Primary winding* (lb)
Secondary winding* (lb)
Primary layer insulation* (lb)
Secondary layer insulation* (lb)
Barrier insulation* (lb)
Duct Spacer* (ft)
Enclosure
Mounting Frame
Busbar (ft)
Start & finish terminals
Varnish impregnation (gal)
Misc. Hardware
$1.50
$0.50
Type
Nomex
M3
Cu, wire
Al, strip
Nomex
Nomex
Nomex
0.5" dog-bone
14 gauge
HV & LV
Quantity
2.36
1195
401
108
14.7
6.20
1.23
156
1
1
10
4.5
1
-
Handling and Scrap Factor
Total Material Cost
$ each
$ total
$ 17.50 $
41.27
$
0.95 $ 1,135.44
$
1.60 $
641.43
$
1.20 $
130.11
$ 17.50 $
256.81
$ 17.50 $
108.48
$ 17.50 $
21.52
$
0.24 $
37.34
$ 175.00 $
175.00
$ 36.00 $
36.00
$
8.00 $
80.00
$ 75.00 $
75.00
$ 18.00 $
80.60
$ 25.00 $
25.00
2.5%
Labor item
Setup & wind primary (3 phase)
Setup & wind secondary (3 phase)
Stacking core metal
Assembly (coils, yoke & clamping)
Lead dressing (3 phase)
Inspection
Preliminary and Final Test
Shipment Packing and Marking
Miscellaneous (incl. VPI)
hours
2.457
1.704
1.791
4.000
0.500
0.100
0.300
1.100
0.500
Total Labor
12.451
$
$
rate
42.77
42.77
42.77
42.77
42.77
42.77
42.77
42.77
42.77
58.28
2,902.28
$ total
$
105.09
$
72.87
$
76.58
$
171.08
$
21.39
$
4.28
$
12.83
$
47.05
$
21.39
42.77 $
532.55
$
$
$
3,434.82
362.78
949.40
Manufacturer Selling Price
$
* indicates those items to which the handling and scrap factor (2.5%) is applied
4,747.01
Manufacturing Cost (Material + Labor)
Factory Overhead (Materials only)
Selling Factor
12.5%
25.0%
39
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Figure 5.5 provides a summary of the costs
contributing to the total selling price of the
transformer detailed above. Approximately 61%
of the final selling price is material based - core,
coil, insulation and other materials. Labor
accounts for approximately 11% of the price, and
overheads account for about 28%. For definitions
of these categories, please see chapter 3 of this
draft report.
Selling Factor
20%
Core
24%
Factory
Overhead
8%
Labor
11%
Coil
17%
Other Material
10%
Insulation
10%
Figure 5.5 Cost breakdown for M3-CuAl
Design at $1.5A and $0.5B
The following design details report is for the $4A and $1B case for M3 core steel with a copper
primary and aluminum secondary.
OPTIMIZED PROGRAM SERVICE
CLEVELAND OHIO
101800
2002- 5- 8
8:53: 1
STRIP
3-PHASE TYPE TRANSFORMER
L9M3CUAL
FREQUENCY
60.0
KVA RATING
300.22 @ 100.00% DUTY CYCLE
CORE 5.459" STRP STACK 7.586
GRADE M 3
THICKNESS .0090
WINDOW:
6.773 X 18.677
EFF. AREA
39.339
WEIGHT 1311.091
WINDING FORM:INS. DIM. 5.584 X 8.086 THICKNESS .060 LENGTH 16.677
COIL SPECIFICATIONS
------------------WNDG
WIRE
LENGTH
MEAN TURNS MARGIN
WT
---------------------------------------------------------------------S1
.0374X13.6765
AL
77.97
34.65
1.500
46.689
P1
.1129X .2258
CU
1824.37
51.48
1.750
173.293
NUMBER OF COILS
3
TOTAL BARE CONDUCTOR WEIGHT
659.946
WNDG TURNS LO TAP HI TAP LAYRS
T/L
LAYR INS
SEC. INS
BUILD
---------------------------------------------------------------------S1
27.0
27
1.0 1(.00500) 1(.06000)
1.139
P1
405.0
384.8
425.3 9
53.0 5(.00500) 1(.00001)
1.306
TOTAL BUILD(%)
WNDG
TAPS: TURNS( VOLTS)
---------------------------------------------------------P1
394.9( 4056.00)
415.1( 4264.00)
425.3( 4368.00)
40
77.60
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
WNDG
INTERNAL DUCTS( 90.00) %EFF EXTERNAL DUCTS( 90.00) %EFF
---------------------------------------------------------------S1
3 .500 X .500 IN. END
P1
3 .500 X .500 IN. END
.500 X .500 IN. END
WNDG
INT. DUCT AREA EXT. DUCT AREA TOTAL DUCT AREA
--------------------------------------------------------S1
844.1016
169.6575
1013.7590
P1
1228.3320
895.8640
2124.1960
ELECTRICAL ANALYSIS
------------------FULL-LOAD
TAP VOLTS
TEST
LOAD
RESIST. CURRNT
WNDG
VOLTS
LOW
HIGH
KV
CURRENT
@20 C.
DENS. %REG
---------------------------------------------------------------------P1
4160.00 D
3952.00 4368.00 12.0
24.307
.60295
986.
S1
274.71 W
4.0 360.844
.00204
706.
.9
FLUX DENS.
CORE LOSS
COIL LOSS
EXCIT. VA
EXCIT. CURR.
F.L.
15.097
680.575
2520.136
1586.851
.127
N.L.
15.184
690.620
.039
1615.198
.129
LEAKAGE INDUCTANCE MHYS
POWER FACTOR
IMPEDANCE %
EFFICIENCY %
OPEN ALT. DUCT 3
AMBIENT TEMP.
20.00
TEMP.RISE
80.75
OPERATING TEMP. 100.75
WINDING:
TEMP RISE:
S1
81.
NOMINAL LENGTH
NOMINAL DEPTH
NOMINAL HEIGHT
22.954
1.0000
5.12
98.95
.00
36.69
21.86
29.59
P1
76.
2
COND. I R LOSS
=
COND. EDDY CURRENT LOSS =
OTHER STRAY LOSS
=
K VALUE
=
2386.7360
61.7981
71.6021
1.0000
WIRE WRAP PER COIL
WNDG
THICKNESS
WEIGHT
------------------------P1
.00500
2.16286
%LOAD
%REG
%EFF
%IR
%IX
%IZ
COIL LOSS
TEMP. RISE
-----------------------------------------------------------------------25
.18
98.91
.173 1.265 1.277
138.212
36.6
35
.26
99.09
.244 1.768 1.784
272.435
39.1
50
.39
99.17
.354 2.523 2.548
564.965
44.5
65
.53
99.16
.472 3.280 3.314
977.636
52.2
75
.63
99.11
.556 3.786 3.827
1327.832
58.7
100
.93
98.95
.794 5.057 5.119
2520.136
80.8
125
1.31
98.69
1.092 6.337 6.430
4316.851
114.1
150
1.80
98.32
1.490 7.632 7.776
7039.974
164.0
41
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Table 5.6 provides a breakdown of costs, or the “bill of materials,” associated with this design,
M3 core steel, with a copper primary and aluminum secondary at $4A and $1B evaluation.
Table 5.6 Bill of Materials for M3CuAl at $4A and $1B
A$ Input
B$ Input
Material item
Winding Form (lb)
Core Steel* (lb)
Primary winding* (lb)
Secondary winding* (lb)
Primary layer insulation* (lb)
Secondary layer insulation* (lb)
Barrier insulation* (lb)
Duct Spacer* (ft)
Enclosure
Mounting Frame
Busbar (ft)
Start & finish terminals
Varnish impregnation (gal)
Misc. Hardware
$4.00
$1.00
Type
Nomex
M3
Cu, wire
Al, strip
Nomex
Nomex
Nomex
0.5" dog-bone
14 gauge
HV & LV
Quantity
2.71
1311
520
140
17.0
7.44
1.42
175
1
1
10
5.1
1
-
Handling and Scrap Factor
Total Material Cost
$ each
$ total
$ 17.50 $
47.40
$
0.95 $ 1,245.54
$
1.60 $
831.81
$
1.20 $
168.08
$ 17.50 $
297.49
$ 17.50 $
130.16
$ 17.50 $
24.89
$
0.24 $
42.03
$ 175.00 $
175.00
$ 36.00 $
36.00
$
8.00 $
80.00
$ 75.00 $
75.00
$ 18.00 $
92.48
$ 25.00 $
25.00
2.5%
Labor item
Setup & wind primary (3 phase)
Setup & wind secondary (3 phase)
Stacking core metal
Assembly (coils, yoke & clamping)
Lead dressing (3 phase)
Inspection
Preliminary and Final Test
Shipment Packing and Marking
Miscellaneous (incl. VPI)
hours
2.552
1.747
1.896
4.000
0.500
0.100
0.300
1.100
0.500
Total Labor
12.695
$
$
rate
42.77
42.77
42.77
42.77
42.77
42.77
42.77
42.77
42.77
68.50
3,339.36
$ total
$
109.13
$
74.70
$
81.11
$
171.08
$
21.39
$
4.28
$
12.83
$
47.05
$
21.39
42.77 $
542.94
$
$
$
3,882.30
417.42
1,074.93
Manufacturer Selling Price
$
* indicates those items to which the handling and scrap factor (2.5%) is applied
5,374.65
Manufacturing Cost (Material + Labor)
Factory Overhead (Materials only)
Selling Factor
12.5%
25.0%
42
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Figure 5.6 provides a summary of the costs
contributing to the total selling price of the
transformer detailed above. Approximately 62% of
the final selling price is material based - core, coil,
insulation and other materials. Labor accounts for
approximately 10% of the price, and overheads
account for about 28%. For definitions of these
categories, please see chapter 3 of this draft report.
Selling Factor
20%
Core
24%
Factory
Overhead
8%
Labor
10%
Coil
19%
Other Material
9%
Insulation
10%
Figure 5.6 Cost breakdown for M3-CuAl
Design at $4A and $1B
43
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Appendix A. Scaling Relationships in Transformer Manufacturing1
There exist certain fundamental relationships between the ratings in kVA of transformers and
their physical size and performance. A rather obvious such relationship is the fact that large
transformers of the same voltage have lower percentage losses than small units, i.e., large
transformers are more efficient. These size-versus-performance relationships arise from
fundamental equations describing a transformer's voltage and kVA rating. For example, by
fixing the kVA rating and voltage frequency, the product of the conductor current density, core
flux density, core cross-sectional area, and total conductor cross-sectional area is constant.
To illustrate this point, consider a transformer with frequency, magnetic flux density, current
density, and BIL all fixed. If one enlarges (or decreases) the kVA rating, then the only free
parameters are the core cross-section and the core window area through which the windings
pass. Thus, to increase (or decrease) the kVA rating, the dimensions for height width and depth
of the core/coil assembly may be scaled equally in all directions. Careful examination reveals
that linear dimensions vary as the ratio of kVA ratings to the ¼ power. Similarly, areas vary as
the ratios of kVA ratings to the ½ power and volumes vary as the ratio of the kVA ratings to the
¾ or 0.75 power. Hence, there is the term "0.75 scaling rule". Table A.1 depicts the most
common scaling relationships in transformers.
1
This Appendix was drafted by Ben McConnell of Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge,
Tennessee, and David Wiegand of Transformer Engineering Services in London, Ontario.
44
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Table A.1 Common Scaling Relationships in Transformers
Parameter Being Scaled
Relationship to kVA Rating
(varies with ratio of kVAx)
Weight
(kVA1/kVA0)3/4
Cost
(kVA1/kVA0)3/4
Length
(kVA1/kVA0)1/4
Width
(kVA1/kVA0)1/4
Height
(kVA1/kVA0)1/4
Total Losses
(kVA1/kVA0)3/4
No-load Losses
(kVA1/kVA0)3/4
Exciting Current
(kVA1/kVA0)3/4
% Total Loss
(kVA1/kVA0)-1/4
% No Load Loss
(kVA1/kVA0)-1/4
% Exciting Current
(kVA1/kVA0)-1/4
%R
(kVA1/kVA0)-1/4
%X
(kVA1/kVA0)1/4
Volts/Turn
(kVA1/kVA0)1/2
The following three elements are true as the kVA rating increases or decreases if the following
conditions are met: holding constant the type of transformer (distribution or power transformer,
liquid-filled or dry-type, single-phase or three-phase), the primary voltage, the core
configuration, the core material, the core flux density, and the current density (amperes per
square inch of conductor cross-section) in both the primary and secondary windings.
1.
2.
3.
The physical proportions are constant (same relative shape),
The eddy loss proportion is essentially constant, and
The insulation space factor (voltage or BIL) is constant.
In practical applications it is rare to find that all of the above are constant over even limited
ranges; however, over a range of one order of magnitude in both directions (say from 50kVA to
5kVA or from 50kVA to 500kVA), the scaling rules shown in Table A.1 can be used to establish
reasonable estimates of performance, dimensions, costs and losses. In practice, these rules can be
applied over even wider ranges to estimate general performance levels. The same quantities are
depicted graphically in Figure A.1 for reference.
45
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Size/Performance Relations vs. Rating
Weight, Cost, Total
Loss, No-load loss,
Exciting Current 0.75 power
Ratio of Quantity
10.00
Volts/ turn - 0.5
power
Dimensions - Percent
Reactance 0.25 power
1.00
Percentage: No-load
Loss, Total Loss,
Resistance - -0.25
power
0.10
0.1
1
10
Ratio of kVA's
Figure A.1 Size and Performance Relationships by kVA Rating
To illustrate how the scaling laws are used, consider two transformers with kVA ratings of S0
and S1. The no-load losses (NL) and total losses (TL) of these two transformers would be
depicted as NL0 and TL0, and NL1 and TL1. Then the relationships between the NL and TL of
the two transformers could be shown as follows:
0.75
0.75
S 
NL1 = NL0  1 
 S0 
S 
and TL1 = TL0  1. 
 S0 
These two equations can be manipulated algebraically to show that the load loss also varies to
the 0.75 power. Starting with the concept that total losses equals no-load losses plus load losses,
we can derive the relationship for load loss (LL), and show that it also scales to the 0.75 power.
Specifically:
LL1 = TL1 - NL1 .
Plugging the TL1 and NL1 terms into this equation, we find:
0.75
S 
LL1 = TL0  1 
 S0 
0.75
S 
- NL0  1 
 S0 
0.75
S 
= ( TL0 − NL0 )  1  .
 S0 
46
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
That is,
0.75
S 
LL1 = LL0  1 
 S0 
.
In this way, the 0.75 scaling rule can be used to derive the losses of a transformer knowing the
losses of a reference unit, if the specified type of transformer is held constant and key parameters
are fixed such as the type of core material, core flux density, and conductor current density in the
high and low voltage windings.
Theory and Basis for Scaling Rules
In order to understand the origins of winding and output coefficients and related scaling laws, it
is necessary to review some basic equations and definitions. Most are lifted freely or derived
from similar material in the text, Modern Power Transformer Practice, Wiley 1979, edited by R.
Feinberg. No mathematics beyond elementary algebra is required, but a good deal of implied
physics and electrical engineering is required to fully appreciate these derivations.
Power and Voltage Equations
The machine equation relates the induced volts, V, per phase to the number of turns (N) the
frequency (f) in Hertz, the peak core flux density Bm in Tesla, and the cross-sectional area of the
core steel (AFe) in square meters. The units are mixed to simplify the basic equations, a common
practice in transformer design texts. The machine equation is derived from Faraday's law, which
is expressed as
v = −N
∂φ
,
∂t
where v is the instantaneous value of V, and
with respect to time.
∂φ
is the derivative of changing magnetic flux
∂t
Considering V as the root-mean-square (rms) value of a sine-wave alternating current voltage,
the above equation can be converted into:
V/N = 4.44 f Bm AFe .
(equation 1)
The voltage and turns may apply to either primary or secondary winding and, for the ideal
transformer with no losses and no-leakage flux,
V1/V2 = N1/N2 = n = I2/I1 ,
47
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
where V1 and V2 represent primary and secondary voltages respectively, N1 and N2 primary and
secondary turns, and I1 and I2 primary and secondary currents in amperes (amps). The quantity n
is referred to as the “turns ratio.” With the parameters defined, and using equation (1), the
output or transformer capacity (S) in MVA per phase can be expressed as:
S = 4.44 f Bm AFe N I .
(equation 1a)
The overall cross-section of primary plus secondary conductors in square meters is
ACu = (N1a1 + N2a2) x 10-6,
and, assuming current densities for primary and secondary windings to be equal, then
ACu = 2 x 10-6 Na,
where “a” is the conductor cross-section in square millimeters (mm2) of an individual turn
referred to the winding with N turns and a1 and a2 are conductor cross-sections of primary and
secondary turns respectively. As long as the winding current densities are equal, either winding
may be used as reference, provided the choice of primary or secondary is consistent. Starting
with (equation 1a), using the ACu relationship explained above, and letting J represent current
density in amps per mm2:
S = 2.22 f Bm J AFe ACu .
(equation 2)
Let Aw be the core window area in square meters, and kw the window space factor, as given by 2
ACu /Aw. (Refer to Figure A.2 and note that in a three-phase transformer there are two coil phases
occupying a given core window). This fraction is indicative of the insulation and cooling
channel requirements. For distribution transformers, kw is found to be about 0.3-0.4 for nominal
12 kV systems. Using these definitions,
S = 1.11 f Bm J AFe kw Aw .
(equation 2a)
Note that, for a given MVA rating, and specified flux and current densities, the product of
conductor and core cross-section is constant and inversely related; i.e. AFe " 1/ACu.
Losses
Ideally, if the values of energy loss in Watts per kilogram (W/kg) of unit mass of the core and
windings are known, the total core and load losses (PFe and PCu) can be readily obtained. These
results are accomplished by multiplying the W/kg for both core and windings by the core mass
and the conductor mass respectively, (or by their volumes times material densities).
We use the convention that lower case corresponds to per-unit quantities and upper case
corresponds to total or to total-per-phase quantities. Load losses consist of resistive (pR) and
eddy (pi) components. Expressions can be derived that express each in terms of the conductor
48
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
properties and geometry. The fraction of eddy losses plays an important role and can be
expressed as
%Pi = 100 Pi/PR, or Pi = PR 
%Pi 
 .
 100 
Ignoring stray loss, (which is associated with eddy losses), let Pt represent total load loss for a
three-phase transformer. That is,
Pt = 3PCu.
Also assume the same eddy loss fraction in primary and secondary windings.
 %Pi   %Pi 
 = 1+
 PR = ki PR .
 100   100 
PCu = PR+ Pi = PR + PR 
Closely associated with the load loss of a transformer is its impedance. When the load loss of a
given transformer is determined by test (the wattmeter reading in the test circuit), that same test
also provides the value of the impedance (the voltmeter reading in the test circuit). Impedance in
a transformer is expressed in terms of the “impedance voltage,” which is defined as “the voltage
required to circulate rated current through one of two specified windings of a transformer when
the other winding is short-circuited, with the windings connected as for rated voltage operation”
(IEEE C57.12.80).
For convenience, “percent impedance,” %Z, is used to describe the impedance voltage of a
transformer. In accordance with the definition given above,
%Z = IZ ×100 ,
V
that is, when related to the primary or secondary winding of a transformer, the percent
impedance is the percent voltage drop due to impedance when rated current flows through the
respective primary or secondary winding of the transformer.
The %Z may be represented by its resistive and reactive components, %R and %X, as
%Z =
( %R) + ( %X)
2
2
.
Therefore, we can express percent resistance (%R) as follows:
%R =
IR ×102
.
V
49
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Note that R in the numerator must represent the total resistance in the transformer windings.
Therefore, if the transformer is being viewed from the primary terminals, the value of R would
be the total resistance of the primary winding, plus the total resistance of the secondary winding
referred to the primary winding, (R2(N1/N2)2).
Where the percent impedance, percent reactance, and percent resistance are related to the voltage
across the primary or secondary winding of a transformer, the percent load loss (%I2R) is related
to the MVA capacity of the transformer, stray loss being ignored as stated previously.
Multiplying numerator and denominator in the above equation by I, and letting Pt represent total
load loss in watts and S represent the megavoltamperes (MVA per phase) rating, we determine
the percent load loss as:
Percent load loss =
∴%R =
I2R ×102 I2R ×102
=
I×V
3S×106
10−4 Pt
.
3S
Thus, an expression of %R is equivalent to indicating the transformer's load loss.
From equation (2), it is evident that once the core flux density and current density are fixed, the
transformer rating is dependent upon the core cross-section and window area. Next, we will
derive information about the window shape.
In a detailed discussion of the reactance, the electrical characteristics would depend upon:
•
•
the ratio of winding height (h) to the winding mean turn (s), and
the ratio of the cross-sectional areas of the core and conductor (AFe /ACu)
The mean value of s (a linear measurement, recording the circumference), is given by the
equation s = (s1 + s2)/2, where s1 is the mean turn of the primary winding and s2 is the mean turn
of the secondary winding.
These ratios, together with the necessary space factors for insulating and cooling clearances,
establish the relative volumes of the core and conductor. Consequently, if fixed values for the
specific loadings and therefore specific losses for core and conductor can be assumed, the ratios
of core loss and load loss are established.
50
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
The following application of relationships derive an expression relating the flux and current
densities. Starting with the simple expression of:


PCu = 1 +
%Pi 
 PR = k i PR
100 
PCu = (I12 R1 + I22 R 2 )k i ,
where subscripts 1 and 2 indicate primary and secondary windings respectively. The resistance
per phase of the primary winding is given by
R1 =
ρN1s1
ohms,
a1
where a1 is the cross-sectional area of the primary copper conductor, and D is the resistivity at
full load operating temperature of the conductor, 21.4 x 10-3 ohm - meters. The value of R2 is
similarly obtained:
 I2 ρN s I2 ρN s
∴ PCu =  1 1 1 + 2 2 2
a2
 a1

 ki

Is
Is 
∴ PCu = IN  1 1 + 2 2  ρk i ,
a2 
 a1
where IN is the ampere-turns in either winding. As before, the assumption of equal current
densities in the windings is made, driven by the condition for minimum I2R loss. Accordingly,
PCu = 2INJsD ki
∴J =
PCu
, the current density equation.
,
2INsρki
Multiplying equation (1) by I and rearranging algebraically we get
IN =
VI
.
4.44fBmAFe
51
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
It was established earlier that S is the rating per phase in MVA, that is VI = 106S. Thus:
106 S
∴IN =
.
4.44fBmAFe
Using the current density equation, substituting the resistivity value for D, and the above value
for IN, we can derive that:
104×10−6 fBmAFe PCu
.
J=
.
kisS
The watts of conductor loss (for copper) can be expressed as a percentage of the transformer
MVA rating:
%PCu =
PCu ×102
,
S
or in kilowatts:
%PCu = PCu ×10 = 0.1PCu
.
3
2
S×10
S
By substituting in the revised equation for J (amperes per square meter), we get
J=
104×10−6 fBmAFeS %PCu 1040×10−6 fBmAFe
×
=
×%PCu .
kisS
0.1
kis
(equation 3)
If aluminum windings were used instead of copper, a value of 655 would be substituted for 1040.
The expression assumes equal J in both windings and that both windings are made of the same
material. The losses are expressed at operating temperature.
If J and Bm are chosen independently, the transformer will have a natural value of conductor loss
depending upon the ratio AFe/s. Conversely, if losses are specified, the choice of J is determined
by Bm and AFe/s. Note that this relationship gives no information about the other transformer
dimensions. The impedance, voltage, and other space requirements provide the majority of this
information.
52
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Output and Winding Coefficients
Starting with the output or power equation (2), we can write:
S = 2.22 f Bm J AFe ACu
or
AFe =
S
2.22 f BmJ ACu
.
Then, without changing the value, we can state:
AFe =
AFe =
S2
( 2.22f BmJ ACu )
S
2
=
S
2.22f BmJ(AFe )(ACu ) , or
2
( 2.22f BmJ ACu )
AFe
.
(2.22f BmJ)(ACu )
(equation 4)
Use KAS to represent the portion of Equation (4) to the right of
S .
The expression KAS is essentially constant for a wide range of transformer classes and is called
the output coefficient. For three-phase liquid filled distribution transformers at 60 Hz, the value
of KAS ranges from 0.050-0.055 with a nominal median value of 0.052. For single phase, wound
core, liquid filled units at 60 Hz the median value is about 0.040.
In a similar fashion making use of equation (4), we can restate equation (1) as follows
(4.44fBm )2 SAFe
V
= 4.44fBmAFe =
N
2.22fBmJACu
=
 8.88fBm   AFe 
 J   A  ( S)

  Cu 
= KVS S .
(equation 5)
The expression KVS is also essentially constant for a wide range of transformer classes and is
called the winding coefficient. We can also express KVS in terms of KAS:
KVS= 4.44 f Bm KAS .
For 60 Hz systems this may be rewritten as KVS = 266.4 Bm KAS. Thus the median values for KVS
become 21.5 for three-phase and 17.0 for single-phase wound core distribution transformers at
53
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
60 Hz with Bm = 1.55 Tesla. Equations (4)-(6) provide initial estimates for transformer
dimensions in studies. They are the starting basis for the scaling laws used to scale designs and
performance. Typical values are given in Table A.2 for core type, liquid filled, 60 Hz
distribution transformers at 12 kV, 95 kV BIL.
Table A.2 Nominal 60 Hz, core-type, liquid-filled, 12 kV distribution transformers
Class
of Dist.
Bm
(Tesla)
J(A/mm2)
AFe/ACu
KAS
KVS
%X
XFRM
Range
Nominal
Nominal
Range
Nominal
Range
Nominal
3-Phase
2.4-3.2
2.7
1.55
1.4-2.8
1.6
0.0500.055
0.052
21.5
4.75
1-Phase
2.0-2.5
2.3
1.55
0.65-0.85
0.8
0.0380.043
0.041
17.0
4.75
Scaling Laws
Having established the output and winding coefficients, it is instructive to examine the origin of
the 0.75 rules for scaling transformer losses. To illustrate, first of all, we need to set
relationships as follows:
V
= K VS S
N
AFe = KAS S
ACu = KCS S , (where K = 1
CS
KAS
)
s ~ (AFe0.5 + b w ) ~ S0.25.
4
The shape of the window is set by voltage and the ratio h/s, which is essentially constant for a
given voltage and size, thus setting bw. Refer to Figure A.2 for dimensional definitions.
54
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Now, we consider the load losses, PCu (in kW/phase):
2
PCu =
2
I2 R
S
R
=  
= S R
 
1000
 V  1000
 V  1000
4.28 ×10−17 S2 sN2
=
=
ACu V2
K S ×s = K'S0.75.
The other scaling laws are derived in a similar fashion.
–
1
b
2 can
bcan
d
1
b
2 w
bw
1
b
4 w
1
nw
b01
b1
S
2π
2
t0
b02
b2
S1
2π
S2
2π
3
n01
4
n02
AFeA
Note: This diagram is not to scale
Figure A.2 Basic three-phase transformer dimensions
55
1
2
n
Source: R. Feinberg, Modern Power Transformer Practice
2bFe
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Appendix B. Optimized Program Service, Inc.
DOE retained Optimized Program Service, Inc. (OPS) to
conduct the computer modeling runs on the representative
models from each of the design lines. This section provides
some background on the company and its design software.
Company profile
OPS began in 1969 to provide comprehensive design tools for the transformer industry. OPS
blends magnetic design theory with practical manufacturing experience, resulting in a series of
software products that provide accurate and reliable transformer designs.
The OPS programming staff has over one hundred years of combined experience in transformer
design and manufacturing. Present and past clientele include large and small transformer
manufacturers, designers and specifiers all over the world - from small one-man companies to
large international blue-chip corporations.
How the software works
Design requirements are submitted to the program, which directs the user through the entire
design process, asking for all data necessary to develop a design that meets the specific
requirements of the application. Multiple-choice questions and on-screen illustrations show
alternatives that are available for each condition and provide a graphical representation of the
selections. The designer can use preprogrammed default values or change the data to meet any
special requirements of the design.
Design data are then submitted to the programs that will develop a practical design. Using
modular architecture, specific routines are called in to achieve different levels of functionality.
The programs can automatically select cores, wires or insulation, or the user can enter their own.
The format of the program's output includes physical characteristics, dimensions, material
requirements, and mechanical clearances, as well as a complete and very comprehensive
electrical analysis of the final design.
Software used for the Engineering Analysis
DOE used two OPS programs to generate the design database for the engineering analysis.
These included 2TRANS and TOPT. The 2TRANS is a comprehensive design program used to
design a wide range of linear transformers. For small linear transformers, 2TRANS will design a
broad range of single or three-phase transformers with or without rectified outputs. For large
transformers, 2TRANS will handle ratings upwards of 5000 kVA. Standard industry winding
schemes such as barrel, disk and section winding are accommodated. Cooling methods available
56
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
are air, forced-air and oil-filled. 2TRANS is used to design a range of transformers, including
distribution transformers.
TOPT is a transformer design optimization program, which uses sophisticated mathematical
routines to develop the best combination of materials to minimize cost, weight or size of a
transformer. It is used when the designer has complete freedom to change core dimensions.
TOPT works in tandem with 2TRANS to produce practical designs close to the true optimum.
Optimized Program Service, Inc.
P.O. Box 360676
Strongsville, Ohio 44136
Phone: 440.238.0700
Fax: 440.238.0751
[email protected]
www.opsprograms.com
57
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Appendix C. Engineering Analysis Database: Manufacturer Prices and Efficiencies
This appendix presents selected data fields from the engineering analysis database on all the
transformer designs in design line nine. These data are shown graphically in the scatter plots in
section 4 of this report. In this database extraction, the efficiency, the core and coil losses, and
the manufacturer ex-factory price are shown for each record.
As discussed in this report, the engineering analysis design database was generated by OPS
using its software described in Appendix B. While these tables in Appendix C present only five
fields of data, the complete engineering analysis database contains a design details report on
each of these records, containing all the design parameters and electrical analysis data shown in
the example designs of Chapter 5.
The data in the following 30 tables has been ordered by efficiency level and then by price.
58
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Table C.1 Engineering Analysis Database
ID
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
Efficiency
(%)
96.77%
96.77%
96.78%
96.78%
96.80%
96.80%
96.80%
96.80%
96.81%
96.82%
96.82%
96.83%
96.83%
96.83%
96.83%
96.84%
96.85%
96.85%
96.86%
96.86%
96.86%
96.90%
96.90%
96.91%
96.91%
96.92%
96.92%
96.92%
96.92%
96.92%
96.92%
96.93%
96.93%
96.93%
96.93%
96.94%
96.94%
96.94%
96.96%
96.97%
96.97%
96.98%
96.98%
96.98%
96.98%
96.98%
96.99%
96.99%
96.99%
96.99%
96.99%
96.99%
96.99%
96.99%
96.99%
96.99%
96.99%
Core Loss
(watts)
4162
4162
4177
4172
4183
4171
4138
4149
4150
4169
4168
4167
4111
4111
4111
4130
4125
4111
4129
4164
4110
3907
4083
3884
3890
4087
4087
3901
3876
4047
4047
3896
4070
3884
3912
3890
3881
3869
3832
3855
3857
3814
3893
3836
3821
3685
3867
3860
3814
3808
3851
3851
3694
3817
3813
3819
3833
Coil Loss
(watts)
838
838
818
821
780
789
819
802
787
759
759
744
792
792
792
758
759
772
736
695
745
895
716
902
885
684
684
868
886
713
713
862
682
864
832
846
853
864
872
840
827
864
780
834
848
983
795
801
846
852
807
807
962
838
842
834
815
59
Coil Loss
(watts)
3549
3549
3457
3473
3304
3350
3494
3414
3355
3227
3228
3165
3403
3403
3403
3244
3250
3315
3150
2960
3194
3903
3081
3950
3872
2933
2933
3792
3882
3076
3076
3766
2926
3780
3620
3696
3732
3785
3845
3681
3623
3813
3398
3661
3734
4392
3472
3504
3732
3760
3536
3536
4287
3689
3712
3671
3576
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Price
(US$)
3,806.17
3,806.17
3,840.29
3,833.84
3,905.51
3,887.09
3,833.99
3,863.43
3,888.52
3,941.79
3,941.71
3,971.39
3,879.00
3,879.00
3,879.00
3,942.83
3,941.85
3,914.44
3,988.59
4,085.59
3,969.84
3,785.08
4,034.94
3,772.48
3,799.63
4,167.15
4,167.15
3,829.67
3,840.40
4,093.56
4,093.56
3,838.74
4,175.25
3,879.64
3,936.28
3,911.65
3,897.61
3,875.42
3,866.74
3,921.83
3,946.37
3,877.16
4,038.66
3,929.84
3,910.38
3,724.93
4,010.17
3,997.75
3,911.17
3,900.03
3,987.19
3,987.19
3,754.15
3,923.55
3,917.54
3,931.01
3,967.59
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Table C.2 Engineering Analysis Database (continued)
ID
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
Efficiency
(%)
97.00%
97.00%
97.00%
97.00%
97.00%
97.00%
97.00%
97.01%
97.01%
97.01%
97.01%
97.02%
97.02%
97.03%
97.03%
97.03%
97.03%
97.03%
97.03%
97.03%
97.03%
97.04%
97.04%
97.04%
97.05%
97.05%
97.05%
97.05%
97.05%
97.05%
97.05%
97.06%
97.06%
97.06%
97.07%
97.07%
97.07%
97.07%
97.07%
97.07%
97.07%
97.07%
97.07%
97.08%
97.08%
97.08%
97.09%
97.09%
97.09%
97.09%
97.09%
97.09%
97.10%
97.10%
97.10%
97.10%
97.10%
Core Loss
(watts)
3838
3795
3802
3824
3822
3820
3802
3816
3812
3797
3680
3678
3812
3792
3669
3662
3818
3791
3667
3652
3651
3800
3788
3654
3649
3657
3635
3670
3651
3817
3634
3650
3631
3631
3663
3751
3604
3662
3608
3654
3624
3620
3472
3624
3606
3671
3467
3590
3615
3578
3611
3470
3477
3589
3566
3568
3592
60
Coil Loss
(watts)
808
846
840
815
817
816
830
809
812
821
937
931
792
805
929
935
778
802
924
936
933
781
789
920
917
906
926
891
908
741
920
899
917
916
873
783
929
868
922
874
904
902
1048
887
902
836
1036
907
878
914
880
1021
1008
895
914
912
887
Coil Loss
(watts)
3541
3739
3704
3583
3592
3589
3656
3553
3568
3618
4182
4152
3472
3544
4147
4179
3404
3527
4125
4190
4176
3426
3468
4112
4099
4045
4148
3964
4053
3228
4121
4017
4104
4098
3883
3443
4180
3861
4141
3896
4047
4039
4795
3964
4045
3472
4737
4076
3925
4114
3934
4659
4588
4013
4119
4106
3972
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Price
(US$)
3,985.97
3,910.90
3,922.84
3,970.67
3,974.95
3,967.48
3,940.52
3,982.02
3,974.55
3,964.78
3,791.12
3,800.96
4,019.66
3,994.11
3,806.00
3,794.61
4,050.51
3,998.81
3,812.83
3,794.03
3,798.71
4,052.33
4,033.15
3,819.08
3,823.53
3,845.10
3,810.38
3,868.17
3,841.23
4,152.91
3,820.63
3,860.78
3,826.78
3,829.06
3,900.75
4,047.22
3,809.91
3,909.09
3,821.38
3,900.49
3,848.26
3,854.69
3,759.45
3,878.33
3,855.82
4,372.69
3,776.24
3,847.23
3,894.34
3,837.69
3,891.13
3,797.83
3,818.12
3,869.78
3,839.30
3,844.20
3,885.28
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Table C.3 Engineering Analysis Database (continued)
ID
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
Efficiency
(%)
97.10%
97.10%
97.10%
97.10%
97.10%
97.11%
97.11%
97.11%
97.11%
97.11%
97.11%
97.11%
97.11%
97.12%
97.12%
97.12%
97.12%
97.12%
97.13%
97.13%
97.13%
97.13%
97.13%
97.13%
97.13%
97.14%
97.14%
97.14%
97.14%
97.15%
97.15%
97.15%
97.15%
97.15%
97.15%
97.15%
97.15%
97.15%
97.15%
97.15%
97.15%
97.15%
97.15%
97.16%
97.16%
97.16%
97.17%
97.17%
97.17%
97.17%
97.17%
97.17%
97.17%
97.18%
97.18%
97.18%
97.18%
Core Loss
(watts)
3630
3634
3481
3466
3565
3657
3665
3654
3687
3663
3609
3658
3662
3657
3461
3346
3627
3652
3444
3462
3607
3633
3441
3320
3645
3632
3301
3632
3428
3413
3630
3407
3302
3410
3432
3299
3655
3407
3665
3616
3275
3548
3645
3626
3440
3391
3388
3258
3612
3274
3377
3600
3452
3249
3575
3381
3539
61
Coil Loss
(watts)
849
845
996
1012
911
812
804
814
779
797
850
800
795
798
992
1105
818
791
994
973
825
799
989
1109
781
788
1113
780
984
995
778
999
1103
994
971
1103
746
993
732
781
1121
847
749
764
944
987
988
1117
762
1098
995
771
915
1110
784
976
817
Coil Loss
(watts)
3773
3750
4528
4615
4105
3404
3366
3414
3252
3343
3779
3362
3334
3355
4519
5163
3461
3332
4535
4421
3658
3525
4510
5161
3298
3337
5190
3309
4493
4550
3301
4577
5137
4548
4422
5139
3155
4545
3092
3326
5250
3776
3173
3248
4278
4515
4521
5241
3249
5130
4559
3297
3920
5208
3458
4459
3627
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Price
(US$)
3,995.14
4,003.46
3,835.36
3,813.15
3,844.52
4,410.53
4,427.75
4,408.01
4,478.01
4,439.40
3,998.87
4,431.20
4,443.05
4,440.18
3,842.42
3,537.83
4,396.83
4,447.79
3,847.20
3,871.52
4,051.67
4,066.88
3,851.31
3,720.05
4,469.18
4,455.51
3,721.23
4,470.77
3,858.09
3,844.15
4,474.23
3,834.55
3,730.70
3,844.18
3,882.34
3,728.10
4,543.66
3,846.11
4,578.25
4,466.50
3,710.58
4,019.21
4,536.01
4,505.19
3,926.78
3,856.54
3,855.88
3,717.98
4,504.04
3,747.90
3,850.52
4,487.61
4,286.23
3,721.03
4,153.32
3,880.20
4,088.55
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Table C.4 Engineering Analysis Database (continued)
ID
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
Efficiency
(%)
97.18%
97.18%
97.18%
97.18%
97.18%
97.18%
97.18%
97.18%
97.19%
97.19%
97.19%
97.19%
97.19%
97.19%
97.19%
97.19%
97.20%
97.20%
97.20%
97.20%
97.20%
97.20%
97.20%
97.20%
97.20%
97.20%
97.20%
97.20%
97.21%
97.21%
97.21%
97.21%
97.21%
97.21%
97.21%
97.21%
97.21%
97.21%
97.22%
97.22%
97.22%
97.22%
97.22%
97.22%
97.22%
97.22%
97.22%
97.22%
97.23%
97.23%
97.23%
97.23%
97.23%
97.23%
97.24%
97.24%
97.24%
Core Loss
(watts)
3562
3384
3252
3618
3375
3609
3621
3595
3588
3593
3382
3606
3229
3250
3377
3621
3166
3412
3391
3448
3237
3220
3435
3442
3451
3443
3581
3418
3233
3160
3584
3154
3433
3431
3149
3431
3436
3370
3426
3425
3218
3573
3573
3573
3391
3351
3149
3137
3134
3223
3404
3136
3439
3110
3201
3108
3425
62
Coil Loss
(watts)
792
967
1097
729
972
737
725
750
756
750
960
731
1105
1084
955
710
1161
915
936
878
1088
1103
889
879
868
876
735
897
1076
1148
723
1152
873
874
1156
869
864
928
871
871
1077
718
718
718
898
938
1139
1150
1146
1049
867
1135
832
1159
1062
1153
836
Coil Loss
(watts)
3504
4410
5136
3108
4442
3147
3091
3207
3240
3210
4377
3122
5190
5067
4351
3025
5573
3968
4249
3775
5094
5183
3831
3785
3730
3770
3151
3885
5027
5498
3097
5528
3767
3774
5553
3755
3728
4212
3771
3768
5035
3084
3084
3084
3921
4262
5457
5523
5508
4880
3770
5443
3596
5597
4959
5566
3620
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Price
(US$)
4,138.10
3,894.07
3,739.32
4,581.35
3,883.32
4,556.43
4,586.64
4,533.79
4,521.21
4,534.66
3,911.79
4,575.65
3,729.32
3,757.61
3,918.30
4,632.74
3,513.57
4,320.04
3,943.70
4,388.46
3,753.50
3,734.86
4,323.10
4,382.48
4,363.22
4,389.32
4,573.38
4,350.74
3,769.30
3,529.45
4,599.35
3,525.45
4,392.70
4,389.93
3,518.53
4,398.46
4,411.25
3,964.15
4,398.11
4,395.02
3,775.18
4,614.67
4,614.67
4,614.67
4,307.74
3,951.48
3,539.97
3,531.66
3,529.65
3,814.82
4,405.64
3,544.37
4,477.07
3,528.14
3,795.41
3,534.10
4,465.68
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Table C.5 Engineering Analysis Database (continued)
ID
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
Efficiency
(%)
97.24%
97.24%
97.24%
97.24%
97.24%
97.24%
97.24%
97.25%
97.25%
97.25%
97.25%
97.25%
97.25%
97.25%
97.25%
97.25%
97.25%
97.25%
97.25%
97.25%
97.26%
97.26%
97.26%
97.26%
97.26%
97.26%
97.26%
97.26%
97.26%
97.26%
97.26%
97.27%
97.27%
97.27%
97.27%
97.27%
97.27%
97.27%
97.27%
97.27%
97.27%
97.27%
97.27%
97.27%
97.28%
97.28%
97.28%
97.28%
97.28%
97.29%
97.29%
97.29%
97.29%
97.29%
97.29%
97.29%
97.29%
Core Loss
(watts)
3408
3402
3233
3421
3138
3396
3206
3258
3139
3394
3408
3408
3091
3420
3432
3414
3353
3389
3389
3127
3251
3122
3493
3418
3390
3378
3549
3250
3131
3367
3382
3064
3059
3382
3062
3387
3390
3103
3351
3059
3243
3122
3381
3250
3390
3373
3242
3380
3042
3257
3396
3363
3239
3351
3036
3345
3173
Coil Loss
(watts)
852
857
1026
837
1119
860
1043
990
1106
850
836
836
1152
823
810
826
887
849
849
1111
983
1111
740
811
840
850
675
973
1090
852
836
1154
1159
835
1155
827
822
1109
860
1151
967
1085
823
952
812
829
952
814
1148
927
788
819
942
827
1139
829
1000
63
Coil Loss
(watts)
3704
3732
4754
3628
5343
3751
4851
4353
5270
3706
3632
3632
5563
3569
3510
3589
3996
3707
3707
5306
4336
5307
3252
3520
3748
3716
2901
4297
5183
3731
3650
5481
5514
3645
5491
3609
3581
5297
3783
5466
4279
5156
3593
4204
3537
3623
4210
3551
5456
4088
3432
3585
4171
3630
5404
3639
4621
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Price
(US$)
4,428.84
4,418.06
3,848.73
4,459.31
3,564.34
4,416.20
3,827.31
4,213.94
3,577.74
4,435.66
4,461.02
4,461.02
3,530.12
4,489.81
4,526.28
4,484.49
4,053.35
4,436.24
4,436.24
3,575.18
4,224.08
3,574.60
4,316.07
4,521.21
4,162.84
4,435.91
4,782.60
4,236.18
3,602.54
4,435.50
4,463.03
3,771.22
3,762.68
4,465.21
3,774.03
4,481.03
4,494.58
3,578.53
4,423.34
3,782.04
4,243.51
3,611.40
4,488.44
4,270.50
4,515.39
4,479.45
4,268.89
4,510.98
3,785.47
4,310.27
4,570.94
4,501.47
4,287.11
4,489.67
3,800.20
4,479.92
3,904.70
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Table C.6 Engineering Analysis Database (continued)
ID
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
Efficiency
(%)
97.29%
97.30%
97.30%
97.30%
97.30%
97.30%
97.30%
97.30%
97.30%
97.30%
97.30%
97.30%
97.30%
97.30%
97.30%
97.31%
97.31%
97.31%
97.31%
97.31%
97.31%
97.31%
97.31%
97.32%
97.32%
97.32%
97.32%
97.32%
97.33%
97.33%
97.33%
97.33%
97.33%
97.33%
97.33%
97.33%
97.33%
97.33%
97.33%
97.34%
97.34%
97.34%
97.34%
97.34%
97.34%
97.35%
97.35%
97.36%
97.36%
97.36%
97.36%
97.36%
97.36%
97.36%
97.36%
97.36%
97.36%
Core Loss
(watts)
3360
3196
3564
3239
2988
3217
3049
3341
3000
3235
3300
2988
3359
3365
3076
3241
3241
3219
2969
3078
3169
3343
3036
2961
3153
3073
3424
2951
2937
3188
2932
3209
3212
2932
3308
2932
2926
2928
3338
3237
2923
2921
2915
2915
3047
3225
3167
3011
3164
2904
2902
3012
3333
3189
3273
3217
3001
64
Coil Loss
(watts)
812
974
606
931
1181
952
1120
827
1168
933
866
1177
805
798
1083
912
911
931
1178
1069
976
800
1106
1176
982
1059
708
1181
1184
932
1188
909
902
1182
805
1180
1186
1182
771
868
1174
1175
1180
1180
1045
861
913
1064
911
1169
1169
1057
735
877
792
848
1061
Coil Loss
(watts)
3555
4474
2586
4124
5736
4355
5294
3637
5655
4138
3894
5716
3521
3489
5156
4033
4029
4138
5727
5075
4494
3507
5216
5717
4524
4800
3098
5749
5772
4167
5796
4042
4011
5762
3582
5752
5780
5759
3377
3836
5718
5717
5756
5756
4762
3810
4093
4983
4081
5682
5691
4939
3210
3906
3510
3754
4964
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Price
(US$)
4,515.94
3,949.28
5,048.07
4,304.65
3,585.52
3,990.73
3,818.42
4,488.84
3,600.14
4,301.06
4,117.72
3,591.62
4,532.72
4,546.97
3,621.73
4,334.34
4,337.06
4,305.41
3,594.93
3,648.13
3,942.45
4,548.65
3,843.88
3,595.61
3,941.17
4,214.93
4,425.89
3,592.26
3,593.14
4,307.63
3,588.28
4,345.61
4,356.52
3,593.11
4,278.50
3,595.49
3,626.14
3,599.21
4,618.90
4,422.83
3,605.29
3,643.16
3,599.09
3,599.09
4,239.40
4,439.84
4,343.43
3,956.75
4,346.32
3,618.23
3,650.28
3,973.14
4,719.42
4,407.09
4,339.41
4,469.49
3,964.51
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Table C.7 Engineering Analysis Database (continued)
ID
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
Efficiency
(%)
97.36%
97.36%
97.37%
97.37%
97.37%
97.37%
97.37%
97.37%
97.38%
97.38%
97.38%
97.38%
97.38%
97.39%
97.39%
97.39%
97.39%
97.39%
97.39%
97.39%
97.39%
97.39%
97.40%
97.40%
97.40%
97.40%
97.40%
97.40%
97.40%
97.41%
97.41%
97.41%
97.41%
97.41%
97.41%
97.41%
97.41%
97.41%
97.41%
97.41%
97.41%
97.42%
97.42%
97.42%
97.42%
97.42%
97.42%
97.42%
97.42%
97.43%
97.43%
97.43%
97.43%
97.43%
97.43%
97.43%
97.43%
Core Loss
(watts)
3164
2917
3022
3159
2920
3191
3024
3206
3081
3021
2913
2946
3038
3157
2901
2922
2909
2883
3377
2900
2880
2911
3187
3050
3013
2816
3047
2881
2902
2797
2924
2998
3025
2799
2898
2874
3022
3131
2796
2786
2807
3035
3023
2952
2762
2795
2883
3005
3107
2761
2772
2764
3274
2789
3153
2794
3020
Coil Loss
(watts)
897
1143
1033
892
1129
856
1021
839
961
1015
1122
1087
991
870
1122
1101
1114
1139
645
1115
1135
1103
824
957
994
1190
956
1119
1095
1198
1071
996
968
1193
1089
1111
962
852
1186
1195
1174
944
954
1024
1211
1177
1087
964
861
1201
1189
1197
687
1171
807
1165
937
65
Coil Loss
(watts)
4070
5311
4803
3994
5237
3803
4663
3718
4323
4638
5211
5041
4506
3888
5226
5102
5354
5425
2792
5356
5484
5118
3651
4327
4534
5677
4321
5231
5090
5878
4943
4552
4394
5852
5060
5193
4363
3809
5689
5863
5606
4273
4324
4762
5939
5636
5063
4382
3881
5901
5825
5880
2994
5608
3584
5564
4241
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Price
(US$)
4,106.51
4,127.47
3,976.62
4,426.04
4,147.65
4,454.35
4,278.83
4,534.15
4,370.19
4,286.49
4,154.59
4,007.04
4,324.98
4,430.21
4,157.12
4,180.48
3,721.30
3,912.33
4,701.16
3,739.83
3,697.99
4,187.60
4,576.23
4,391.64
4,325.04
3,921.43
4,391.16
4,157.23
4,191.89
3,676.64
4,221.76
4,322.65
4,371.06
3,676.40
4,201.10
4,179.64
4,375.81
4,519.32
3,923.51
3,680.16
3,928.01
4,412.20
4,394.08
4,055.89
3,673.13
3,925.30
4,205.21
4,382.14
4,212.61
3,685.78
3,701.23
3,681.51
4,937.33
3,929.59
4,625.47
3,937.79
4,424.82
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Table C.8 Engineering Analysis Database (continued)
ID
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
Efficiency
(%)
97.43%
97.43%
97.43%
97.44%
97.44%
97.44%
97.44%
97.44%
97.44%
97.44%
97.44%
97.44%
97.44%
97.44%
97.44%
97.44%
97.44%
97.45%
97.45%
97.45%
97.45%
97.45%
97.45%
97.45%
97.46%
97.46%
97.46%
97.46%
97.46%
97.47%
97.47%
97.47%
97.47%
97.48%
97.48%
97.49%
97.50%
97.50%
97.51%
97.51%
97.51%
97.51%
97.51%
97.51%
97.52%
97.52%
97.52%
97.52%
97.52%
97.52%
97.52%
97.52%
97.52%
97.52%
97.52%
97.53%
97.53%
Core Loss
(watts)
2763
2785
2773
2855
3030
2884
2850
2866
2787
3143
2980
2741
2990
2997
2750
2759
3116
3118
2853
3125
2976
2740
2743
2727
2981
2765
2738
2857
2837
2774
2976
2844
3095
2845
2766
2845
2827
2836
2838
2646
2834
2738
3091
2642
3065
2635
2628
2630
2721
2637
2816
2945
2832
2707
2616
2722
2668
Coil Loss
(watts)
1193
1170
1181
1091
915
1059
1090
1074
1151
795
956
1196
944
937
1184
1174
817
813
1072
798
944
1180
1177
1191
933
1147
1170
1049
1067
1125
923
1049
798
1034
1109
1012
1022
1003
999
1191
1000
1092
740
1183
758
1185
1192
1189
1097
1179
998
867
978
1103
1192
1082
1132
66
Coil Loss
(watts)
5851
5606
5789
5100
4128
4911
5102
5056
5502
3526
4356
5875
4293
4250
5807
5743
3643
3619
5004
3547
4295
5790
5750
5857
4240
5496
5714
4878
4982
5366
4191
4884
3553
4806
5282
4687
4744
4642
4621
5793
4626
5207
3265
5756
3356
5770
5814
5795
5245
5734
4619
3910
4509
5200
5821
5157
5384
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Price
(US$)
3,703.00
3,934.21
3,694.43
4,207.12
4,475.53
4,248.70
4,202.19
4,017.24
3,956.33
4,657.15
4,397.68
3,693.97
4,418.84
4,434.47
3,696.25
3,715.68
4,604.48
4,621.76
4,230.85
4,653.83
4,422.00
3,711.56
3,725.79
3,702.04
4,442.64
3,962.59
3,741.77
4,265.69
4,246.24
3,986.27
4,460.78
4,269.62
4,666.65
4,296.00
4,007.98
4,333.27
4,325.58
4,358.93
4,364.61
3,994.03
4,361.00
4,035.03
4,848.17
4,003.57
4,791.88
3,979.42
3,992.26
3,993.84
4,031.25
4,004.26
4,369.33
4,606.96
4,413.91
4,298.03
3,996.36
4,049.37
4,264.58
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Table C.9 Engineering Analysis Database (continued)
ID
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M36AlAl
Efficiency
(%)
97.53%
97.53%
97.53%
97.54%
97.54%
97.54%
97.54%
97.55%
97.55%
97.55%
97.55%
97.56%
97.56%
97.56%
97.57%
97.57%
97.58%
97.58%
97.58%
97.58%
97.59%
97.60%
97.60%
97.61%
97.61%
97.61%
97.62%
97.62%
97.62%
97.62%
97.63%
97.63%
97.63%
97.63%
97.64%
97.64%
97.64%
97.64%
97.64%
97.64%
97.65%
97.65%
97.67%
97.67%
97.68%
97.68%
97.69%
97.70%
97.72%
97.72%
97.73%
97.74%
97.74%
97.77%
97.77%
97.77%
97.78%
Core Loss
(watts)
2680
2814
2724
2820
2803
2689
2601
2936
2930
2594
2927
2580
2685
2602
2566
2946
2602
2784
2664
2815
2567
2643
2547
2493
2479
2878
2465
2457
2457
2462
2456
3014
3014
2446
2455
2441
2450
2660
2438
2752
2458
2435
2422
2411
2186
2446
2729
2120
2357
2695
2364
2386
2448
2272
2555
2343
2517
Coil Loss
(watts)
1117
980
1067
969
985
1098
1184
838
842
1171
838
1174
1069
1149
1178
797
1125
933
1050
899
1138
1049
1137
1179
1191
792
1194
1195
1195
1189
1189
627
627
1190
1178
1191
1182
971
1181
866
1150
1172
1158
1166
1380
1115
821
1414
1145
804
1116
1087
1022
1156
872
1074
883
67
Coil Loss
(watts)
5296
4522
5076
4462
4552
5184
5786
3762
3785
5704
3764
5737
5094
5568
5756
3523
5428
4279
4925
4096
5521
5002
5441
5790
5870
3537
5889
5901
5901
5861
5866
2720
2720
5876
5801
5887
5823
4486
5821
3934
5615
5758
5673
5725
6949
5410
3697
7138
5602
3585
5327
5250
4789
5685
3925
5073
4032
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Price
(US$)
4,266.05
4,408.89
4,077.02
4,430.27
4,393.26
4,335.60
4,011.80
4,680.31
4,667.56
4,021.42
4,682.10
4,023.98
3,918.29
4,058.72
3,818.99
4,558.47
4,125.14
4,509.85
4,399.01
4,584.53
4,115.59
4,145.34
4,337.70
4,102.76
4,086.64
4,846.50
4,095.32
4,097.12
4,097.12
4,100.95
4,098.07
4,839.95
4,839.95
4,097.04
4,111.53
4,105.78
4,107.81
4,604.63
4,110.00
4,689.59
4,145.44
4,137.83
4,149.31
4,148.06
4,818.93
4,212.11
4,886.46
4,175.41
4,238.04
4,843.66
4,524.45
4,276.47
4,598.12
4,264.38
4,862.83
4,644.49
4,466.81
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Table C.10 Engineering Analysis Database (continued)
ID
DL9_M36AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M19AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
Efficiency
(%)
97.79%
97.83%
97.86%
97.87%
97.90%
97.93%
97.97%
98.00%
98.10%
98.45%
98.49%
98.51%
98.51%
98.55%
98.55%
98.57%
98.58%
98.63%
98.63%
98.63%
98.63%
98.63%
98.63%
98.63%
98.63%
98.63%
98.63%
98.63%
98.64%
98.64%
98.64%
98.64%
98.64%
98.64%
98.64%
98.64%
98.65%
98.65%
98.65%
98.65%
98.66%
98.66%
98.66%
98.67%
98.67%
98.67%
98.67%
98.68%
98.68%
98.68%
98.68%
98.68%
98.68%
98.69%
98.69%
98.69%
98.69%
Core Loss
(watts)
2421
2271
1910
2568
2363
2528
2197
1958
2205
945
902
1097
1097
922
922
1083
1021
787
1660
776
798
763
784
784
1455
792
775
769
1624
780
774
1667
780
764
1559
791
941
767
959
942
954
1624
1676
1610
915
751
1609
1439
1044
1606
741
1544
1634
1588
1617
931
931
Coil Loss
(watts)
971
1054
1363
696
857
638
905
1110
705
1414
1391
1169
1169
1284
1284
1096
1144
1303
427
1308
1284
1317
1295
1295
623
1287
1303
1309
450
1294
1299
404
1290
1304
503
1270
1114
1281
1088
1105
1090
417
362
413
1105
1269
408
575
969
407
1268
464
373
408
378
1064
1064
68
Coil Loss
(watts)
4537
5058
6865
3071
3893
2797
4162
5356
3122
7206
7060
5986
5986
6614
6614
5596
5855
6706
1770
6738
6589
6820
6643
6643
2785
6605
6727
6758
1891
6654
6688
1655
6629
6751
2154
6504
5630
6557
5449
5574
5466
1717
1456
1696
5569
6552
1670
2580
4689
1660
6562
1962
1514
1665
1520
5304
5304
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Price
(US$)
4,344.62
4,425.71
4,365.56
5,468.97
5,103.82
5,412.05
4,939.29
4,712.80
5,626.21
3,642.64
3,734.46
3,391.84
3,391.84
3,637.61
3,637.61
3,500.77
3,573.49
3,952.00
4,820.31
3,974.35
3,945.29
3,970.05
4,000.85
4,000.85
4,081.86
3,962.71
3,967.81
3,985.65
4,680.66
3,975.01
3,985.63
5,058.74
3,985.43
3,966.87
4,451.19
3,975.66
3,696.32
4,060.01
3,720.96
3,728.49
3,725.94
5,014.69
5,333.66
5,077.98
3,763.43
4,020.25
5,125.87
3,997.49
3,787.18
5,167.69
4,014.38
4,577.70
5,275.88
5,209.44
5,534.67
3,809.88
3,809.88
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Table C.11 Engineering Analysis Database (continued)
ID
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
Efficiency
(%)
98.69%
98.69%
98.69%
98.69%
98.69%
98.69%
98.70%
98.70%
98.70%
98.70%
98.70%
98.70%
98.70%
98.71%
98.71%
98.71%
98.72%
98.72%
98.72%
98.73%
98.73%
98.73%
98.73%
98.73%
98.73%
98.73%
98.73%
98.74%
98.74%
98.74%
98.74%
98.74%
98.74%
98.74%
98.74%
98.74%
98.74%
98.75%
98.75%
98.75%
98.75%
98.75%
98.75%
98.75%
98.75%
98.75%
98.75%
98.75%
98.75%
98.75%
98.76%
98.76%
98.76%
98.76%
98.76%
98.76%
98.76%
Core Loss
(watts)
1640
1619
1614
1618
904
886
1292
1570
1550
1619
1209
878
878
939
857
947
1425
927
1547
1499
936
1501
950
808
777
1448
722
1534
1492
1496
1526
1088
728
930
721
917
848
1077
1514
1072
1508
764
1467
1308
1064
1064
703
1516
952
1508
928
1471
725
1460
1023
828
1495
69
Coil Loss
(watts)
353
369
374
367
1081
1098
689
405
423
352
762
1093
1093
1029
1105
1012
526
1016
394
434
996
430
979
1118
1148
477
1202
387
427
421
390
826
1185
983
1189
992
1058
827
389
829
391
1134
430
589
832
832
1192
377
940
384
962
416
1157
422
858
1049
382
Coil Loss
(watts)
1412
1473
1510
1453
5308
5466
3118
1649
1747
1405
3534
5438
5438
5038
5511
4944
2279
4954
1593
1808
4825
1772
4712
5704
5800
2027
6031
1561
1745
1718
1571
3823
6029
4732
6073
4729
5373
3829
1564
3844
1577
5653
1805
2567
3856
3856
6069
1511
4466
1543
4601
1689
5881
1721
3995
5148
1524
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Price
(US$)
5,576.11
5,627.18
5,362.77
5,685.09
3,934.16
3,919.64
4,038.02
5,281.51
5,148.32
5,630.52
3,853.59
3,870.89
3,870.89
3,849.99
3,980.94
3,880.20
4,313.89
3,900.20
5,466.33
4,916.70
3,911.18
5,204.25
3,932.06
4,098.50
3,988.32
4,606.37
4,150.03
5,620.95
5,258.00
5,309.21
5,600.47
4,047.67
4,059.89
3,959.80
4,124.57
4,094.37
4,017.98
4,063.85
5,703.74
4,053.96
5,671.03
4,205.31
4,749.70
4,473.10
4,084.32
4,084.32
4,123.92
5,858.30
4,027.46
5,775.30
4,003.98
5,447.79
4,149.45
5,406.60
4,055.31
4,153.26
5,886.26
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Table C.12 Engineering Analysis Database (continued)
ID
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
Efficiency
(%)
98.76%
98.76%
98.77%
98.77%
98.77%
98.77%
98.77%
98.77%
98.77%
98.77%
98.77%
98.77%
98.77%
98.77%
98.77%
98.77%
98.77%
98.77%
98.78%
98.78%
98.78%
98.78%
98.78%
98.78%
98.78%
98.78%
98.78%
98.78%
98.78%
98.78%
98.78%
98.78%
98.78%
98.78%
98.78%
98.78%
98.78%
98.78%
98.79%
98.79%
98.79%
98.79%
98.79%
98.79%
98.79%
98.79%
98.79%
98.80%
98.80%
98.80%
98.80%
98.80%
98.80%
98.80%
98.80%
98.80%
98.80%
Core Loss
(watts)
1471
708
1435
989
989
1467
992
992
1162
1490
1512
1383
1456
983
1507
1468
1501
1483
1476
1462
969
969
708
965
899
899
1473
1366
940
940
1458
934
1438
1466
654
1448
929
1460
1452
1440
1456
797
789
1338
888
693
1470
1442
823
1329
1385
1424
1424
1170
698
1407
733
70
Coil Loss
(watts)
405
1168
441
885
885
407
883
883
712
383
361
487
415
887
362
400
361
379
384
397
889
889
1149
891
957
957
383
488
914
914
395
918
413
384
1195
401
918
385
393
402
384
1042
1047
497
946
1139
360
387
1005
498
442
400
400
653
1117
408
1082
Coil Loss
(watts)
1665
5917
1843
4152
4152
1636
4133
4133
3308
1547
1440
2104
1698
4152
1443
1605
1441
1518
1535
1590
4166
4166
5836
4188
4572
4572
1530
2097
4299
4299
1577
4327
1670
1542
6094
1632
4333
1533
1574
1627
1536
5191
5216
2068
4495
5723
1441
1549
4983
2074
1862
1604
1604
2975
5710
1646
5411
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Price
(US$)
5,045.44
4,148.25
4,921.18
4,046.42
4,046.42
5,600.38
4,078.36
4,078.36
3,971.08
5,513.96
5,872.47
4,458.58
5,539.79
4,085.08
5,821.54
5,666.97
5,883.12
5,592.39
5,849.91
5,701.81
4,097.02
4,097.02
4,208.61
4,130.20
4,123.10
4,123.10
5,562.96
4,507.41
4,100.59
4,100.59
5,778.32
4,126.32
5,581.97
5,569.83
4,279.17
5,403.17
4,101.91
5,904.41
5,794.83
5,741.43
5,930.94
4,157.12
4,149.01
5,035.09
4,212.21
4,264.01
5,934.85
5,964.51
4,182.60
5,021.23
4,746.71
5,791.02
5,791.02
4,076.71
4,188.67
5,486.70
4,296.11
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Table C.13 Engineering Analysis Database (continued)
ID
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
Efficiency
(%)
98.81%
98.81%
98.81%
98.81%
98.81%
98.81%
98.81%
98.81%
98.81%
98.81%
98.81%
98.81%
98.81%
98.81%
98.82%
98.82%
98.82%
98.82%
98.82%
98.82%
98.82%
98.82%
98.82%
98.82%
98.83%
98.83%
98.83%
98.83%
98.83%
98.83%
98.83%
98.83%
98.83%
98.83%
98.83%
98.84%
98.84%
98.84%
98.84%
98.84%
98.84%
98.84%
98.84%
98.84%
98.84%
98.84%
98.84%
98.84%
98.84%
98.84%
98.84%
98.84%
98.85%
98.85%
98.85%
98.85%
98.85%
Core Loss
(watts)
1425
824
1422
1423
1366
1213
1423
1365
1370
1318
1056
719
1360
1388
1286
1391
1307
1436
1349
1404
1301
1330
1396
1391
1383
1191
639
1315
1387
1095
1427
1187
1290
1344
1246
1074
709
1393
1372
1328
1368
782
1108
1375
1177
1417
1423
1419
1409
1270
1280
1421
1219
1352
960
1256
1354
71
Coil Loss
(watts)
388
986
389
387
443
595
385
442
434
485
746
1081
440
412
509
404
488
358
445
389
492
460
390
395
400
589
1137
462
390
681
349
588
479
425
523
693
1056
372
390
434
393
979
653
386
584
343
336
338
347
484
474
333
532
399
790
495
394
Coil Loss
(watts)
1570
4859
1555
1548
1832
2605
1545
1841
1779
2002
3471
5441
1808
1681
2172
1636
2018
1423
1808
1560
2052
1931
1580
1570
1621
2519
5825
1889
1571
2951
1362
2515
1996
1720
2269
3023
5216
1489
1565
1811
1578
4867
2819
1548
2496
1332
1293
1310
1361
2017
2023
1272
2318
1629
3697
2118
1602
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Price
(US$)
5,552.02
4,186.31
5,976.05
5,961.78
5,181.12
4,544.78
5,700.97
5,261.66
5,327.75
5,193.24
4,135.66
4,261.32
5,287.04
5,476.84
4,809.10
5,842.09
5,195.75
5,824.68
5,529.81
6,057.63
5,154.78
5,060.36
5,337.73
6,022.52
5,614.08
4,765.96
4,447.24
5,413.82
5,963.91
4,697.97
6,098.97
4,749.17
5,346.61
5,485.66
4,523.89
4,682.35
4,535.41
5,511.18
6,243.76
5,028.62
6,217.60
4,176.40
4,793.39
5,910.00
4,820.53
6,232.20
6,379.71
6,367.88
6,170.81
5,302.95
4,758.69
6,483.02
4,524.72
5,688.62
4,249.58
4,796.98
5,339.43
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Table C.14 Engineering Analysis Database (continued)
ID
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
Efficiency
(%)
98.85%
98.85%
98.85%
98.85%
98.85%
98.85%
98.85%
98.86%
98.86%
98.86%
98.86%
98.86%
98.86%
98.86%
98.86%
98.86%
98.86%
98.86%
98.86%
98.86%
98.86%
98.86%
98.87%
98.87%
98.87%
98.87%
98.87%
98.87%
98.87%
98.87%
98.87%
98.87%
98.87%
98.87%
98.87%
98.87%
98.88%
98.88%
98.88%
98.88%
98.88%
98.88%
98.88%
98.88%
98.88%
98.88%
98.88%
98.88%
98.88%
98.88%
98.88%
98.88%
98.89%
98.89%
98.89%
98.89%
98.89%
Core Loss
(watts)
1108
1332
1350
1350
1055
1357
1264
783
849
1334
1346
1321
613
1218
1085
759
1294
615
1315
1251
1348
1167
871
731
1325
1095
1325
1266
1350
756
1287
1309
1092
1313
1041
1315
1037
1243
1189
909
1208
1139
1350
758
840
1339
1350
838
1214
1253
1076
754
547
1035
1341
1137
1070
Coil Loss
(watts)
638
413
394
393
686
383
475
953
887
400
388
413
1120
514
647
973
437
1115
415
477
377
556
851
988
394
624
393
452
366
960
427
402
619
397
668
394
669
463
517
796
496
564
352
943
861
362
350
861
482
441
618
940
1143
654
348
552
618
72
Coil Loss
(watts)
2738
1676
1579
1572
2984
1540
1969
4675
4205
1614
1556
1652
5612
2137
2833
4797
1830
5426
1680
1963
1521
2375
4004
4898
1570
2657
1568
1859
1455
4668
1769
1610
2630
1623
2878
1576
2881
1898
2150
3739
2043
2378
1368
4644
4055
1446
1336
4033
2035
1819
2628
4586
5850
2797
1336
2404
2632
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Price
(US$)
4,870.60
5,674.41
6,129.25
6,217.95
4,753.09
5,908.75
5,418.02
4,289.03
4,329.87
5,879.91
6,024.25
5,758.05
4,642.77
5,248.98
4,806.59
4,302.14
5,102.49
4,857.61
5,717.35
5,448.14
5,631.97
5,079.50
4,358.90
4,357.23
5,969.29
5,027.76
6,023.05
5,727.64
5,765.57
4,464.63
5,648.50
5,919.65
5,053.98
5,918.64
4,927.09
6,083.10
4,936.53
5,653.62
5,279.82
4,291.93
5,421.71
5,063.10
6,228.04
4,361.14
4,407.85
5,903.08
6,316.21
4,451.27
5,275.74
5,525.88
5,157.31
4,371.91
4,418.44
5,037.46
6,384.36
4,696.04
5,180.98
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Table C.15 Engineering Analysis Database (continued)
ID
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
Efficiency
(%)
98.89%
98.89%
98.89%
98.89%
98.89%
98.89%
98.89%
98.89%
98.89%
98.89%
98.89%
98.89%
98.89%
98.89%
98.89%
98.89%
98.89%
98.90%
98.90%
98.90%
98.90%
98.90%
98.90%
98.90%
98.90%
98.90%
98.90%
98.90%
98.91%
98.91%
98.91%
98.91%
98.91%
98.91%
98.91%
98.91%
98.91%
98.91%
98.91%
98.91%
98.91%
98.91%
98.91%
98.91%
98.91%
98.91%
98.91%
98.91%
98.91%
98.91%
98.91%
98.92%
98.92%
98.92%
98.92%
98.92%
98.92%
Core Loss
(watts)
1275
568
604
1290
986
1276
1222
1314
838
988
941
999
500
1221
1178
1074
1328
979
1180
1173
1227
1230
1327
760
1215
974
1286
970
787
890
609
1264
1140
576
1306
1302
1226
1252
589
554
898
1295
940
1175
756
1091
1164
1099
1286
1292
1289
1178
1102
1298
1296
1151
1109
73
Coil Loss
(watts)
412
1118
1082
395
699
409
461
369
844
692
738
680
1177
456
499
603
348
697
494
497
444
440
342
908
450
691
377
693
872
768
1049
394
515
1078
348
351
426
400
1063
1097
753
355
710
474
892
557
483
547
360
354
356
467
543
346
348
493
534
Coil Loss
(watts)
1674
5731
5528
1590
3023
1653
1886
1471
3926
3041
3227
2992
6041
1872
2062
2541
1322
3012
2043
2042
1786
1839
1328
4330
1890
2978
1524
2987
4098
3446
5336
1592
2149
5502
1337
1366
1700
1606
5268
5602
3404
1385
3091
1913
4259
2344
1980
2293
1420
1393
1398
1909
2260
1338
1357
2063
2202
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Price
(US$)
5,948.42
4,525.56
4,482.38
6,124.34
4,961.62
6,039.34
5,738.72
5,843.44
4,485.90
4,851.11
4,881.89
4,908.56
4,553.35
5,874.10
5,512.77
5,220.03
6,457.81
4,980.88
5,572.90
5,568.98
5,999.17
5,307.33
6,355.62
4,561.96
5,270.55
5,065.14
5,847.94
5,031.70
4,597.95
4,748.54
4,355.11
6,157.90
5,555.00
4,409.84
6,527.33
6,278.37
6,246.20
6,230.19
5,006.92
4,589.81
4,631.45
6,266.95
4,883.74
5,837.33
4,665.28
5,309.03
5,750.08
5,384.46
6,127.76
6,267.85
6,248.33
5,929.05
5,433.50
6,395.46
6,392.04
5,497.03
5,402.94
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Table C.16 Engineering Analysis Database (continued)
ID
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
Efficiency
(%)
98.92%
98.92%
98.92%
98.92%
98.92%
98.92%
98.92%
98.92%
98.92%
98.92%
98.92%
98.92%
98.92%
98.92%
98.92%
98.92%
98.92%
98.92%
98.93%
98.93%
98.93%
98.93%
98.93%
98.93%
98.93%
98.93%
98.93%
98.93%
98.93%
98.93%
98.93%
98.93%
98.93%
98.93%
98.93%
98.93%
98.93%
98.93%
98.94%
98.94%
98.94%
98.94%
98.94%
98.94%
98.94%
98.94%
98.94%
98.94%
98.94%
98.94%
98.94%
98.94%
98.94%
98.94%
98.94%
98.94%
98.94%
Core Loss
(watts)
1281
741
1248
1281
1227
1176
1119
1219
962
1210
1181
917
1248
1266
1221
1212
1233
1044
1106
1277
1254
1135
1223
1218
1273
1046
1281
912
1003
925
1223
1240
955
1150
1093
687
681
1238
1119
1235
1221
653
1231
653
1201
1274
1269
1134
1266
1096
1184
1201
1176
476
1276
1265
1169
74
Coil Loss
(watts)
362
901
394
359
413
462
518
418
675
426
455
719
387
366
412
419
397
586
522
351
372
489
401
406
350
577
342
711
619
697
398
381
665
471
524
931
936
376
496
380
393
961
383
960
411
338
341
474
342
511
423
406
431
1130
328
339
434
Coil Loss
(watts)
1431
4273
1590
1422
1701
1943
2138
1704
2921
1704
1859
3153
1498
1450
1686
1721
1567
2527
2201
1361
1493
2041
1622
1654
1345
2477
1312
3155
2668
3015
1605
1453
2867
1964
2166
4464
4442
1493
2056
1458
1539
4638
1471
4858
1683
1295
1316
1920
1308
2189
1706
1639
1731
5809
1243
1317
1787
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Price
(US$)
6,113.00
4,683.49
6,234.67
6,189.80
5,611.75
5,226.55
5,573.63
6,014.26
4,984.54
6,345.87
6,092.72
4,945.06
6,433.53
6,113.95
5,588.93
5,731.43
6,211.17
5,086.61
5,546.45
6,381.79
6,067.01
5,603.30
5,735.38
5,694.24
6,617.46
5,147.88
6,925.89
4,803.10
5,271.15
5,000.05
6,228.64
6,633.19
5,073.55
5,341.34
5,611.89
4,711.70
4,874.78
6,070.94
5,262.53
6,594.95
6,357.42
4,790.17
6,596.56
4,480.90
5,847.78
6,753.44
6,662.48
5,989.49
6,739.45
5,076.57
6,239.67
6,264.98
6,417.02
4,850.38
6,995.92
6,743.60
6,122.57
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Table C.17 Engineering Analysis Database (continued)
ID
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
Efficiency
(%)
98.94%
98.94%
98.95%
98.95%
98.95%
98.95%
98.95%
98.95%
98.95%
98.95%
98.95%
98.95%
98.95%
98.95%
98.95%
98.95%
98.95%
98.95%
98.95%
98.95%
98.95%
98.95%
98.95%
98.95%
98.95%
98.95%
98.95%
98.95%
98.95%
98.95%
98.95%
98.95%
98.96%
98.96%
98.96%
98.96%
98.96%
98.96%
98.96%
98.96%
98.96%
98.96%
98.96%
98.96%
98.96%
98.96%
98.96%
98.96%
98.96%
98.96%
98.96%
98.97%
98.97%
98.97%
98.97%
98.97%
98.97%
Core Loss
(watts)
1099
1254
1017
1180
1250
1015
1256
649
1071
1058
1099
1086
942
1079
1148
1112
1141
873
974
1210
629
972
1169
1098
1178
768
1209
1205
1193
1205
773
972
653
1249
781
1171
1055
1064
1045
887
1235
1238
1162
847
1166
1157
1072
1126
1112
1117
1028
1125
1035
569
1195
1185
1180
75
Coil Loss
(watts)
504
345
581
419
348
582
341
947
523
535
495
507
650
513
443
479
450
717
616
380
961
618
419
489
409
818
377
382
392
380
812
613
931
335
802
411
527
517
535
692
344
341
417
730
409
418
503
446
459
453
542
444
531
998
371
380
384
Coil Loss
(watts)
2080
1335
2422
1637
1327
2416
1312
4541
2171
2205
1976
2151
2781
2120
1796
1955
1795
3132
2717
1501
4656
2589
1638
2017
1583
3743
1438
1472
1532
1476
3728
2605
4701
1283
3633
1664
2186
2132
2210
2993
1341
1326
1632
3241
1581
1667
2055
1787
1898
1809
2209
1759
2251
5064
1448
1461
1483
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Price
(US$)
5,253.24
6,621.00
5,691.42
6,198.34
6,762.09
5,700.95
6,714.29
4,887.93
5,767.84
5,423.45
5,906.21
5,246.82
5,034.57
5,790.46
6,084.73
6,113.36
5,956.36
5,076.66
4,897.35
6,192.20
4,991.81
5,572.30
6,268.65
6,050.83
6,398.25
4,926.88
6,822.83
6,699.94
6,494.60
6,666.19
4,918.13
5,406.14
4,326.78
6,925.74
5,190.99
6,268.59
5,470.38
5,848.72
5,460.86
5,232.90
6,747.53
6,807.08
6,289.14
5,044.32
6,459.34
5,987.82
5,970.55
6,441.08
6,090.28
6,004.99
6,047.62
6,107.64
5,543.00
4,468.51
6,445.53
6,836.58
6,755.73
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Table C.18 Engineering Analysis Database (continued)
ID
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
Efficiency
(%)
98.97%
98.97%
98.97%
98.97%
98.97%
98.97%
98.97%
98.97%
98.97%
98.97%
98.97%
98.97%
98.97%
98.97%
98.97%
98.97%
98.97%
98.97%
98.97%
98.97%
98.97%
98.98%
98.98%
98.98%
98.98%
98.98%
98.98%
98.98%
98.98%
98.98%
98.98%
98.98%
98.98%
98.98%
98.98%
98.98%
98.98%
98.98%
98.98%
98.98%
98.98%
98.98%
98.98%
98.98%
98.98%
98.98%
98.99%
98.99%
98.99%
98.99%
98.99%
98.99%
98.99%
98.99%
98.99%
98.99%
98.99%
Core Loss
(watts)
1041
1118
1023
1184
1013
881
944
1185
1023
1139
1077
1119
1146
1196
1196
596
1146
580
1049
1050
1203
1141
1140
1140
1221
927
1182
1170
1180
561
575
1147
1208
1010
1172
937
1199
1205
988
1140
1010
1106
982
1172
736
1032
1031
1108
590
997
583
1180
1089
547
975
552
1144
76
Coil Loss
(watts)
522
445
538
377
547
680
616
374
536
420
481
439
410
360
360
960
410
975
506
504
351
412
411
410
329
622
367
377
368
987
972
400
339
536
373
607
345
338
555
403
532
436
559
369
804
507
507
429
946
537
950
353
443
986
557
980
386
Coil Loss
(watts)
2198
1754
2225
1500
2317
2943
2664
1464
2218
1689
1975
1729
1624
1375
1375
4858
1579
4917
2107
2103
1373
1600
1597
1629
1251
2629
1424
1501
1438
5016
4919
1566
1310
2268
1447
2809
1345
1290
2298
1588
2290
1786
2307
1423
3696
2083
2133
1742
4756
2244
4802
1365
1759
5018
2314
4981
1547
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Price
(US$)
5,697.43
6,126.65
5,524.12
6,347.82
5,562.25
5,362.49
5,384.50
6,440.70
5,538.84
6,025.03
6,238.75
6,226.48
6,147.41
6,880.27
6,880.27
4,441.85
6,549.02
4,499.90
5,429.74
5,394.58
6,783.08
6,520.45
6,538.25
6,197.13
7,288.71
5,538.08
6,604.93
6,427.72
6,592.55
4,478.24
4,486.71
6,363.79
7,059.68
5,707.84
6,663.29
4,623.72
6,941.30
7,195.32
5,527.26
6,337.09
5,232.41
5,962.80
5,520.05
6,780.30
4,977.42
5,838.66
5,490.82
5,914.81
4,482.81
5,669.42
4,484.99
6,869.32
6,278.56
4,604.18
5,578.86
4,505.49
6,582.43
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Table C.19 Engineering Analysis Database (continued)
ID
DL9_M6-AlAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
Efficiency
(%)
98.99%
98.99%
98.99%
98.99%
98.99%
98.99%
99.00%
99.00%
99.00%
99.00%
99.00%
99.00%
99.00%
99.00%
99.00%
99.00%
99.00%
99.00%
99.00%
99.00%
99.00%
99.01%
99.01%
99.01%
99.01%
99.01%
99.01%
99.01%
99.01%
99.01%
99.01%
99.01%
99.01%
99.01%
99.01%
99.02%
99.02%
99.02%
99.02%
99.02%
99.02%
99.02%
99.02%
99.02%
99.02%
99.02%
99.02%
99.02%
99.02%
99.03%
99.03%
99.03%
99.03%
99.03%
99.03%
99.03%
99.03%
Core Loss
(watts)
1011
878
1134
752
987
548
1061
593
1116
586
1054
950
950
1116
1099
539
1081
647
936
953
931
1047
815
942
537
1104
559
968
1005
916
934
773
450
1032
701
1048
552
1034
896
886
748
529
924
924
1031
401
1014
715
918
1067
1043
771
771
894
694
520
769
77
Coil Loss
(watts)
519
651
393
775
539
976
461
928
403
928
460
563
563
397
413
973
430
864
574
557
579
458
689
559
963
396
940
530
493
582
561
723
1044
461
792
443
939
456
592
602
737
955
559
559
451
1080
465
763
560
408
431
702
702
578
778
952
701
Coil Loss
(watts)
2131
2882
1520
3457
2306
4957
1863
4653
1581
4685
1824
2332
2332
1540
1679
4943
1673
3969
2382
2315
2398
1813
3052
2324
4875
1562
4742
2266
2068
2412
2336
3169
5317
1856
3592
1751
4737
1800
2482
2493
3282
4832
2336
2336
1987
5537
1870
3406
2333
1622
1688
3029
3029
2411
3472
4815
3126
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Price
(US$)
6,166.05
5,063.72
6,610.94
5,337.74
5,403.46
4,706.20
6,134.05
4,493.98
6,403.59
4,516.95
6,030.58
5,611.78
5,611.78
6,574.32
6,200.56
4,564.17
6,575.65
5,433.15
5,640.32
5,649.66
5,644.63
6,062.75
5,315.08
5,688.75
4,620.03
6,481.71
4,607.75
5,551.77
5,728.43
5,662.92
5,723.11
5,355.69
5,047.19
6,262.33
5,233.26
6,459.84
4,592.76
6,165.87
5,648.26
5,663.33
5,446.70
4,635.02
5,744.22
5,744.22
5,161.86
5,268.23
6,106.92
5,462.58
5,812.20
6,424.58
6,720.50
5,580.42
5,580.42
5,788.77
5,529.26
4,671.45
5,337.76
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Table C.20 Engineering Analysis Database (continued)
ID
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
Efficiency
(%)
99.03%
99.03%
99.03%
99.03%
99.03%
99.03%
99.03%
99.03%
99.04%
99.04%
99.04%
99.04%
99.04%
99.04%
99.04%
99.04%
99.04%
99.04%
99.04%
99.04%
99.04%
99.05%
99.05%
99.05%
99.05%
99.05%
99.05%
99.05%
99.06%
99.06%
99.06%
99.06%
99.06%
99.06%
99.06%
99.06%
99.06%
99.06%
99.06%
99.06%
99.06%
99.07%
99.07%
99.07%
99.07%
99.07%
99.07%
99.07%
99.07%
99.07%
99.07%
99.07%
99.07%
99.07%
99.08%
99.08%
99.08%
Core Loss
(watts)
797
866
1018
1039
801
965
1010
1077
609
752
458
596
998
832
1018
879
741
996
868
993
639
591
992
904
816
705
536
573
577
766
418
1029
806
557
998
762
650
474
562
827
822
749
717
788
828
494
1038
549
696
442
461
552
777
768
766
834
926
78
Coil Loss
(watts)
673
602
450
426
664
499
454
385
852
708
998
860
458
623
434
573
711
455
580
455
808
855
449
534
622
729
897
858
854
664
1012
401
623
870
426
661
774
950
860
591
594
666
698
627
585
917
371
860
711
964
945
853
627
634
634
565
472
Coil Loss
(watts)
2894
2496
1810
1733
2846
1991
1803
1472
4239
3156
5093
4247
1824
2901
1690
2406
3094
1814
2481
1809
3918
4216
1818
2244
2671
3226
4503
4229
4188
2868
5151
1603
2668
4331
1659
2830
3706
4813
4206
2478
2555
2873
3021
2707
2472
4641
1606
4254
3367
4886
4800
4250
2661
2942
2647
2390
1920
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Price
(US$)
5,555.26
5,773.77
6,493.78
6,377.27
5,618.92
6,282.12
6,282.45
7,069.23
4,587.34
5,355.49
4,976.67
4,603.89
6,287.68
4,691.76
6,859.25
5,874.83
5,602.77
6,334.35
5,614.76
6,317.30
4,641.77
4,652.04
6,564.44
5,847.64
5,839.62
5,605.73
4,747.00
4,664.38
4,691.60
5,834.13
5,255.30
6,802.02
5,867.80
4,681.89
7,141.96
5,779.96
4,750.09
4,967.76
4,752.28
5,836.48
5,761.94
5,896.79
5,955.53
5,747.82
6,109.43
4,931.01
5,592.08
4,759.84
4,751.73
5,160.45
5,010.38
4,782.73
6,111.78
4,789.46
6,103.25
5,962.75
6,452.29
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Table C.21 Engineering Analysis Database (continued)
ID
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M6-CuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
Efficiency
(%)
99.08%
99.08%
99.08%
99.08%
99.08%
99.08%
99.08%
99.08%
99.08%
99.08%
99.09%
99.09%
99.09%
99.09%
99.09%
99.09%
99.10%
99.10%
99.10%
99.10%
99.10%
99.11%
99.11%
99.11%
99.11%
99.11%
99.11%
99.12%
99.12%
99.12%
99.12%
99.12%
99.12%
99.12%
99.13%
99.13%
99.13%
99.13%
99.14%
99.14%
99.14%
99.14%
99.14%
99.14%
99.14%
99.14%
99.15%
99.15%
99.15%
99.16%
99.16%
99.16%
99.16%
99.16%
99.16%
99.16%
99.16%
Core Loss
(watts)
744
802
473
800
759
950
1002
798
755
470
469
790
472
782
773
728
904
708
902
461
455
818
441
453
837
464
579
1049
467
795
533
476
611
1021
918
899
598
502
717
646
473
626
632
462
742
655
838
430
470
464
483
931
901
524
493
631
486
79
Coil Loss
(watts)
653
595
922
594
635
441
389
590
633
917
914
593
911
597
604
648
466
660
458
896
901
533
908
893
505
877
762
287
869
540
796
853
715
304
398
416
714
807
588
655
827
673
665
836
554
640
450
855
810
813
793
344
374
750
780
642
787
Coil Loss
(watts)
3057
2491
4660
2517
2668
1711
1688
2476
2666
4637
4621
2493
4598
2519
2770
2764
1874
3100
2016
4524
4543
2395
4575
4508
2263
4416
3652
1190
4364
2432
3817
4213
3421
1270
1716
1815
3402
3962
2758
3138
4134
3228
3192
4144
2509
3026
1973
4237
3996
4031
3909
1460
1600
3670
3824
2976
3860
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Price
(US$)
4,775.83
5,949.98
5,003.22
5,965.69
6,142.18
6,908.87
5,541.68
6,002.42
6,239.54
5,023.55
5,031.33
6,014.56
5,024.37
6,009.44
4,963.74
6,130.39
6,768.48
4,815.46
5,298.45
5,095.39
5,145.27
5,141.80
5,251.26
5,119.72
5,190.39
5,122.27
4,925.83
6,623.09
5,133.21
5,138.16
5,060.19
5,159.81
4,896.24
6,441.58
5,691.80
5,587.56
4,966.65
5,160.56
5,082.31
4,969.18
5,156.04
4,985.34
4,992.82
5,236.00
5,179.33
5,092.49
5,579.97
5,444.36
5,245.47
5,255.94
5,213.38
6,181.95
6,078.98
5,108.29
5,217.03
5,223.44
5,228.76
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Table C.22 Engineering Analysis Database (continued)
ID
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
Efficiency
(%)
99.16%
99.16%
99.17%
99.17%
99.17%
99.17%
99.17%
99.17%
99.17%
99.17%
99.17%
99.17%
99.17%
99.17%
99.17%
99.17%
99.17%
99.17%
99.17%
99.17%
99.17%
99.17%
99.18%
99.18%
99.18%
99.18%
99.18%
99.18%
99.18%
99.18%
99.18%
99.18%
99.18%
99.18%
99.18%
99.18%
99.18%
99.18%
99.18%
99.18%
99.18%
99.18%
99.19%
99.19%
99.19%
99.19%
99.19%
99.19%
99.19%
99.19%
99.19%
99.19%
99.19%
99.19%
99.19%
99.19%
99.19%
Core Loss
(watts)
992
461
483
505
510
478
482
810
800
476
892
913
911
905
757
909
760
904
860
668
846
900
718
718
901
906
976
691
691
901
858
858
913
896
807
891
632
395
701
833
372
372
902
807
955
899
643
896
495
791
625
900
891
845
703
703
703
80
Coil Loss
(watts)
277
805
779
757
753
784
779
449
459
782
365
340
342
347
495
342
490
346
389
581
402
348
529
529
345
339
267
551
551
341
382
382
328
343
431
347
605
841
534
402
861
861
329
422
272
328
584
331
731
434
601
325
333
378
519
519
519
Coil Loss
(watts)
1140
3977
3821
3693
3640
3836
3817
2014
2063
3850
1562
1440
1451
1472
2192
1446
2172
1468
1711
2646
1737
1475
2370
2370
1455
1435
1091
2479
2479
1440
1680
1680
1383
1448
1886
1468
2764
4195
2386
1736
4292
4292
1368
1817
1113
1380
2628
1370
3511
1897
2732
1341
1395
1617
2324
2324
2324
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Price
(US$)
7,023.23
5,321.98
5,267.46
5,205.65
5,230.46
5,294.00
5,274.02
5,604.80
5,565.56
5,270.72
6,126.18
6,327.68
6,327.00
6,298.05
5,505.94
6,334.45
5,576.00
6,320.62
5,895.87
5,285.44
5,904.57
6,272.98
5,397.90
5,397.90
6,321.45
6,360.41
7,257.61
5,427.44
5,427.44
6,409.03
5,932.53
5,932.53
6,524.26
6,357.85
5,734.31
6,330.05
5,311.39
5,798.01
5,460.26
5,923.72
5,953.39
5,953.39
6,668.43
5,918.78
7,542.23
6,549.36
5,460.86
6,704.19
5,430.73
5,782.39
5,395.73
6,756.72
6,542.29
6,176.79
5,538.98
5,538.98
5,538.98
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Table C. 23 Engineering Analysis Database (continued)
ID
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
Efficiency
(%)
99.19%
99.19%
99.19%
99.19%
99.19%
99.20%
99.20%
99.20%
99.20%
99.20%
99.20%
99.20%
99.20%
99.20%
99.20%
99.20%
99.20%
99.20%
99.20%
99.21%
99.21%
99.21%
99.21%
99.21%
99.21%
99.21%
99.21%
99.21%
99.21%
99.21%
99.21%
99.21%
99.21%
99.21%
99.21%
99.21%
99.21%
99.21%
99.21%
99.22%
99.22%
99.22%
99.22%
99.22%
99.22%
99.22%
99.22%
99.22%
99.22%
99.22%
99.22%
99.22%
99.22%
99.22%
99.22%
99.23%
99.23%
Core Loss
(watts)
861
839
827
912
894
893
963
837
822
900
855
699
866
927
581
875
593
593
593
944
944
839
735
799
882
514
792
701
691
554
849
804
753
884
872
892
860
864
848
866
904
808
857
606
857
729
854
843
901
834
567
567
638
861
876
897
834
81
Coil Loss
(watts)
360
381
393
308
325
324
254
380
394
314
356
509
342
280
625
330
610
610
610
258
257
361
465
400
316
685
406
497
506
644
349
393
443
312
322
302
333
328
341
320
281
377
328
578
324
453
328
336
278
344
609
609
538
314
298
274
335
Coil Loss
(watts)
1513
1634
1692
1273
1340
1350
1044
1608
1693
1287
1488
2264
1430
1160
2887
1366
2783
2783
2783
1052
1058
1513
2029
1764
1287
3242
1742
2250
2293
2961
1450
1688
1924
1287
1339
1262
1407
1364
1463
1361
1169
1627
1405
2599
1354
1964
1380
1391
1132
1457
2739
2739
2453
1308
1251
1146
1423
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Price
(US$)
6,396.08
6,242.17
6,049.31
6,927.93
6,760.92
6,674.82
7,329.96
6,295.77
6,049.29
6,973.07
6,505.36
5,614.97
6,668.83
7,318.27
5,470.50
6,750.51
5,481.81
5,481.81
5,481.81
7,728.86
7,323.58
6,493.57
5,790.38
5,914.58
7,147.51
5,495.71
6,106.88
5,583.78
5,551.20
5,567.64
6,635.89
6,178.99
5,883.38
6,953.29
6,770.98
6,996.17
6,641.51
6,935.52
6,475.38
6,567.38
7,145.57
6,180.14
6,546.03
5,626.15
6,780.12
5,936.97
6,742.63
6,806.64
7,668.40
6,606.47
5,815.32
5,815.32
5,582.83
6,921.69
6,885.47
7,334.65
6,621.14
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Table C.24 Engineering Analysis Database (continued)
ID
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
Efficiency
(%)
99.23%
99.23%
99.23%
99.23%
99.23%
99.23%
99.23%
99.23%
99.23%
99.23%
99.23%
99.23%
99.23%
99.23%
99.23%
99.23%
99.23%
99.23%
99.24%
99.24%
99.24%
99.24%
99.24%
99.24%
99.24%
99.24%
99.24%
99.24%
99.24%
99.24%
99.24%
99.24%
99.24%
99.24%
99.24%
99.24%
99.24%
99.24%
99.24%
99.24%
99.24%
99.25%
99.25%
99.25%
99.25%
99.25%
99.25%
99.25%
99.25%
99.25%
99.25%
99.25%
99.25%
99.25%
99.25%
99.25%
99.25%
Core Loss
(watts)
690
506
866
530
530
757
765
901
761
761
788
869
553
627
516
839
878
599
788
627
778
601
686
883
507
775
872
550
627
685
490
892
862
633
851
760
476
610
876
580
847
835
823
852
767
814
624
768
855
836
686
505
692
609
799
462
675
82
Coil Loss
(watts)
479
662
302
637
637
409
399
262
401
401
372
291
607
532
642
320
279
558
368
529
377
553
467
269
645
377
279
601
522
464
658
253
283
512
293
384
668
534
267
561
295
306
318
288
372
325
515
370
282
301
450
631
441
524
333
669
456
Coil Loss
(watts)
2104
3119
1269
2913
2913
1802
1726
1062
1727
1727
1595
1212
2807
2415
3004
1336
1148
2548
1574
2401
1614
2533
2020
1107
3049
1597
1142
2735
2366
2044
3032
1035
1181
2249
1212
1655
3074
2392
1093
2512
1233
1271
1356
1194
1626
1370
2320
1585
1183
1258
2002
2960
1898
2310
1401
3155
2016
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Price
(US$)
5,888.13
5,622.73
6,930.26
5,741.51
5,741.51
6,024.26
6,205.03
7,846.07
6,274.32
6,274.32
6,385.07
7,241.71
5,640.97
5,701.00
5,736.62
7,062.49
7,610.51
5,693.46
6,506.99
5,720.37
6,426.53
5,650.14
6,152.18
7,584.34
5,664.96
6,464.19
7,586.34
5,786.71
5,754.26
5,964.66
5,963.47
7,956.88
7,284.03
5,952.24
7,334.59
6,372.40
6,007.26
5,849.25
7,797.63
5,876.26
7,198.62
7,190.89
6,732.67
7,399.74
6,292.51
6,920.85
5,844.52
6,543.92
7,327.93
7,138.39
5,976.45
5,807.05
6,262.41
6,018.78
6,909.60
5,895.99
6,059.30
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Table C.25 Engineering Analysis Database (continued)
ID
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
Efficiency
(%)
99.25%
99.25%
99.25%
99.25%
99.25%
99.25%
99.25%
99.25%
99.25%
99.26%
99.26%
99.26%
99.26%
99.26%
99.26%
99.26%
99.26%
99.26%
99.26%
99.26%
99.26%
99.26%
99.26%
99.26%
99.26%
99.26%
99.26%
99.26%
99.26%
99.27%
99.27%
99.27%
99.27%
99.27%
99.27%
99.27%
99.27%
99.27%
99.27%
99.27%
99.27%
99.27%
99.27%
99.27%
99.27%
99.27%
99.27%
99.27%
99.27%
99.27%
99.27%
99.27%
99.27%
99.27%
99.27%
99.27%
99.27%
Core Loss
(watts)
526
617
815
478
505
876
767
627
746
785
749
695
715
791
831
801
839
697
819
858
852
821
471
731
685
869
654
656
605
653
653
684
858
632
792
653
648
691
638
822
653
646
646
764
567
743
844
736
837
711
781
858
488
653
794
656
815
83
Coil Loss
(watts)
604
512
314
651
623
251
361
500
380
340
375
429
409
331
291
321
282
424
300
262
267
297
645
384
429
245
458
455
505
457
457
426
252
477
317
456
461
417
470
286
455
462
462
343
540
363
261
369
266
391
321
243
613
448
306
444
285
Coil Loss
(watts)
2779
2306
1334
3035
2931
1019
1559
2194
1634
1448
1630
1889
1792
1387
1212
1340
1151
1856
1193
1084
1109
1226
3044
1653
1831
983
2023
2009
2244
2020
2020
1851
1035
2124
1350
2018
2043
1823
2089
1183
2010
2046
2046
1450
2434
1541
1074
1602
1094
1646
1337
993
2784
1978
1298
1951
1156
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Price
(US$)
5,966.96
5,899.26
6,862.43
5,933.06
5,803.10
8,180.63
6,412.34
6,085.93
6,539.33
6,752.02
6,366.93
6,179.08
6,229.33
7,008.62
7,346.43
7,078.26
7,809.39
6,237.82
7,894.50
7,781.20
7,681.58
7,440.48
6,019.17
6,576.08
6,406.17
8,558.99
6,148.69
6,162.99
6,212.33
6,157.99
6,157.99
6,333.12
8,038.10
6,027.01
6,920.80
6,150.96
6,127.12
6,315.78
6,065.00
7,522.00
6,143.04
6,113.60
6,113.60
6,975.57
6,182.90
6,866.08
7,855.24
6,486.54
7,847.98
6,716.44
7,403.15
8,189.06
6,225.38
6,296.94
7,094.10
6,270.35
7,858.83
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Table C.26 Engineering Analysis Database (continued)
ID
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
Efficiency
(%)
99.27%
99.27%
99.27%
99.27%
99.27%
99.27%
99.27%
99.27%
99.27%
99.27%
99.27%
99.27%
99.28%
99.28%
99.28%
99.28%
99.28%
99.28%
99.28%
99.28%
99.28%
99.28%
99.28%
99.28%
99.28%
99.28%
99.28%
99.28%
99.28%
99.28%
99.28%
99.28%
99.28%
99.28%
99.28%
99.28%
99.28%
99.28%
99.28%
99.28%
99.28%
99.28%
99.28%
99.28%
99.28%
99.28%
99.28%
99.28%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
Core Loss
(watts)
787
685
804
797
773
685
806
783
827
856
624
624
744
824
843
769
659
708
667
820
696
822
745
806
658
822
644
833
815
871
820
558
782
847
699
817
754
811
657
598
659
803
712
782
785
789
800
663
812
789
751
801
717
810
790
789
786
Coil Loss
(watts)
312
415
295
301
325
413
291
313
270
239
471
471
350
270
250
324
434
385
425
272
395
269
345
283
432
268
446
256
273
217
268
530
305
240
388
269
331
274
428
486
425
279
370
299
297
292
281
417
267
290
328
279
362
269
289
289
293
84
Coil Loss
(watts)
1327
1800
1225
1237
1348
1800
1177
1303
1105
963
2096
2096
1489
1105
1012
1339
1872
1670
1863
1117
1717
1102
1467
1168
1899
1102
1966
1052
1122
863
1104
2356
1282
975
1676
1107
1385
1128
1875
2106
1857
1151
1569
1246
1244
1221
1159
1808
1102
1207
1357
1151
1530
1111
1200
1207
1218
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Price
(US$)
7,023.74
6,408.24
7,501.50
7,924.78
7,387.79
6,364.33
7,886.28
7,444.30
7,849.14
8,361.65
6,126.72
6,126.72
6,834.14
7,846.80
8,715.88
7,447.83
6,579.01
6,510.80
6,302.71
7,817.74
6,468.93
7,879.80
6,969.60
7,770.47
6,365.71
7,833.49
6,270.54
7,928.32
7,808.22
8,991.29
7,881.98
6,371.74
7,205.73
8,353.12
6,548.71
7,859.14
7,253.03
7,793.24
6,349.21
6,495.99
6,369.22
7,739.73
6,945.79
7,544.72
7,329.79
7,422.44
7,725.97
6,586.16
7,941.69
7,559.98
7,364.72
7,806.42
7,029.31
7,885.14
7,573.53
7,479.03
7,514.63
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Table C.27 Engineering Analysis Database (continued)
ID
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
Efficiency
(%)
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.29%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
Core Loss
(watts)
786
779
786
787
798
805
710
795
782
784
782
754
557
827
651
731
793
804
796
809
663
730
493
775
694
662
789
495
587
783
578
789
805
487
713
692
742
650
823
767
767
767
718
718
700
807
768
726
691
800
743
583
776
771
743
724
781
Coil Loss
(watts)
293
299
293
292
280
273
367
282
295
294
295
323
519
248
425
344
282
271
279
266
411
344
581
298
379
412
283
576
484
288
492
281
265
583
356
377
327
419
245
302
302
302
350
350
367
260
299
340
375
266
322
482
288
293
321
340
282
85
Coil Loss
(watts)
1218
1252
1232
1213
1156
1120
1583
1162
1218
1229
1230
1357
2326
1007
1859
1469
1163
1119
1165
1093
1789
1458
2678
1238
1633
1761
1168
2583
2108
1190
2214
1162
1083
2625
1520
1627
1386
1828
1006
1245
1245
1245
1493
1493
1580
1031
1241
1449
1581
1092
1354
2113
1193
1230
1352
1439
1153
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Price
(US$)
7,514.63
7,353.37
7,487.54
7,541.59
7,726.89
7,983.54
7,012.58
7,771.34
7,807.48
7,412.73
7,451.80
7,315.36
6,241.50
8,702.44
6,402.59
7,039.30
7,778.67
7,867.18
7,691.10
7,971.93
6,507.85
7,164.33
6,204.37
7,610.90
6,681.08
6,843.24
7,757.25
6,462.09
6,701.35
7,724.14
6,183.69
7,800.16
8,203.79
6,530.10
6,969.73
6,676.27
7,078.49
6,473.66
8,449.57
7,765.40
7,765.40
7,765.40
6,904.01
6,904.01
6,742.38
8,728.36
7,662.05
6,947.10
6,991.36
7,987.38
7,242.53
6,502.31
7,954.45
7,459.53
7,267.60
7,157.74
8,164.50
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Table C.28 Engineering Analysis Database (continued)
ID
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
Efficiency
(%)
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.30%
99.31%
99.31%
99.31%
99.31%
99.31%
99.31%
99.31%
99.31%
99.31%
Core Loss
(watts)
706
740
734
766
706
773
698
753
753
705
701
734
728
801
698
741
707
695
792
765
774
741
732
584
735
800
523
656
511
739
713
642
759
771
672
748
609
501
755
549
694
615
741
612
748
736
666
788
768
770
552
637
744
759
626
768
736
86
Coil Loss
(watts)
357
323
329
297
357
289
365
310
310
357
361
328
334
261
364
320
354
366
269
295
286
319
328
476
324
258
535
401
547
318
344
415
297
285
384
307
447
554
300
504
358
437
311
439
303
315
385
262
280
277
492
405
296
279
412
270
301
Coil Loss
(watts)
1524
1359
1396
1228
1524
1197
1577
1293
1293
1527
1547
1392
1419
1073
1566
1354
1506
1571
1107
1216
1192
1354
1391
2082
1370
1051
2426
1736
2464
1330
1441
1808
1224
1192
1661
1293
1969
2497
1264
2259
1530
1863
1307
1908
1244
1318
1655
1081
1145
1130
2172
1753
1230
1157
1797
1120
1254
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Price
(US$)
6,909.10
7,224.43
7,111.06
7,721.81
6,916.83
7,733.72
6,791.45
7,436.77
7,436.77
6,909.00
6,858.13
7,113.61
7,047.93
8,076.81
6,833.45
7,237.32
7,167.01
6,809.15
8,025.37
7,944.70
7,650.87
7,200.43
7,140.11
6,558.57
7,369.16
8,503.58
6,388.23
6,649.98
6,390.25
7,713.46
7,342.33
6,566.84
7,940.42
7,709.05
6,677.61
7,454.21
6,426.69
6,484.47
7,526.36
6,320.38
7,098.29
6,788.09
7,397.08
6,756.00
8,056.83
7,454.35
6,811.30
8,242.24
8,625.23
8,352.20
6,544.06
6,738.43
7,845.19
8,101.79
6,701.30
8,159.94
7,616.78
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Table C.29 Engineering Analysis Database (continued)
ID
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_M3-CuAl
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
Efficiency
(%)
99.31%
99.31%
99.32%
99.32%
99.32%
99.32%
99.32%
99.32%
99.32%
99.32%
99.32%
99.32%
99.32%
99.32%
99.32%
99.32%
99.32%
99.32%
99.32%
99.33%
99.33%
99.33%
99.33%
99.33%
99.33%
99.33%
99.33%
99.33%
99.33%
99.33%
99.33%
99.33%
99.33%
99.33%
99.34%
99.34%
99.34%
99.34%
99.34%
99.34%
99.34%
99.34%
99.34%
99.34%
99.34%
99.34%
99.34%
99.34%
99.34%
99.34%
99.34%
99.34%
99.34%
99.34%
99.35%
99.35%
99.35%
Core Loss
(watts)
583
634
607
704
690
645
776
649
763
782
635
586
783
772
628
606
763
784
488
679
618
721
649
747
662
455
663
757
662
521
752
736
658
641
632
632
605
659
649
649
658
653
755
631
609
699
749
742
599
738
738
548
749
732
740
738
729
87
Coil Loss
(watts)
454
401
427
329
342
387
255
379
265
245
392
441
243
253
397
418
261
239
534
337
397
291
364
265
349
556
347
252
345
486
255
270
346
363
372
372
398
343
353
353
343
348
244
368
389
299
249
252
392
253
253
442
241
257
248
249
257
Coil Loss
(watts)
1995
1714
1867
1376
1434
1615
1047
1629
1089
999
1687
1909
990
1035
1702
1814
1076
968
2417
1398
1681
1224
1561
1093
1500
2511
1487
1029
1474
2100
1048
1112
1453
1569
1563
1563
1692
1432
1516
1507
1451
1457
996
1581
1667
1255
1014
1032
1667
1026
1026
1881
977
1055
1008
1008
1052
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Price
(US$)
6,607.73
7,040.28
6,637.98
7,660.05
7,551.19
7,367.67
8,509.15
7,016.19
8,306.65
8,670.85
7,137.02
6,989.92
8,716.71
8,668.48
6,994.31
6,815.49
8,448.33
8,917.07
6,596.18
7,771.65
7,288.30
8,000.65
7,168.62
8,425.54
7,240.12
6,815.26
7,356.63
8,860.62
7,337.35
7,179.62
8,609.51
8,509.73
7,754.06
7,224.42
7,630.73
7,630.73
7,380.69
7,950.80
7,298.14
7,331.62
7,722.61
7,853.53
9,049.46
7,235.78
7,157.57
7,959.95
9,004.84
8,956.48
7,386.20
8,878.00
8,878.00
7,438.15
9,246.36
8,854.55
9,127.95
9,104.16
8,945.39
Engineering Analysis Update - Draft for Review
Table C.30 Engineering Analysis Database (continued)
ID
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
DL9_HOCuCu
Efficiency
(%)
99.35%
99.35%
99.35%
99.35%
99.36%
99.36%
99.36%
99.36%
99.36%
99.36%
99.36%
99.36%
99.37%
99.37%
99.37%
99.37%
99.37%
Core Loss
(watts)
617
490
706
625
720
715
720
643
652
558
625
547
651
624
591
642
639
88
Coil Loss
(watts)
368
494
274
351
254
258
252
329
317
408
336
412
306
333
365
308
309
Coil Loss
(watts)
1579
2198
1142
1488
1032
1056
1023
1399
1344
1765
1426
1775
1283
1409
1555
1287
1302
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Price
(US$)
7,335.33
6,992.92
8,437.84
7,666.09
9,097.90
9,005.74
9,193.66
7,871.15
7,998.36
7,326.37
7,916.05
7,512.20
8,227.33
7,934.56
7,705.41
8,298.59
8,369.05
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