IV. Mandate Period (1920-1948) A. Britain and France installed… B. Ottoman Empire allied with Nazi Germany in the 1930’s to defeat GB & France; but were invaded and overpowered during World War II by the Allies C. World War II brought “independence”to most of the region … WHY? E. In 1948 Israel becomes a state. They were immediately attackedby Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and troops from Saudi Arabia, Libya, and Yemen with Winston Churchill’s support, the British gave the throne of Iraq to the Hashemite King Faisal, 1920. D. In 1932 the Al Saud family took over Saudi Arabia and quickly made deals with several American energy companies. We’ve been allies ever since! What is the message of this cartoon? V. Oil in the Middle East A. Two of the most important natural resources are: 1.Oil 2. Natural Gas B. They bring wealth into the region and are needed by much of the world C. Over 50% of the world’s known oil reserves are located in the Middle East. C. Oil Reserves & Economy 1. The Southwest Asian countries with the largest reserves of natural gas and oil are: a) b) c) d) Saudi Arabia Iran Iraq Kuwait 2. These countries have seen tremendous growth in national wealth and an improved standard of living in the past 50 years. 3. Some other countries have smaller reserves, especially around the Arabian Gulf. 4. Those countries without the reserves have had a much harder time improving living conditions for their people. 5. This difference has lead to much conflict. D. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) 1) In the 1960’s several of these countries joined with other oilrich countries around the world to form the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. 2) They wanted to work together to regulate the price of oil 3) The first 5 countries were: a)Saudi Arabia b)Iran c)Iraq d)Kuwait e)Venuezuela 4. These countries along with others who have joined since 1960, continue to decide the price of a barrel of oil 5. That determines the price on the world market. a. When they produce less, prices go up b. When they increase production, prices go down E. The role of oil in the economies of Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Iran 1) Oil and natural gas are considered fossil created centuries ago. fuel which means they were 2) They are also non-renewable natural resources which means they cannot be replaced 3) Most of the world’s industrialized of both resources of oil and gas nations rely on a steady supply 4) The U.S. gets over half of its supply, almost ____________every day, from this region 5) For this reason, countries in the Middle East have a steady for all the oil and natural gas they produce. market a) Saudi Arabia & Veneuzuela are two of the world’s largest suppliers / producers of oil. Over half of the world’s known supply comes from them. b) Israel has very few natural resources and practically no oil. They have a high industrial economy, so the world price of oil has a huge impact on their economy. Another reason water is so important in the region… ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: What is the relationship between these waterways? What does this mean for countries outside of the Middle East?