startling effect of ball scats removal on sag mill performance

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IV-124
STARTLING EFFECT OF BALL SCATS
IV-125
As part of the P9 AMIRA site work for AngloGold, a number of circuit
surveys were conducted on the single-stage, run-of-mine (RoM) mill, at
Navachab Gold mine in Namibia. The objective of the work was to test,
and possibly refine, the JKMRC approach to blending a mixture of ores
with very different breakage characteristics into the JK SAG model. A
total of seven circuit surveys were conducted. The composition of the
feed to the mill was altered for each of the first five surveys in order to
measure the response of the circuit to changes in the feed composition.
This is part of the overall research program aimed at better
understanding and modelling the high load and speed, and low aspect
ratio of South African style SAG mills, Powell et.al, (2001).
NAVACHAB CIRCUIT
REMOVAL ON SAG MILL PERFORMANCE
Malcolm Powell
Head Comminution Group, Mineral Processing Research Unit,
University of Cape Town
P/B Rondebosch, 7701, South Africa. [email protected]
Ian Smit
Plant Manager Process Design, AngloGold Limited
PO Box 62117, Marshalltown, 2107, Johannesburg, South Africa
email: [email protected]
ABSTRACT
An increase of over 10% in mill throughput was achieved by removing
the ball scats from a single-stage SAG mill. These scats are nonspherical ball fragments resulting from uneven wear of balls with
included porosity. 30t of scats were removed from a total charge load of
70t. Surveying and modelling the mill revealed that the breakage rates
had increased dramatically at the coarser end of the size distribution.
This work highlights the importance of maintaining a competent ball
charge in a mill.
INTRODUCTION
Navachab is an open pit operation and a wide range of ore types are
mined. Mill throughput is sensitive to changes in the ore type and a
collaborative effort, between mining and process personnel, is required
in order to maintain acceptable processing rates. The current mining plan
often results in frequent changes to the ore blend as received by the
metallurgical plant. Operational tests have shown that the mill is not
capable of processing the harder ore blends at an acceptable rate. This
is becoming critical as the mine moves into harder ore zones in the pit.
The circuit consists of a single-stage, low aspect ratio (diameter:length
= 0.5) mill, typical of the majority of SAG mills in the South African gold
mining industry. These are locally known as run-of-mine, RoM, mills.
The mill is operated at 90% of critical speed and with a volumetric load
of 40%. Unlike the majority of RoM mills, it is in closed circuit with a
cluster of cyclones, as opposed to a large single cyclone, and a recycle
crusher, Table 3. The interior of the mill is illustrated in Figure 1,
showing the length and filling of the mill, and low lifters on top of
standard AMS grid type liners. The detail shows sections of the
discharge grate (18mm round holes extending to near the centre of the
grate), and pebble ports (75mm round holes).
The trommel oversize, plus 11mm fraction, is conveyed to the recycle
crusher. A belt magnet is used to remove the steel, which was
previously dropped into a bypass chute to rejoin the crusher product. A
rapid response pneumatic driven bypass chute, activated by a metal
detector, is used to protect the crusher from any metal that escapes the
belt magnet. The trommel undersize stream is pumped to the cyclone
cluster where the underflow rejoins the mill feed and the overflow
gravitates to the thickening section.
BALL SCATS ISSUE
Whilst conducting the circuit surveys, it was noted that there was an
excessive presence of ball scats. The balls are of the cast semi-steel
type, typical of those used in the South African gold mining industry.
These balls suffer from porosity, the result of core shrinkage during
rapid cooling in the mould. The porosity is not central due to uneven
cooling of the balls. When the ball is worn to the point where the
porosity is exposed, it wears very rapidly into the porous section to form
a bowl shaped lump, that soon wears to a plate, Figure 2. These oddly
–shaped scats are then competent and wear down at the same general
rate as the whole balls.
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IV-126
Evidence of Excess Scats
Mill charge
When inspecting the mill charge during the crash stop at the end of
each survey it was observed that the scats represented a substantial
portion of the charge surface layer. A few of the many in evidence are
highlighted in Figure 3.
Flat scats
Grid liner packed
with balls
75mm
18mm
Figure 3 Ball scats on the surface of the mill charge
Figure 1 The mill interior and details of the discharge grate
New
ball
102mm
Figure 2 Ball scats
Crusher feed belt
It was noted that there was a lot of steel on the crusher feed belt. This
was a problem for sampling the belt to obtain the crusher feed size
distribution. The steel had to be manually separated from the pebbles at
each screen size when the sample was screened. The first sample was
screened early on in the test program, and to the surprise of the
investigators, it was found that 30% of the crusher recycle stream
consisted of steel. This equated to a 10 tph recycle rate of steel. For
tests with higher recirculating loads the steel recycle rate increased to
17tph, but remained below 35% of the total pebble recycle stream.
Crusher bypass
It was noted that the high recirculating load of steel resulted in the
crusher being bypassed rather frequently. This was most undesirable
for sampling the performance of the crusher. The bypass periods were
timed over a 15 minute interval and it was determined that the crusher
was being bypassed for 1/3 of the time. The utilisation of the crusher
was thus low and uncrushed pebbles were being returned to the mill.
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IV-129
Crusher reduction ratio
Despite sampling the crusher product only during times that the crusher
was being fed, a large percentage of coarse material was observed in
the product. The sized data confirmed this, Figure 4, with the reduction
ratio, calculated on 80% passing size, being a poor 1.4. This was a
consequence of the maintenance foreman setting the closed side setting
to 18mm, and the eccentric throw to a wide 34mm, to protect the crusher
from the inevitable occasional balls that bypassed the belt magnet. This,
along with the low feed rate of 25 to 35 tph, resulted in the crusher not
being operated in a choke fed mode, thus producing a coarse product.
Crusher performance
Cumulative % passing
100
Feed 4
90
Product 4
80
Feed 6
Product 6
70
60
50
F80 = 37.5mm
P80 = 27.2mm
40
30
20
10
0
1
10
size, mm
100
Figure 4 Crusher feed and product size distributions
Mill grind out
In order to measure the ball load in the mill, the feed to the mill was
stopped and it was ground out to a ball charge only. As a result of slurry
pooling in the mill, the surface of the charge could unfortunately not be
inspected, and the 9.7% ball level was measured relative to the slurry,
398mm below it. However, the evidence of the scats was obvious from
the recirculating load of steel that accumulated in the inlet trunnion,
Figure 5.
Figure 5 Piled-up ball scats in the trunnion during the grind-out
Removal of the scats was simple to implement. The magnetic scats
removal belt was turned around so that the scats were ejected to the
other side of the belt. A chute was placed on this side and fed down to
an area accessible to a forklift, where a 44gal. drum was placed. It was
planned to add an equivalent tonnage of new balls to those removed, so
as to maintain the total ball load in the mill. Stocks of replacement balls
were potentially a bit low for this, but it was decided to launch the trial
immediately while the investigators were on site.
SCATS REMOVAL
BALL EXTRACTION RESULTS
It was concluded in detailed studies of ball size distributions in ball mills
conducted by Vermeulen and Howat (1989), Vermeulen (1989), that
these scats contribute very little to grinding, but rather draw power for
little productivity. Based on the flow rate of scats in the recycle it was
estimated that at least 20t of scats could be removed. There were a few
competent balls noted at the top end in the recycle stream, but it was
decided that it was worth their loss to extract the scats.
The rate at which the scats were removed was as expected, but the
overall amount extracted exceeded expectations. A total of 25t of scats
were removed in the first 8 hours, Table 4. Figure 6 illustrates the rapid
drop-off in the rate of extraction, and that scats were still being
extracted at a rate of nearly 2tph after 8 hours. A total of 30t were
removed in the first day after which only a minor amount was observed
in the recycle stream. Only 12t of fresh steel was recharged in the first
IV-130
day, due to concerns about supply. The Operators applied an increased
ball addition rate intermittently thereafter, to top up the ball load.
Ball scats extraction
9
30
8
25
7
20
5
tons/hr
4
cum tons
15
3
tons
tons/hr
6
10
2
The Std. JK size distribution is that taken from ball size distributions
measured from dumping and sizing the whole charge of production
SAG mills, Morrell (1993). The mill with scats had a considerably finer
size distribution, and notably lacks ball in the 40mm to 60mm size
range. This is the size at which the porosity is exposed, and they
suddenly become smaller and non-spherical. For a normal finer ball size
distribution a finer grind and lower throughput would be expected.
5
1
0
0
0
2
4
hours
6
8
10
Figure 6 Ball scats removal rate
From a 2.5t drum of scats 127.5 kg were classed as competent to
borderline competent media, representing 5% of the scats. This low
percentage loss of competent media supported the conviction that it was
worthwhile removing the scats even though some balls were included in
the rejection stream.
Ball size distribution
The ball load in the mill, prior to the removal of the scats, was calculated
from the volumetric filling, taken from the full grind-out to be 70t. The
average scats size distribution was taken from the 6 test runs, Figure 7.
100
scats
90
Cumulative % passing
IV-131
This shows the measured scats size distribution and the reconstituted
full ball size distribution, based upon the measured mass of scats and
calculated full ball load, with the 70mm point interpolated. The steel
scats particles were typically non-spherical in shape, it was expected
therefore that the overall distribution would not be smooth.
full Scaw
80
Std. JK
70
post scats
60
50
40
30
20
10
The estimated size distribution in the mill at the time of test 7 is based
on the approximations that there is almost no media smaller than
55mm, the top size of the scats; and that the mass in the 55mm to
71mm size range remains steady from the pre-test conditions. The
mass in the top size is increased by the extra ball addition, 16t. The
total mass in the mill is the 40t remaining after scats extraction plus the
16t extra addition. It is assumed that the remaining balls wear at the
same steady state as previously. This much coarser size distribution
would normally be expected to give a far coarser product size
distribution than the finer distribution prior to scats extraction. However,
as seen from the performance data, this was not quite the case.
COMPARATIVE MILL PERFORMANCE
A survey (test 7) was conducted four days after the scats had been
removed, to compare the mill performance. The crusher now operated
without any bypass, thus allowing a utilisation of 100%, and no steel
was found in the pebble belt sample. The results of the test are
compared with that of test 1, which had the most similar feed
composition. At the time of conducting the comparative survey, the ball
charge was not yet up to the original filling. A total of 24t had been
added over 4 days, which is only 16t greater than the scheduled amount
for that period, leaving the mill 14t low on balls. The ball size distribution
would also not have been in equilibrium by then, as it had been
depleted at the fine end, and had received a substantial amount of top
size balls.
The test conditions are summarised in Table 1. The comparative data is
given in full detail in Table 6.
0
10
size, mm
Figure 7 Ball size distributions
100
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Table 1 Comparison of Pre- and post- scats removal surveys
comparison of the runs with and without scats in the mill
scats none
scats none
136.7 152.5 No. cyclones
4
3
feed, tph
211
166
41
60
recirc. Load %
cyc. pres., kPa
40.6
40 sump water, m3/h
525
405
Mill filling, %
9.7
7.8 inlet water, m3/h
35
16
Ball filling, %
3034 2899 cyclone O/F P 80, um
74
84
mill power, kW
39.1 42.1 mill product P 80, um
304
396
slurry filling, %
In the post scats test, the reduced ball load was calculated from the
difference between extracted scats and replenished new balls. It can be
seen from the slurry level that slurry pooling occurred during the post
scats test. This pooling introduces inefficiency into the mill and results in
a coarsening of the mill product, Morrell and Latchireddi (2000). The
slurry pooling and lower ball load account for the lower power draw.
Since the operation of the mill had not been retuned by the time that this
test was conducted, it is expected that, in the long term, a similar slurry
level to that of the other tests would result. The overall effect was an
11% increase in throughput, accompanied by a coarsening of the grind
from 74µm to 84µm.
IV-133
rate, and very similar at the fine end. The higher rate at the course end
would be expected from the coarsening of the ball charge, but this still
occurred with 14t (2% volumetric total) less balls in the mill. The
reduction of the breakage rate in the 2mm range would be expected
from the removal of the media in the smaller size ranges. What is very
different from a standard ball size distribution is that for a very dramatic
change in ball size distribution there is a relatively small drop in the
production of fine material. The equivalence of the breakage rates in the
sub-100µm range indicates that the fine irregular media in the mill does
not contribute significantly to the production of fine product. It is
expected that a survey conducted later under equilibrium conditions
would show the new true breakage curve.
PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE COMPARISON
The performance of the mill over extended periods prior to and after the
extraction of the scats, provides perhaps a more realistic comparison of
the effect that the scats had on the milling process. Daily production
data, supplied by the plant, was used for this, Figure 9. The leap in
throughput, immediately after the removal of the scats, is obvious and
sustained.
90.0
210.0
scats removed
200.0
80.0
Breakage Rates
70.0
1000
%-75um
190.0
throughput
180.0
post scats
extraction
60.0
170.0
100
breakage rate
160.0
40.0
10
tph
50.0
throughput
150.0
30.0
140.0
1
20.0
0.1
with scats
0.0
scats removed
0.01
0.01
kWh/t
130.0
10.0
0.1
1
10
100
14-May
1000
size, mm
Figure 8 comparison of breakage rates
Grinding rates
What was of particular interest, from a fundamental understanding of
SAG milling, was the relative grinding rates. These were fitted using the
JKSimMet SAG model, Figure 8. The post-scats test has a considerably
higher breakage rate at the coarse end, is a bit lower at the 2mm peak
120.0
balls
kg/t
110.0
24-May
03-Jun
13-Jun
kWh/t
23-Jun
%-75um
03-Jul
13-Jul
ball addition, tpd
23-Jul
02-Aug
12-Aug
22-Aug
01-Sep
throughput, tph
Figure 9 Monthly performance comparison
The performance data is summarised in Table 2. An 8% increase in
throughput is achieved in the first month after the removal of the scats,
accompanied by a 2% reduction in the production of -75µm material,
and a slight reduction in the specific power consumption. This is
achieved on an average ore blend that is slightly harder than before. In
the longer term the increase in throughput averages 5%, as the feed to
the plant increases in hardness. The plant records indicate that the hard
IV-134
ore component was increased from 46% to 58% of the total plant feed.
The data show that the plant was able to achieve a 5% increase in
throughput, whilst increasing the average ore hardness of the feed. It
had been ascertained in the surveys that such an increase in hardness
resulted in about a 5% drop in throughput for the same feed size
distribution. From this is can be surmised that the sustainable throughput
increase is nearer 10% for an equivalent feed. The long-term trends over
pre- and post- 6 month periods are shown in Figure 10.
Table 2 Production comparison of mill performance
Period
June
July
% increase
Jan. to June
July to Dec.
% increase
One-month comparison
tph
%-75um kWh/t kWh/t-75um ball g/t % hard
155.1
76.0
20.5
27.0
584
50
167.7
74.0
18.6
25.1
765
54
8.1
-2.0
-9.3
-6.8
31.0
4.0
Long-term comparison
154.7
77.1
21.8
28.3
670
45.8
162.5
75.8
20.1
26.5
791
57.5
5.1
-1.4
-8.0
-6.3
18.0
11.7
900
CONCLUSIONS
170.0
balls
800
165.0
700
160.0
throughput
500
155.0
400
scats removed
hard/soft
300
throughput, tph
steel wear, g/t
600
150.0
Steel (g/t)
200
145.0
ratio hard/soft
100
IV-135
Retuning the cyclones and ensuring that they all have equivalent sized
spigots will give a sharper product cut. The absence of the recirculating
load of steel scats has greatly improved the utilisation of the crusher, as
the bypass chute was observed to rarely be in operation. As
recirculation of steel is no longer a problem, the crusher can be wound
down to a smaller closed side setting, and eccentric throw, to improve
its reduction ratio. The very strong function of throughput on feed size
makes this plant a prime candidate for a full mine-to-mill optimisation of
blast size. The original objective, of better understanding blending
optimisation, can add the final touches to a well-tuned milling operation.
The bottom line for the plant is that the mill can now process the full
throughput for the hardest blend expected from the pit. This has
negated the need for an envisaged plant expansion program to deal
with the harder ore blend that is being received as the pit expands.
The presence of excess irregular ball scats in a mill is detrimental to its
performance, with an 11% increase in throughput being measured in
this test work once the scats were removed. If the mill has pebble ports,
these can be used to good advantage to extract the steel scats. As very
few single stage RoM mills have pebble ports however, this is generally
not a practical option. Poor quality cast balls with porosity result in the
production of a significant excess mass of steel scats, measured at 30t
in this instance which was 43% of the total ball charge. If such balls are
being used in a milling operation, it is strongly recommended that the
use of higher quality balls be investigated. The economic viability of
using more competent media, such as forged balls, should be
addressed. That totally depleting the mill charge of minus 55mm media
only resulted in a 2% drop in fineness of grind indicates to the
investigators that a ball with a soft centre that wears away rapidly would
not be detrimental.
Throughput (t/hr)
0
Dec-99
Jan-00
Mar-00
May-00
Jun-00
Aug-00
Oct-00
Nov-00
140.0
Jan-01
date
This study highlights the usefulness of careful and comprehensive
measurement of a circuit in finding areas for improvement and
optimisation that tend otherwise to be overlooked.
Figure 10 6-month performance comparison
On-going optimisation
The Navachab plant has further options to improve the fineness of grind
and throughput. Slightly smaller, 65mm wide rectangular pebble ports,
will retain the 5% top size balls that are currently being discharged from
the mill, without adversely affecting the pebble discharge rate. This will
help counter the increased ball consumption, and give the mill a slightly
finer ball size distribution, which will be beneficial to the fineness of grind.
The mill may well ball size distribution to develop, and improve the
fineness of grind.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The enthusiastic cooperation of the Navachab plant personnel is
acknowledged as key to this work. This study was financed by
AngloGold, and is published with their permission, for which they are
thanked. The hard work of UCT students Aubrey Mainza and Paul
Green in assistance with surveying, screening and data processing was
outstanding.
IV-137
IV-136
REFERENCES
Table 5 Cumulative % passing ball size distributions
Morrell, S. and Latchireddi, S., 2000. “The Operation and Interaction of
Grates and Pulp Lifters in Autogenous and Semi-Autogenous Mills”,
Proceedings Seventh Mill Operators Conference. AusIMM, Kalgoorlie,
Australia, pp 13-20.
Morrell, S., 1993, “The prediction of power draw in wet tumbling mills”,
PhD thesis, University of Queensland, Australia.
Powell, M.S., Morrell, S., and Latchireddi, S., 2001, “Developments in the
understanding of South African style SAG mills”, Minerals Engineering,
Vol. 14, No. 9, Sep. 11p.
size
100.0
71
55
45
32
22
16
11
8
5.6
Vermeulen, L. A., and Howat, D. D., 1989, “A sampling procedure validated”, J.
S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall., Vol. 89, no. 12, Dec. pp. 365-370.
Vermeulen, L. A., 1989, private communication, Mintek, Randburg, South Africa.
data type Feed
Table 3 Navachab circuit equipment
open area, %
relative radial position
fraction pebble ports
pulp lifter depth, mm
no of pulp lifters
shape
14.3
0.71
0.54
300
8
curved
feed, tph
25 - 35
water addition, m3/h
trommel
7
sump
400 - 550
inlet
20 - 40
Table 4 Scats extraction rate
hour
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
total
tons/hr
cum tons
8.37
8.37
3.5
11.87
2.47
14.34
2.52
16.86
1.61
18.47
2.53
21
2.15
23.15
1.95
25.1
25.1
Std. JK
100
54
27
13
6
0
Table 6 Full flowrate and size distribution data for the test runs
APPENDIX
Mill data
Cyclone data
Internal diameter, m (ft) 4.71 (16) number
4
Internal length, m (ft)
9.49 (32) diameter, mm
600
speed, % crit
88.9 inlet, mm
172
Power draw, MW
3.1 cylinder length, mm
908
RoM Feedrate, tph
155 vortex finder, mm
183
ball size
100 spigot , mm
93
volumetric filling, %
40
Ball filling, %
9.7 Recirculating load, %
150-200
grid thickness, mm
52.4
lifter height, mm
46.3
crusher data
discharge grate, mm
18.3 CSS, mm
18
pebble port size, mm
75.6 EC, mm
43
cum % passing ball size distributions
scats
full Scaw post scats
size
100
100
100
58
20
71
100.0
43
2
50
87.9
37.7
0
35
62.3
26.7
25
33.9
14.5
18
10.8
4.6
1.1
0.5
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.0
TPH
% Solids
SG,t/m³
Flow,m³/h
% -75um
P80,mm
136.7
99.4
2.809
48.96
2.072
141.7
Run 1, with scats
Run 7, scats removed
Mill
Trommel
Cyclones
Crusher Mill
Trommel
Cyclones
Crusher
prod. over. under. under. over. prod. prod. over. under. under. over. prod.
424.9 25.66 399.2 262.5 136.7 25.66
406 33.23 372.7 220.2 152.5 33.23
73.06
99.5 70.91 68.69 19.37
99.5 77.08 98.57 74.53 68.12 26.21 98.57
1.899 2.814
1.85 1.802 1.144 2.814 1.998 2.767 1.934
1.79 1.205 2.767
306.3 9.164 304.3 212.1 617.2 9.164 263.7 12.18 258.6 180.6
483 12.18
34.64 0.001 36.94 14.23 81.36 0.001 35.13 0.001 36.94 15.63 75.55 0.001
0.304 41.96
0.23 0.337 0.074 29.25 0.396 39.12
0.23 0.472 0.084 27.67
Size,mm
212
176
147
122
101
76
55
45
31.5
22.4
16
11.2
8
5.6
4
2.8
2
1.4
1
0.71
0.5
0.355
0.25
0.18
0.125
0.09
0.063
0.045
0.032
0
0.00
4.99
12.80
12.18
12.36
16.96
6.21
5.45
5.72
4.92
3.57
2.73
1.66
1.46
0.76
0.82
0.57
0.59
0.54
0.38
0.60
0.54
0.56
0.49
0.43
0.41
0.43
0.35
0.14
1.38
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.84
1.93
1.10
2.04
2.19
1.32
0.95
0.68
0.71
0.60
0.64
0.55
0.79
1.40
2.29
4.56
8.60
13.07
15.49
10.93
5.00
3.11
21.20
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
14.55
31.87
18.00
23.85
9.47
1.93
0.27
0.05
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.48
1.99
1.49
1.09
0.80
0.80
0.65
0.67
0.57
0.82
1.44
2.41
4.69
8.57
13.29
17.17
12.00
5.22
2.99
22.86
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
1.29
2.23
1.64
1.33
0.96
1.08
0.94
1.04
0.92
1.32
2.37
3.77
7.86
14.53
20.70
19.09
8.59
3.01
1.15
6.18
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.03
0.34
2.29
9.21
16.21
9.92
8.95
53.05
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
5.67
10.00
22.29
32.66
23.33
6.05
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
1.23
1.07
2.50
3.17
2.45
1.38
1.07
0.73
0.74
0.58
0.61
0.54
0.81
1.45
2.45
4.93
9.22
11.74
13.00
10.12
4.64
3.05
22.51
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
15.21
13.09
30.48
31.12
9.01
0.92
0.14
0.03
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.48
1.99
1.49
1.09
0.80
0.80
0.65
0.67
0.57
0.82
1.44
2.41
4.69
8.57
13.29
17.17
12.00
5.22
2.99
22.86
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
1.64
2.87
2.21
2.05
1.31
1.35
1.02
1.07
1.02
1.58
3.02
5.33
10.89
17.62
16.85
11.51
5.70
2.67
1.51
8.78
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.03
0.11
1.13
5.28
10.38
17.12
8.17
7.41
50.37
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
7.46
40.28
37.43
11.49
2.14
0.66
0.24
0.17
0.07
0.05
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
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