# TEK Objective Earth and space. The student knows characteristics of the

```TEK Objective
8.8 Earth and space.
The student knows
characteristics of the
universe.
Mr. McDonald
8.8 Vocabulary
Universe
Star
Nuclear fusion
Nebulae
Galaxy
Spiral galaxy
Elliptical galaxy
Irregular galaxy
Mr. McDonald
Hertzsprung-Russell
Diagram
Light year
Apparent magnitude
Absolute magnitude
The student is expected to:
A. Describe components of the universe,
including stars, nebulae, and galaxies, and
use models such as the Hertzsprung-Russell
diagram for classification
B. Recognize that the Sun is a medium sized
star near the edge of a disc-shaped galaxy of
stars and that the Sun is many thousands of
times closer to Earth than any other star.
Mr. McDonald
C. Research how different wavelengths of
the electromagnetic spectrum such as
light and radio waves are used to gain
properties of components in the universe.
D. Model and describe how light years are
used to measure distances and sizes in
the universe.
E. Research how scientific data are used as
evidence to develop scientific theories to
describe the origin of the universe.
Mr. McDonald
Light Years
-distance covered by a ray of light traveling
in a year
-a measure of distance similar to meter or
kilometer, NOT TIME!!
-used to measure the distance between
stars and galaxies
-One light year is a measurement equal to
9.5 (about 10 trillion kilometers) or the
distance light travels in one year
Examples
• The nearest star to the Earth, outside our solar
system, is 39,900,000,000,000 km or 4.2 light years.
How many years would it take for light from this star
to reach Earth?
• The Milky Way Galaxy is about
1,000,000,000,000,000,000 km or 100,000 light
years. How long would it take light from the Earth to
Reach the edge of the Milky Way Galaxy
• Alpha Centauri is 5.2 light years away from Earth.
How many kilometers away is Alpha Centauri from
Earth?
Universe
-The totality of everything that exists,
including all physical matter and energy,
the planets, stars, galaxies, and the
contents of intergalactic space.
-everything you could possibly imagine
The Big Bang Theory
States 12-15 billion years ago, the universe
began with a huge fiery explosion.
States of the Universe
Expanding- Edwin Hubble states universe
has been and continues to expand
Oscillatory
Evidence to Support Big Bang Theory
• No stars have been found to be older
than the estimated age of the
universe.
• The greater the distance of the
galaxy, the greater the red shift.
• The cosmic background radiation is
radiation left over from early development
of the universe, and is a landmark proof of
the Big Bang theory.
Expanding
-Results from the Big Bang Theory
-Edwin Hubble
-states universe has been and continues to
expand
Components of the Universe
Watch This!!
Nebulae
--Can be formed from the remains of dead
stars/exploding stars
cloud of gas and dust in space, in which
stars form.
-The American Idol of Space
-“Where Stars are born!”
Crab Nebula
Mr. McDonald
The Pillars of Creation
How exactly do stars form?
Dust and gas in these clouds begins to
contract, or squash together. When things
such as clouds contract they get hotter. The
denser the cloud gets the hotter it
gets. Eventually it gets dense enough and
hot enough to ignite its hydrogen fuel,
beginning its new life as a star.
Watch This!
Stars
-a huge object in space made up of gas
(Hydrogen and Helium) that gives off light
and heat.
-Star gets so hot H turns into He and causes
heat and light= Nuclear Fusion
-closest star to the Earth is the Sun.
-the second nearest star besides the Sun is
Proxima Centauri (4.2 light years away)
Life Cycles of Stars
Low Mass Star (small)
Nebula  main sequence  Red Giant 
White Dwarf
High Mass Star (Large)
Nebula  main sequence  Red Giant 
Supernova  Neutron star or Blackhole
Mr. McDonald
Stellar Evolution
Life Cycle of the Sun
Life Cycle in Action
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In this stunning picture of the giant galactic nebula NGC
3603, the crisp resolution of NASA's Hubble Space
Telescope captures various stages of the life cycle of stars
in one single view.
To the upper right of center is the evolved blue supergiant
called Sher 25. The star has a unique circumstellar ring of
glowing gas that is a galactic twin to the famous ring
around the supernova 1987A. The grayish-bluish color of
the ring and the bipolar outflows (blobs to the upper right
and lower left of the star) indicates the presence of
processed (chemically enriched) material.
Near the center of the view is a so-called starburst cluster
dominated by young, hot Wolf-Rayet stars and early O-type
stars. A torrent of ionizing radiation and fast stellar winds
from these massive stars has blown a large cavity around
the cluster.
The most spectacular evidence for the interaction of
ionizing radiation with cold molecular-hydrogen cloud
material are the giant gaseous pillars to the right and lower
left of the cluster. These pillars are sculptured by the same
physical processes as the famous pillars Hubble
photographed in the M16 Eagle Nebula.
Dark clouds at the upper right are so-called Bok globules,
which are probably in an earlier stage of star formation.
To the lower left of the cluster are two compact, tadpoleshaped emission nebulae. Similar structures were found by
Hubble in Orion, and have been interpreted as gas and
dust evaporation from possibly protoplanetary disks
(proplyds). The &quot;proplyds&quot; in NGC 3603 are 5 to 10 times
larger in size and correspondingly also more massive.
This single view nicely illustrates the entire stellar life cycle
of stars, starting with the Bok globules and giant gaseous
pillars, followed by circumstellar disks, and progressing to
evolved massive stars in the young starburst cluster. The
blue supergiant with its ring and bipolar outflow marks the
end of the life cycle.
The color difference between the supergiant's bipolar
outflow and the diffuse interstellar medium in the giant
nebula dramatically visualizes the enrichment in heavy
elements due to synthesis of heavier elements within stars.
Lifespan
Related to their starting masses.
(Sun)
Largest -live about few billion years
Mr. McDonald
Watch This!
• Size of STARS
The Sun
-medium sized,
middle aged star
-main sequence star
-center of our solar
system
-93 million miles
away
Galaxies
Galaxy large group of stars, dust, and gas held
together by gravity.
-can contain up to a trillion stars
-up to 170 billion galaxies in the visible universe
3 types:
1. Spiral
2. Elliptical
3. Irregular
Spiral Galaxy
-disk-shaped with a large mass in the middle
and arms that spiral out from the mass.
-the arms revolve around the center
-Ex. Milky Way (Our galaxy)
Spiral Galaxy
Elliptical Galaxy
-shaped like a flattened or partially deflated
football.
Irregular Galaxy
-does not have a distinct shape
-least common of the 3
-nearest galaxies to the Milky Way galaxy
are irregular.
Irregular Galaxy
Other Components in Universe
• Planets
1. A planet must orbit
the sun.
2. It must be large
enough so that its
own gravity molds it
into a spherical
shape.
3. It must have an orbit
free of other small
objects (Sorry Pluto)
4. My Very Elegant Mother
Just Served Us Nachos
Our Solar System – 8
Exoplanet- a planet
that orbits a star outside
the solar system
Galilean Moons
Galileo Galilei discovered Jupiter's 4 largest moons using a
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Io- covered with giant volcanoes which erupt of sulfuric acid
Europa – a cold, smooth, ice covered world
Ganymede -has a liquid water ocean underneath its icy exterior
Callisto -almost the same size as the planet Mercury
Comets
small body in
space consists
of dust gas and
ice. Tail is the
ice vaporizing as
it approaches
star.
Asteroids
small solar system
bodies that orbit
rock and metal,
they can also
contain organic
compounds.
Meteoroid, Meteor, Meteorite
• Meteoroid -a small rock or particle of debris in our
solar system
• Meteor -A meteoroid that burns up as it passes
through the Earth’s atmosphere= Shooting STAR!!
• Meteorite -survives falling through the Earth’s
atmosphere and colliding with the Earth’s surface.
Universe Poster
You will create a concept poster that includes all of the Characteristics of
the Universe covered in class. You will design and draw your own
Universe and you must include:
• 3 Types of Galaxies
• Nebulae and a depiction of what happens here ( star being born)
• Types of stars (White Dwarf, Main Sequence, Super Giants) with a caption
stating temperature, size and age (Use text)
• Draw a life cycle of a Low Mass Star and High Mass Star and use captions
to tell the story and explain the sequential events
• Comets, Asteroids, and Meteors with captions describing them and in the
correct location where you would find each one
• Planets and Galilean Moons
• Our Solar System (on the edge of the Milky Way Galaxy) including the Sun
and 8 planets in its Orbit. Add captions to the Sun and add information from
your notes including size, temperature, age,etc.
**This is NOT a One Page Notes assignment. This should look like a
picture of outer space with illustrations of all the concepts listed above.**
EVERYTHING MUST BE COLORED!!
Composition
-Younger stars mainly composed of
hydrogen and helium
-Older stars will create other elements such
as carbon and oxygen.
-Stars die when iron is formed.
White Dwarfs
Smallest
25,000 C
or
45,000 C
Main Sequence
medium size
Less hot
Super Giants
largest
3,000 C
or
5,400 C
Least hot
Lifespan
Related to their starting masses.
Medium-live about 10 billion years (Sun)
Largest -live about few billion years
Stellar Evolution
Low Mass Star
Nebula  main sequence  Red Giant  White
Dwarf
High Mass Star
Nebula  main sequence  Red Giant 
Supernova  Neutron star or Blackhole
Mr. McDonald
Life Cycle of a Star
Mr. McDonald
High Mass Stars
Low Mass Star
Apparent Magnitude
A measure of the amount of light from a star
-the brighter the star appears, the lower
the numerical value of its magnitude
Absolute Magnitude
A measure of the amount of light a star
gives off.
-the brightness a star would be as seen
from a distance of 10 parsecs
(1 parsec = 3.2 light years)
10 Parsecs = 191,735,281,000,000 miles
Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
-diagram that measures luminosity (absolute
magnitude) as well as temperature of a
star.
The luminosity of a star is a measure of its
brightness
Mr. McDonald
Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
Mr. McDonald
The Sun
-medium sized,
middle aged star
-main sequence star
-center of our solar
system
-93 million miles
away
Nicolaus Copernicus
-Polish Renaissance
mathematician and
astronomer
-formulated a
heliocentric model of
the universe in 1543
-opposed the
Geocentric model held
to be true
Mr. McDonald
Geocentric Model
- “geo”- Earth,
“centric” -center
-a model of the solar
system in which the
Earth was at the
center.
Mr. McDonald
Heliocentric Model
- “helio”- Sun,
“centric” - center
-a model of the solar
system in which the
Sun is at the center.
Mr. McDonald
Johannes Kepler
-German
mathematician,
astronomer and
astrologer
Mr. McDonald
Kepler's laws of planetary
motion
1. The orbit of every planet is an ellipse with
the Sun at the focus.
2. A line joining a planet and the Sun
sweeps out equal areas during equal
intervals of time.
3. The square of the orbital period of a
planet is directly proportional to the cube of
the semi-major axis of its orbit.
Mr. McDonald
1. The orbit of every planet is an ellipse with
the Sun at focus.
Mr. McDonald
2. A line joining a planet and the Sun
sweeps out equal areas during equal
intervals of time.
Mr. McDonald
3. The square of the orbital period of a
planet is directly proportional to the
cube of the semi-major axis of its orbit.
2
P
Mr. McDonald
3
a
Quiz #8
1. A measure of the amount of light a
star gives off.
2. A measure of the amount of light
from a star that is received on Earth.
3. The star Vega has a lower apparent
magnitude than Rigel. Which one
would appear brighter in the night
sky?
Mr. McDonald
4. Which star appears
brighter, Alpha
Centauri or Barnard’s
Star?
Mr. McDonald
5. What is the absolute magnitude of the
star circled?
Mr. McDonald
Bonus
Which star has a longer life span, a high
mass star or a low mass star?
Mr. McDonald
Quiz #9
1. This theory of the state of the universe states
that the universe looks exactly the same as it
has and as it will look forever.
2. This theory of the state of the universe states
that the universe will expand to a certain
point and then it will begin to contract. Once
it is fully contracted the universe will begin to
expand again.
Mr. McDonald
Bonus
This theory states that the universe is
moving away from a central point as a result
of the Big Bang.
Mr. McDonald
PAP 4A Quiz #9
1. This theory states that the Universe’s
expansion will eventually stop and reverse,
pulling everything inward into a central point.
This will be followed by another “Big Bang”.
2. This theory states that matter is continuously
created to form stars or galaxies but
maintaining the average density. Einstein’s
theory of relativity supported this theory until
it was disproven.
Mr. McDonald
Bonus
This theory states that the Universe will
continue to expand, and once it reaches its
maximum capacity it will stop and come
back together.
Mr. McDonald
The student is expected to:
A. Describe components of the universe,
including stars, nebulae, and galaxies, and
use models such as the Hertzsprung-Russell
diagram for classification
B. Recognize that the Sun is a medium sized
star near the edge of a disc-shaped galaxy of
stars and that the Sun is many thousands of
times closer to Earth than any other star.
Mr. McDonald
C. Research how different wavelengths of
the electromagnetic spectrum such as
light and radio waves are used to gain
properties of components in the universe.
D. Model and describe how light years are
used to measure distances and sizes in
the universe.
E. Research how scientific data are used as
evidence to develop scientific theories to
describe the origin of the universe.
Mr. McDonald
Galaxies
Galaxy (Greek galakt- meaning “milk”) – large group
of stars, dust, and gas held together by gravity.
-can contain up to a trillion stars
-up to 170 billion galaxies in the visible universe
3 types:
1. Spiral
2. Elliptical
3. Irregular
Mr. McDonald
Spiral Galaxy
-disk-shaped with a large mass in the middle
and arms that spiral out from the mass.
-the arms revolve around the center
-Ex. Milky Way
Mr. McDonald
Spiral Galaxy
Mr. McDonald
Elliptical Galaxy
-shaped like a flattened or partially deflated
football.
-stars do not rotate or rotate very slowly
Mr. McDonald
Elliptical Galaxy
Mr. McDonald
Irregular Galaxy
-does not have a distinct shape
-least common of the 3
-nearest galaxies to the Milky Way galaxy
are irregular.
Mr. McDonald
Irregular Galaxy
Mr. McDonald
Universe
-The totality of everything that exists,
including all physical matter and energy,
the planets, stars, galaxies, and the
contents of intergalactic space.
-everything you could possibly imagine
Mr. McDonald
Other Objects in Space
• Comets- small
body in space
consists of dust
gas and ice.
Tail is the ice
vaporizing as it
approaches
star.
Asteroids
• Asteroids are small
solar system
bodies that orbit
rock and metal,
they can also
contain organic
compounds.
Mr. McDonald
Meteoroid, Meteor, Meteorite
• Meteoroid -a small rock or particle of debris in our
solar system
• Meteor -A meteoroid that burns up as it passes
through the Earth’s atmosphere= Shooting STAR!!
• Meteorite -survives falling through the Earth’s
atmosphere and colliding with the Earth’s surface.
Universe Poster
You will create a concept poster that includes all of the Characteristics of
the Universe covered in class. You will design and draw your own
Universe and you must include:
• 3 Types of Galaxies
• Nebulae and a depiction of what happens here ( star being born)
• Types of stars (White Dwarf, Main Sequence, Super Giants) with a caption
stating temperature, size and age (Use text)
• Draw a life cycle of a Low Mass Star and High Mass Star and use captions
to tell the story and explain the sequential events
• Comets, Asteroids, and Meteors with captions describing them and in the
correct location where you would find each one
• Planets and Galilean Moons
• Our Solar System (on the edge of the Milky Way Galaxy) including the Sun
and 8 planets in its Orbit. Add captions to the Sun and add information from
your notes including size, temperature, age,etc.
**This is NOT a One Page Notes assignment. This should look like a
picture of outer space with illustrations of all the concepts listed above.**
EVERYTHING MUST BE COLORED!!
Electromagnetic Waves (EM)
Waves that can travel through matter or
space and are produced by the motion of
electrically charged particles.
Spectrascope – a device used to split light
into different wavelengths to determine the
chemical composition of objects such as
stars and elements.
Electromagnetic Wave Spectrum
Types of EM waves
Micro
Visible
Infrared
UV
X-ray
Gamma
Visible Light
-the only EM waves humans can see.
-includes all the colors of the rainbow
Red
Orange
Yellow
Green
Blue
Indigo
Violet
Red Shift
-shift in the light of a retreating object toward
red wavelengths, caused by the Doppler
effect
RED SHIFT
Mr. McDonald
Blue Shift
-a shift in the wave-length of radiation emitted by
an object when it is approaching us
-the light appears with a shorter wavelength, and
hence bluer
BLUE SHIFT
Mr. McDonald
Doppler Shift
Watch This
RED SHIFT
BLUE SHIFT
Mr. McDonald
Speed of Light
• All types of EM Frequency
Waves travel at the speed of
light!
How can we tell what elements
• Each element absorbs different colors
from the color spectrum. The show
up as dark SPECTRAL LINES and
they look like a bar code. Each
element has a different code. When
we receive light from stars, each one
emits a specific code which then tells
us what elements are present in that
star.
3.
Mr. McDonald
4.
Mr. McDonald
5.
Mr. McDonald
Bonus
Name the theory that states the Universe
will expand to a certain point and then
collapse upon itself and then another Big
Bang will result.
Mr. McDonald
Galaxy
Definition
Picture
Spiral
Definition
Picture
Mr. McDonald
Elliptical
Definition
Picture
Irregular
Definition
Picture
Black Hole
-a region of space whose gravitational field
so powerful that nothing can escape once
it has fallen past a certain point, called the
event horizon.
Mr. McDonald
Black Hole
Mr. McDonald
Lottery Quiz #13
1. Name the atomic reaction that
results in the heat and light given off
by a star.
2. Name the two elements that are
abundant in young stars?
3. A measure of the amount of light
from a star that is received on Earth.
Mr. McDonald
4. Which star appears
brighter, Alpha
Centauri or Barnard’s
Star?
Mr. McDonald