Atmosphere and Weather Study Guide Answer Key 2016 Name__________________ 1. The two main gases, and what %of the air is each? Nitrogen at 778%, Oxygen at 21% 2. Complete the graph below for temperature and add horizontal lines of division for each layer of the atmosphere- where temp is on the x axis and altitude is on the y axis: (a) list the first four layers of the atmosphere Altitude (km) T H E R M o 80 M E S O S P H E R e 60 S T R A T O S P H E R e 40 20 0 km T s R o P O p h e r e -100 -80 -60 -40 Temperature, oC. -20 0 20 (b) describe what happens to pressure the higher you go in the atmosphere: Pressure decreases 3(a) Vitoria is on the coast of Brazil in South America. Aracatuba is at similar latitude, receiving the same amount of sunlight, but is several hundred kilometers inland. . Predict which will have cooler summers? Vitoria, on the coast cooler winters? Aracatube, inland. Why? Oceans moderate climate since water is a huge heat storage material, so places on the ocean have cooler summers and warmer winters. (b)How is climate different from weather? Climate is long-term weather, such as average precipitation for a year, while weather is the state of the atmosphere for a short period, such as it rained 1” yesterday. (c)What is humidity? The amount of water vapor in the air. (d) the jet stream: What is it, where is it found, and why is it important for weather? The jet stream is a rapidly moving current of air, usually in the low part of the stratosphere, and it both moves weather systems and helps to start or end some of them. This year, El Nino in the Pacific meant warmer oceans, which changed the jet stream to bring a warm December to the East. 4. What weather system is shown to the right? A cold front In what direction (N, S, NW, etc.) is it going? _East South East (ESE), but will accept East or Southeast too. 5. Complete the following as to the actions AND locations in our atmosphere of Ozone, Carbon Dioxide, and Water Vapor: Ozone Carbon Dioxide Water Vapor Actions: Absorbs Ultra Violet Absorbs Infrared Absorbs Infrared Locations: Radiation Stratosphere, mostly radiation Troposphere 8. Complete the characteristics and drawings for four kinds of clouds: Name Characteristics and location in atmosphere Cirrus Drawing way high, icey, wispy, thin Cumulus mid level puffy, like clouds Stratus Fog like, layered, often low Cumulonimbus radiation Troposphere Really tall, dark, thunderstorm cloud 9. Describe how a vacuum cleaner cleans up dust and lint on the floor. (use the reverse side of weather map answer.) A motor PUSHES air out from a central chamber of the cleaner, which reduces the atmospheric pressure inside the chamber, big time. Then regular atmospheric pressure PUSHES air near the floor into the opening of the vacuum cleaner, along with any lint and dust around it 10. List four small instruments, one satellite, and two kinds of radar used to measure weather conditions, the condition each measures, and likely readings for today: Small instruments 1 Barometer Conditions measured Pressure Likely readings today 1014mb 9average, adjust for the day of the test 2 Wind speed 5mph (adjust for actual conditions) Temperature 5oC Humidity 50% Hurricanes, and large storms None Temperature of cloud tops, and their height Low clouds today Instensity of storms and precipitation None Anemometer 3 Thermometer 4 Hygrometer Satellite 1Visible Radar 1Infrared 2Doppler Name_____________________________ Block _________________ Actions for Weather Map: 1. Prepare a Isobar map, showing lines of equal pressure. 2. Based on the map, show where any high and low pressure systems are located. 3. Based on the map, using either proper wind flags and barbs OR simple arrows, show wind direction in locations north, east, south, and west of the pressure systems. 4. Based on the map, predict which states will have clear weather ___________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Guidance: connect areas of equal pressure with a smoothly drawn line, being sure never to cross over another pressure line, or isobar. Place a “H” where you see the high pressure and a “L” where there is a center of low pressure. Remember that winds rotate clockwise around a high, and counterclockwise around the Low in the Northern Hemisphere. And that Highs usually have clear skies, while Lows have storms associated with them.