FIRST QUARTER: Colonization Era- 1607-1754 Dates 1492 – Columbus “discovers” America

FIRST QUARTER: Colonization Era- 1607-1754
1492 – Columbus “discovers” America
*1607 - Jamestown, VA.: First permanent; economically successful English settlement
*1620 - Pilgrims at Plymouth, MA: Separatist group seeking religious freedom
*1620 - Mayflower Compact; Established ideas of self-government and majority rule
Reasons for Settlement/Exploration: (3G’s)
Political reasons: Expansion of Empire (GLORY)
Economic reasons: profit for empire, i.e. mercantilism (GOLD)
Religious reasons: freedom of worship; escape religious persecution (GOD)
Social reasons: better life
New England- subsistence farming, timber and ship building, fishing and whaling, manufacturing
Rocky soil
Middle- farmed wheat, oat, barley and rye, called the “Bread-Basket Colonies”, some trade
Southern- farmed tobacco, rice, indigo, and cotton, grew “cash crops” on plantations (slavery)
Magna Carta – 1215 - Limited the power of the king (share power with Parliament)
English Bill of Rights – 1689 – protected individual rights
Mayflower Compact: self-government; majority rule, “Civil body politic”
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut: first written constitution in the colonies
Virginia House of Burgesses: 1st representative assembly
13 Colonial Regions
Transatlantic slave trade-millions of Africans were captured, shipped across the Atlantic Ocean, and sold
First Great Awakening: religious revivals - encouraged ideas of equality, the right to challenge authority
Enlightenment – reason (thinking) should be a guide for society
Pilgrim- Wanted to separate the Church of England
(Plymouth, Mass.)
Puritans- Wanted to reform (purify) the Church of England
William Penn- Quaker who founded Pennsylvania, self gov’t
John Winthrop – “we should be like a city upon a hill” (Boston,
Mass) – an example for others to look up to
John Locke- Enlightenment philosopher who wrote about
natural rights
Anne Hutchison-Religious dissenter who fled to Rhode Island
John Smith- takes over Jamestown; “he that shall not work, shall
not eat”
Lord Baltimore- founded Maryland for religious freedom for
John Peter Zenger- this trial established freedom of the press
Quakers- religious group that believed in a simple lifestyle and
equality for all; lived in Pennsylvania
John Rolfe- arrives with tobacco that will make Jamestown rich
James Oglethorpe- founded Georgia for debtors and prisoners
Roger Williams- founded Rhode Island for religious freedom
Separation of Church and State
Thomas Hooker-founder of Connecticut; wrote Fundamental
Orders of Connecticut
George Whitefield- famous preacher during Great Awakening
Eliza Pinckney- created improved strains of the indigo plant
from which a blue dye can be obtained and brought them to the
Led to
SECOND QUARTER: Revolutionary Era- 1754- 1783
*1776 - Declaration of Independence: adopted July 4
1783– Treaty of Paris; Independence recognized; our new Western border = Mississippi river
French and Indian War – British raised taxes on colonists to pay for the expensive war.
Proclamation of 1763– King George said colonies can’t settle west of the Appalachian Mountains = ANGERED colonists
Mercantilism – economic policy; colonist exist (send raw materials) to benefit the mother country
Taxation with Representation! – lack of colonial representation in Parliament
1765 Stamp Act-tax/economic burden . . . led to colonial boycott of British goods
1765 Quartering Act – invasion of privacy/economic burden
1770 Boston Massacre- 1st civilians killed by British soldiers. Paul Revere created an engraving of it = used as propaganda
1773 Tea Act – tax on tea. Colonists (Sons of Liberty/Sam Adams) responded with . . . Boston Tea Party
Boston Tea Party- (example of Civil Disobedience) citizens (Sons of Liberty) unhappy with Tea Act. Resulted in British
passage of the Intolerable Acts, thereby, limiting the rights of citizens of Boston
1774 Intolerable Acts – punishment for the Boston Tea Party. Closed the Boston Harbor; angered colonists!
1774 First Continental Congress-voted to ban all trade with Great Britain until Intolerable Acts repealed/delegates
determined to uphold colonial rights
Sons of Liberty-Colonial protest group led by Samuel Adams
Lexington and Concord “Shot Heard Around the World” – Start of the American Revolution – first shots fired
Battle of Saratoga – TURNING POINT OF REVOLUTION (victory encourages France (ships & $) and Spain to help us
Winter at Valley Forge – winter camp where Washington, LaFayette (and Barron von Steuben) trained the troops.
Washington read The American Crisis to the troops to lift their spirits
Battle of Yorktown – last battle of the Revolution (1781) Cornwallis defeated by Americans on land, and French by sea
Common Sense - by Thomas Paine – convince Americans to break away from Britain; “Tis time to part”
The American Crisis – by Thomas Paine – written to encourage support for troops and encourage troops to keep fighting
(read at Valley Forge); “These are the times that try men’s souls . . . the summer soldier and the sunshine patriot”
Declaration of Independence-unalienable rights (life, liberty and pursuit of happiness), grievances against the British
Articles of Confederation-First official government of the new nation-Created by the Continental Congress in
Philadelphia (had many weaknesses – see next page)
Treaty of Paris 1783- ended the war; set new boundaries: Mississippi River to the west, Canada to the north, and Spanish
Florida to the south
Abigail Adams -“Remember the Ladies”-wife of John Adams/early advocate for women’s rights in America
John Adams-vocal member of First Continental Congress/convinced that only outright resistance would gain liberty for
Wentworth Cheswell- African American “Paul Revere” member of the Committee of Safety
Samuel Adams-Leader of the Sons of Liberty-urged colonists to resist British controls
Mercy Otis Warren-American woman who wrote about the Revolution using prose, plays, and poetry
James Armistead- slave who served General Lafayette as an American spy. After the war, Lafayette helped Armistead obtain
his freedom, and in return Armistead added the name “Lafayette” to his own
Benjamin Franklin-signer of the Declaration of Independence, the Treaty of Paris 1783, and later the U.S. Constitution-long
time American leader-spent the Revolution in France and helped convince them to come to American aid. Great inventor.
Bernardo de Galvez-Spanish governor of Louisiana-captured Natchez, Baton Rouge, and Mobile/prevented British from
attacking the U.S. from the southwest
Crispus Attucks-sailor of American Indian and African American ancestry, 1st to die at Boston Massacre
King George III-King of Great Britain during the American Revolution
Haym Solomon-Polish native-Jewish Revolutionary hero; prime financier ($$) of the Americans during the Revolution
Patrick Henry-Vocal Virginian who urged the Americans to resist British tyranny-Famously said “…as for me, give me
liberty or give me death”
Thomas Jefferson-writer of the Declaration of Independence
Marquis de Lafayette- 19 yr. old French nobleman who volunteered to serve in Washington’s army. Led his own division.
Thomas Paine –Writer of Common Sense (written to convince Americans to break with Britain) and The American Crisis
(written to encourage Americans to keep fighting)
George Washington-commander of the Revolutionary Army
HALF-TIME: Confederation, Convention, and Constitution- 1783- 1787
*1787: Constitutional Convention: debate and writing of the U.S. Constitution (Philadelphia)
1791: Bill of Rights is added to the Constitution
13 Original States
Northwest Territory
REPRESENTATION? How will states be represented in Congress?
Virginia Plan =Population, favored by big states;
New Jersey Plan= based on quality, favored by small states
Great Compromise = 2 house Congress, House of Reps (population), Senate(equality) = same Congress we have today!
SLAVES?- North didn’t want slaves to count for population, South wanted all slaves to count
3/5th Compromise = for every 5 slaves 3 count in terms of population and taxes
Political Parties
Federalists- led by Hamilton, Jay, Madison; federal gov’t has more power, pro-manufacturing, wealthy/elite should rule
Anti-Federalists- led by Jefferson and Mason; states have more power, pro-agriculture, average citizens should rule;
demanded a Bill of Rights be added before ratifying Constitution
Articles of Confederation: our 1st National Constitution
 Strengths: Governed nation through the Revolutionary War; Negotiated Treaty of Paris; Passed the Land Ordinance
of 1785; Passed the Northwest Ordinance 1787
 Weaknesses: Lacked power to enforce laws (no President) ; lacked power to levy taxes; Lacked power to negotiate
trade among the states; Required all 13 states to approve changes in the Articles; no judicial branch
o Shay’s Rebellion = showed us the Articles was too weak (no way to put down a rebellion) = led to
Constitutional Convention
Land Ordinance of 1785: asked surveyors to measure out townships in Northwest Territory; lot 16 = education
Northwest Ordinance: Law that set up govt. for Northwest Territory; provided method for new states to be admitted;
provided for the orderly expansion of the US
Magna Carta1215: No man is above the law; importance of individual rights; limited the power of the king
English Bill of Rights: Provided for rights of the individuals; provided right to trial by jury
Constitution (1787): the supreme law of the United States of America. The first three Articles of the Constitution establish
the rules and separate powers of the three branches of the federal government: legislative (makes the laws),
executive (president = carries out the laws) judicial (court system: interprets the laws) the last four Articles frame
the principle of federalism
Bill of Rights: 1st 10 Amendments to the Constitution (demanded by anti- federalists)
 addresses colonial grievances such as lack of individual rights, the right to bear arms, quartering of soldiers,
due process of law, rights of accused, how a trial is conduced, limits on punishments, rights of the people
and powers of states and people
Popular Sovereignty- Ultimate power and final authority is held by the citizens – “People Power” = “We the People”
“Consent of the Governed”
Republicanism- People EXERCISE their power by voting for their political representatives
“se par ate”
Limited Government- Government’s power is limited by the Constitution; everyone obeys the law
Federalism- Power is divided (or shared) between the national and state governments
3 branch es
Separation of Powers- Power is divided between 3 branches
Checks and Balances- Each branch has certain controls (checks) over the other 2 (so that one branch
doesn’t become too powerful)
Mon tes quieu
Individual Rights- Personal liberties or privileges guaranteed to the citizens
George Washington- President of the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia
James Madison- Federalist who supported a strong executive; “Father of the Constitution”
Patrick Henry- Anti-Federalist who insisted on a Bill of Rights
Thomas Jefferson- leader of the Anti-Federalist party
Alexander Hamilton- Federalist leader who supported a strong executive
George Mason- Anti-Federalist who insisted on a Bill of Rights
John Locke – (natural rights = unalienable rights) Montesquieu - separate powers into 3 branches
Review your
Bill of
Rights hand
THIRD QUARTER: Early Republic and Industrialization- 1789- 1825
Federal Judiciary Act of 1789- 6 member court; Created lower federal courts
Precedents set- sets the standards that other presidents will follow. Ex: neutrality, cabinet system, 2 terms
Hamilton’s Financial Plan- protective tariffs to pay back the war debt; national bank; government would pay state
AND national debt (Free Enterprise system based on competition ex: donut shops, nail shops etc)
Whiskey Rebellion: Washington used his power as commander –in-chief (send in troops) to enforce the tax on
Jay’s Treaty- Britain agreed to leave the Ohio Valley and pay us back for our stolen ships; this helped reduce
awkward tension between the U.S. and Britain
Pinckney’s Treaty- U.S. got the freedom to travel on the Mississippi and store goods at New Orleans (from Spain)
Washington’s Farewell Address: his advise and warnings for future: said stay away from “permanent alliances”
(foreign alliances) and beware of the “spirit of party” (political parties)
XYZ Affair: French agents (known as X, Y, and Z) demand a $10 million loan and a bribe before they will
discuss a treaty; U.S. refused to give a cent “Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute!”
Alien & Sedition Acts: Increased time for immigrants to become citizens from 5 to 14; Made saying or printing
“false or hateful” writing about the gov’t illegal (unconstitutional – 1st amendment) Made Adams
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions: In response to the Alien and Sedition Acts; Jefferson and Madison drafted a
set of statements declaring that states can nullify a federal law if the state believes it to be unconstitutional
1803 Louisiana Purchase- U.S. purchases Louisiana Territory from France for $15 million; doubled our size
1803 Marbury v. Madison- The Supreme Court ruled that it had the power to declare laws unconstitutional
Lewis and Clark Expedition – explored Louisiana Territory; helped by Sacagawea
Embargo Act of 1807- Forbid American ships to sail into foreign ports and closed U.S. ports to British ships; hurt
the economies of each region; leads to War of 1812 and American needing to make its own goods (factories
develop in North)
War of 1812- Causes: Great Britain was taking U.S. ships (impressments) and interfering with U.S. trade, British
arming American Indians to attack settlers
Results: Increased American Patriotism, Weakened American Indian resistance; U.S. manufacturing grew
Era of Good Feelings- Period characterized by Nationalism (pride in nation)
Clay’s American System- Wanted the U.S. to be economically self-sufficient
Missouri Compromise 1820- by Henry Clay:
 debate over admission as slave or free state would upset the “balance of power” between slave
and free states in Congress
 Kept the balance of power by admitting Maine as free and Missouri as slave and banning slavery
north of the parallel 36°30’
 Sectionalism developed as a result of the slavery issue
McCulloch v. Maryland- Could not tax federal government (hint: M & M’s = taxes)
Gibbons v. Ogden- Federal Government will regulate interstate commerce Promoted economic growth
(Gibbon’s = Monkey – Gibbon’s are traded across states lines by zoo’s)
Factory System- brought together workers and tools under one roof, increasing urbanization and changing the way of
life. Factories developed on fast moving rivers in the NE, People went work in the factories (Lowell Girls) – led
to industrialization.
Cotton Gin (led to spread of slavery) = Eli Whitney
Water powered textile mill (led to factory system and Lowell Girls) by Samuel Slater
Interchangeable Parts (led to faster/cheaper production) by Eli Whitney
Telegraph and Morse Code (communication) by Samuel Morse
Mechanical Reaper (farming improvement) by Cyrus McCormick
Steam Engine (Steamboat - could travel against the current) by Robert Fulton (Clermont)
Steel Plow (farming improvement) by John Deere
FOURTH QUARTER: Age of Jackson, Westward Expansion, Reform- 1825-1861
Age of Jackson
Tariff of Abomination-1828 law that raised the tariffs on raw materials and manufactured goods; it upset Southerners who
felt that the North was being favored. North supported tariffs and generally opposed the spread of slavery. South
opposed tariff and supported the use of slaves and the growth of slavery into Western Territories (King Cotton)
Bank War- Jackson vetoed the renewal of the 2nd Bank of the U.S. because he felt the bank had too much
power/influence over Congress/public policy. The bank leadership fought back, creating economic troubles and
forcing people to take sides.
Sectionalism- Jackson supported strong central government, Southern states wanted State’s Rights; differences in
economics systems, support for tariffs and slavery
Nullification Crisis- South Carolina threatened to secede over tariff issue, Jackson at odds with Calhoun
States’ Rights- theory that said that states could nullify a federal law
Jacksonian Democracy- idea of spreading political power to all the people, thereby ensuring majority rule
Era of the Common Man
White man’s suffrage – spread during the Age of Jackson = more white men could vote
Spoils System- practice of winning candidates giving government jobs to political backers or supporters
Indian Removal Act – moved Indians WEST of the Mississippi River to Indian Territory in OK.
Worcester v. Georgia- Supreme Court upheld Cherokee land rights/Jackson ignored court’s decision
Westward Expansion
Manifest Destiny- The belief that America should spread from coast to coast
U.S. Mexican War- Causes: Border dispute over the Rio Grande, Manifest
Destiny, Annexation of Texas
Effects: Texas recognized as part of U.S., Mexican Cession, From sea to
shining sea
A- Original 13 Colonies, 1776
B- Western Lands, 1783 (Treaty of Paris)
C- Louisiana Purchase, 1803 (from France)
D- Florida Cession, 1819 (Adams-Onis Treaty)
E- Texas Annexation, 1845
F- Oregon Territory, 1846 – From Britain
G- Mexican Cession, 1848-Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
H- Gadsden Purchase, 1853 (flat lands – railroads)
Time Period Accomplishment
Wm Lloyd Garrison 1831
Frederick Douglass 1845
Sojourner Truth
Horace Mann
Dorothea Dix
Anti-slavery newspaper publisher ; The Liberator
Abolitionist, black orator, The North Star
Abolitionist, black orator; “Ain’t I am woman?”
Widely available education
Head of first state board of education in U.S.
Called education “the great equalizer”
Improvements prisoner care
Care of prisoners, mentally ill
mid 1800’s-1920 Women’s right to vote
Elizabeth Cady
Organizer- Women’s Rights
Susan B. Anthony &
“Declaration of Sentiments”
Lucretia Mott
Seneca Falls Convention
James K. Polk = “Mr. Manifest Destiny”
“Mexico has invaded our territory and
shed American Blood on American Soil.”
US-Mexican War began when troops
fired in the “disputed territory”
between the Nueces R and Rio Grande
in Texas.
Result of the US Mexican War?
US got the lands known as the Mexican
SUPER BOWL! = Civil War (1861-65) and Reconstruction (1865 – 1877)
Causes of the Civil War
Sectionalism- North vs. South; economic differences led to
loyalties and divisions on the issue of slavery
States’ Rights- differences in opinion on who holds more
power (states vs. federal government); 10th amendment
Wilmot Proviso- suggestion that slavery be outlawed in
Mexican Cession; splits Congress
Compromise of 18501. California becomes a state
2. stronger Fugitive Slave Act
3. Mexican Cession open to popular sovereignty
4. slave trade banned in Washington D.C.
Fugitive Slave Act- allowed Southerners to recover escaped
slaves; angered the North
Uncle Tom’s Cabin- by Harriet Beecher Stowe; told the
horrors of slavery; increased abolitionist feelings in the North
Kansas Nebraska Act (1854)- repealed Missouri
Compromise; opened territories of Kansas and Nebraska to
popular sovereignty; Bleeding Kansas
Dred Scott vs. Sanford- Supreme Court case: slaves were
property; denied citizenship for slaves
John Brown’s Raid- abolitionist raid on Harper’s Ferry;
caused John Brown to become a hero and Southerners to fear
Election 1860- Lincoln elected as president; south secedes
Civil War Battles and events 1861- 1865
Ft. Sumter- first shots of the Civil War
Antietam- deadliest single day of war
Emancipation Proclamation – freed the slaves in the rebelling states
Gettysburg- 3 day battle; TURNING POINT of the war
Gettysburg Address – Lincoln made this speech at the cemetery dedication.
“Four score and seven years ago . . .” “these dead shall not have died in vain”
“Gov’t of the people, by the people and for the people shall not perish from
the earth”
Vicksburg- Union gains control of Mississippi; splits the South
Appomattox Court House- war is over; Grant and Lee meet to discuss
Reconstruction Acts and Amendments
Lincoln’s 10% Plan- When 10% of the voting population in
the 1860 election had taken an oath of loyalty and
established a government, it would be recognized as a
Presidential Reconstruction (Johnson - HUG)- kept
Lincoln’s ideas; added that they must ratify the 13th
Radical Republicans/Reconstruction Act of 1867- (slug)
declared martial law; divided South into 5 military
districts with a Union general as acting governor;
Required 13th, 14th, & 15th Amendments be ratified
Freedmen’s Bureau- created to distribute food and
supplies, establish schools, and redistribute additional
confiscated land to former slaves; “40 acres and a mule”
Black Codes- laws to restrict opportunities for free blacks
Ku Klux Klan- white “terrorist” group
Sharecropping- enabled southern blacks to rent their
own plots of land, farm them, and provide for their
families; led to DEBT
13th Amendment– abolished slavery; FREED
14th Amendment – citizenship to former slaves; CITIZENS
15th Amendment – gave former male slaves the right to
vote; VOTE
Homestead Act (1862)- to encourage economic growth
and expansion west; 160 acres if settler built home and
grew crops; 5 yrs later they owned it
Morrill Act (1862)- each state gets 30,000 acres times the
# of its Congressional members; money from land sales
used to start agricultural & mechanical arts universities
Dawes Act (1887)- broke up American Indian tribes by
selling surplus tribal lands to whites
Election of 1876- Tilden vs. Hayes; Hayes elected as
president; ended Reconstruction; military left the South
Important speeches
Lincoln’s 1st Inaugural Address: “We are
not enemies, but friends”
Team Roster
Abraham Lincoln = President of the United States (Union = North)
Jefferson Davis = President of the CONFEDERACY (South)
General Ulysses S. Grant = Union general = winner (later President)
Robert E. Lee = Confederate General
Stonewall Jackson = Confederate General, highly skilled, respected
Hiram Rhodes Revels – 1st African American to serve in Congress
William Carney = 1st African American Metal of Honor winner (flag)
Philip Bazaar – 1st Hispanic Metal of Honor winner (sailor)
Clara Barton – nurse (Angel of the battlefield) – American Red Cross
Julia Ward Howe – wrote the Battle Hymn of the Republic – Union song
Jefferson Davis Inaugural Address: “as a
necessity, not a choice, we have resorted to
Abraham Lincoln’s 2nd Inaugural Address:
With malice toward none, charity toward all
. . . let us strive together to bind up the
nation’s wounds”