The Wonderful World of Computers Larry Holder The University of Tennessee at Martin It all began with the ABC in the 1930’s http://archive.computerhistory.org/resources/physical-object/Atanasoff_Berry/ Followed by the ENIAC in the 40’s The ENIAC contained 17,468 vacuum tubes and 5 million hand-soldered joints. It weighed about 30 tons, was 8 × 3 × 100 feet in size, occupied an area of 1,800 square feet, and used 150 kW of electricity. and the Univac in the 50’s The Transistor: perhaps the most important th development of the 20 century The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices. First practically implemented in 1947 by American physicists John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley, the transistor revolutionized the field of electronics, and paved the way for smaller and cheaper radios, calculators, and computers, among other things. The transistor is on the list of IEEE milestones in electronics, and Bardeen, Brattain, and Shockley shared the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics for their achievement. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transistor http://i0.wp.com/sostrenews.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/us__en_us__ibm100__603calc__603_vacuum__620x350.jpg http://www.wylie.org.uk/technology/semics/Ediswan/Ediswan.htm But the real revolution began in the 70’s Not to mention the Internet’s beginnings in 1969 (no thanks to Al Gore) http://archive.computerhistory.org/projects/Visible_Storage/VSR_detail_panels/ http://nasa.gov http://www.woodstock.com/gallery/home-gallery/ Remember any of these Micros? The Very Basics… It all boils down to… INPUT Processing OUTPUT And Bits and Bytes Everything in the computer is stored as: 1,024 Bytes = Kilobyte (KB) 1,024 KB = Megabyte (MB) 1,204 MB = Gigabyte (GB) 1,204 GB = Terabyte (TB) 1,204 TB = Petabyte (PB) 1,024 PB = Exabyte (EB) 1,024 EB = Zettabyte (ZB) 1,024 ZB = Yottabyte (YB) 0 1 8 bits (Binary Digits) = 1 Byte 1,024 1,048,576 1,073,741,824 1,099,511,627,776 1,125,899,906,842,624 1,152,921,504,606,846,976 1,180,591,620,717,411,303,424 1,208,925,819,614,629,174,706,176 A TRILLION x TRILLION … Wow, that’s a Yotta bytes!!! Binary is found in Nature Electricity Magnetism Light http://nerdbusiness.com/blog/programming-wire-light-bulbs-battery/ http://www.extremetech.com/computing/113237-ibm-stores-binary-data-on-12-atoms https://delightlylinux.wordpress.com/2014/09/05/binary-lesson-7-bits-and-bytes/ The processing is handled by the CPU (Central Processing Unit) CPU’s are rated in Gigahertz Giga = Billion Hertz = Cycle Gigahertz = Billions of Cycles per Second The Machine Cycle http://cpu.pascalturbo.net/tag/cpu-machine-cycle And it needs lots of RAM! (Memory) How much RAM? 1990 – 4 MB (about 4 million bytes) at $50 per MB = $200 2016 – 4 GB (about 4 BILLION bytes) = $20 4 GB at 1990’s prices? 4 GB = 4,096 MB x $50/MB = $204,800 Memory vs Hard Drive RAM Paging File (Virtual Memory) Hard Drive Typical 1 to 3 TB The Layers of Computing The “User” (you) Application Software (the “apps”) Systems Software (Windows, MacOS, Linux) Hardware (the nuts and bolts) Storing our Data Connecting our Stuff USB (Universal Serial Bus) HDMI (for display to TV, etc) Ethernet (for Internet) Everything’s a Computer!!! And the Internet has changed the world What did we do before: Amazon Travelocity Airbnb Facebook YouTube Twitter Google Gmail Wikipedia … etc. etc. etc. … http://arstechnica.com/unite/2015/10/the-future-is-the-internet-of-things-deal-with-it/ Percentages of Computers in Household and Internet Use at Home between 1984 and 2011 https://www.census.gov/prod/2013pubs/p20-569.pdf Internet Users Worldwide First graphical web browser, NCSA Mosaic, released in 1993 http://www.internetlivestats.com/internet-users/ firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com www.utm.edu/staff/lholder larryholdermusic.org threechordsandacapo.wordpress.com … etc. etc. etc. … This presentation is purely for non-profit educational purposes. Any images taken from various websites are used under Fair Use. Additional credits or removal of images will be done upon request.