Chapter 6.5 Vocabulary Cell Processes

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Chapter 6.5 Vocabulary Cell Processes

CELL CYCLE-

The series of events that take place in a

cell

leading to its division and duplication of its

DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter

cells

Mitosis-

Division that produces two identical daughter cells during prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. differentiation -

How generic

cells

become specialized

cells

(through a process called gene expression.) interphase-

The phase of the cell cycle in which a typical cell spends most of its life. During this phase, the cell copies its DNA in preparation for mitosis.

prophase- metaphase

anaphase

telophase cytokinesis-

The physical process of cell division, which divides the cytoplasm of a parental cell into two daughter cells.

meiosis-

A type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores.

Chromosome-

Are thread-like structures made of protein and a single molecule of DNA.

Passed from parents to offspring, DNA contains the specific instructions that make each type of living creature unique.

Diploid-

A cell containing two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent.

Haploid-A cell with

a single set of unpaired chromosomes

body/somatic cell- A general term for a cell found in a living organism.

Gamete-T he male or female reproductive cell that contains half the genetic material of the organism.

sex chromosome-

fertilization-

The union of a human egg and sperm.

sexual reproduction-

asexual reproduction

zygote

DNA replication

*protein synthesis

*translation

*transcription

*codon amino acid nucleotide ribosome

*anticodon

Genetics

Genotype

Phenotype

Dominant

Recessive

Homozygous

Heterozygous

Punnet square

Allele

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