Small Animal Cats- Unit F

Small Animal
Cats- Unit F
Competency 15.00
Use information specific to each
breed to choose the best cat for a
given use.
Cat Breeds
• Differ in color, patterns, length of hair,
shape and length of ears, shape and
color of eyes, head shape, body
conformation, size, and disposition
• For our discussions we will focus on
the two major types of hair:
– Shorthaired Breeds
– Longhaired Breeds
Objective 15.01
• Describe major shorthaired and
longhaired breeds of cats
Pictures courtesy of Google Images
Shorthair Breeds
• Ruddy (orange-brown), red and blue,
all ticked with darker colors at tips of
each hair
• Medium sized
– Muscular cat
• Almond shaped eyes
• Very active
– Fond of water
– Can be taught to retrieve
American Shorthair
(Domestic Shorthair)
• Came to US with English settlers
• 34 recognized color patterns
– tabby is the most common color
• Medium to large sized
• Affectionate
– makes great lap cat
American Shorthair
(Domestic Shorthair)
Bombay (1958)
• Relatively new breed resulting from
Burmese x American Shorthair
– Medium sized cat
– Jet black
– Copper or gold colored eyes
• Disposition
– Graceful, charming, and get along well
with others, even strangers
British Shorthair
• Oldest Natural English breed
Larger and taller than American Shorthair
Large rounded head
Big, round copper or gold eyes
Quiet, easy going, docile nature
• likes to sleep a lot
British Shorthair
• Originated in the Unites States
• 1930’s
• Cross between Siamese x Burma
– Medium-sized
– Sable-brown in color with gold eyes
– Good disposition, enjoy being held
• Can become bossy, stubborn, and
Cornish Rex
• Small to medium size
• Oval eyes and curves or rippling hair
• Must be kept indoors
– lacks guard hairs to protect it from the
Cornish Rex
Devon Rex
• Resulted from feral (wild) domestic
cat x cared-for stray
– Medium sized cat with wavy hair coat
– Large, wide-based ears are set low and
distinctive to this breed
Devon Rex
Japanese Bobtail
• Known for calico (tortoiseshell or 3
– Calico is some shade of black, orange
(red), and white.
• Distinctive short (bob) tail
– Is kinked to form a “pom” or “bunny tail”
• The tail is sensitive
– Care must be taken to prevent injury and
pain when handling the cat
Japanese Bobtail
• Highly prized, rare cat of Thailand
– Protective of family members, and
reserved with strangers
• Medium-sized cat
– Silver blue fur tipped with silver
• Produces a halo effect
• Among earliest European breeds
– result of a genetic mutation
• Medium-sized
– affectionate cat
– tends to be better in one-to-one relationships
• The BEST show Manx cats do not have a tail
– others have a short tail (stumpy)
– some have a long tail (longy)
• Known for one-on-one devotion to
one person
• Eye color is always deep blue
• Head forms an equilateral triangle
from the nose to the tips of the ears
– Very little pigmentation in color pattern
– Pigmentation is darker at the points
– Color is restricted to the points: mask,
ear, foot and tip of tail
• Medium-sized
– very long and refined
• Siamese cats are very unpredictable;
however, they are described as talkative,
• Fearless cats of extraordinary intelligence.
• Siamese cats are particularly sensitive to
vaccinations and anesthetics
Small breed
Known for its’ quiet, shy disposition
Males weigh at most 6 pounds
Females usually weigh less than 4
Crossed with Abyssinian recessive
carriers for long hair
Friendly, affectionate, prefers company,
playful, very active
medium size
usually orange-brown ticked with black
or red ticked with brown coat
gold or green eyes
Snowshoe Breed
• Medium to large size
– Similar to American Shorthair
• white feet
– Bright blue eyes are large, oval
– Ears are large and broad at base
– Wedgeshaped head
• The mask, tail, ears, and legs are usually
defined seal or blue with the masking colors
covering the entire face, except for inverted
white V-shaped pattern over mouth and
Snowshoe Breed
• Canadian origin in the late 1960’s
• Known for its tough, wrinkled hairless skin
• Indoor cat
– cannot survive outdoors
– depends upon people for survival
– Constantly purrs
• Adores body contact and is very affectionate
• Normal body temperature is 4°F higher than
most other breeds
– unable to store body fat
– must eat more frequently to maintain its body
Longhair Breeds
Balinese and Javanese
Body style of Siamese, but long hair
Eyes are deep vivid blue
Balinese and Javanese
• Sturdy cat of medium to large size
• Long, silky coat that does not mat
– requires little care
• Very sociable
– needs the company of others
• White paws - trait
– Eyes are round
– Ears are medium with rounded tips
Longhaired Manx
• Alert and sweet natured
• Excellent with other pets and children
• Large cat that is tailless
Cymric Longhaired Manx
Himalayan and Kashmir
(Siamese x Persian x Birman)
Medium to large size
Persian type cat
Long, flowing hair coat with Siamese
Himalayan and Kashmir
Maine Coon
• Oldest natural breed in North America
– native American origin
• Large-sized
– reaches 12 -18 pounds
• Brown tabby is the best known color
• Lovable and friendly
– has a tiny voice that squeaks and chirps
Maine Coon
• One of the oldest and most popular breeds
• Medium to large size
– short, compact body
– large head
– small rounded ears
• Well mannered
– easy going
– quiet cats
• Make good apartment cats and excellent companions
• Require daily grooming
– removes and knots
• Requires regular bathing
– removes excess oil from the coat
• Originated in the US during the
• Exceptionally large
• Heavy breed
• Blue eyes
• Docile, quiet, and composed
– named because they show little signs of
fear or pain
– take a floppy posture when handled
• Himalayan x Burmese
• Medium size
• Oriental style
– essentially a long-haired Burmese
• Follows owner like a puppy
• Few exist in the United States
Turkish Angora
• Small to medium-sized cat
• Polite
• Intelligent
– very responsive
– easily trained to perform tricks
• Prefers a clean, almost spotless
Turkish Angora
Objective 15.02
• Select a cat based on qualifying
Selecting a Pet Cat
The Cat vs. The Dog
• Requires less care
– independent nature
• Lower feeding cost
– smaller
• Initial purchase price is less
Qualities to consider
• Adult cats are better for elderly or
busy owners
• Kittens adapt quickly
• Females reach sexual maturity at 5
– estrus cycle every three weeks
• Friendly affectionate pets
– “they don’t usually kill or injure small
Qualities to consider
• Pedigree animals have certain
– most cats are mixed breeds
• Long haired breeds require frequent
– require air conditioned facilities
• Mixed breeds are cheaper to
Choosing a healthy cat
1. Look for signs of health
Pale pink gums
White teeth
Nose should be cool and slightly damp
Clean glossy coat
Free of mats
Proper teeth cleaning can prevent
the absorption of toxins and
bacteria present in the mouth
which can damage internal organs.
Most veterinarians can clean teeth and
do so regularly for most cat owners
Choosing a healthy cat
2. Look for signs of illness
– Discharge from the eyes or nose
– Buildup of wax in the ears
• ear mites
– External Parasites
• Fleas
– Internal Parasites
• Potbellied cats may indicate worm
Competency 16.00
Use techniques that improve the
well being of cats.
Objective 16.01
• Discuss grooming practices for cats
Grooming Cats
• Removes old and dead hair
• Provides opportunity to check for:
Skin disorders
Eye problems
Ear problems
Longhaired Cats
• Need daily care to keep free of tangles and
• Equipment
Blunt end scissors
Nail clippers
Grooming brush
Grooming powder
Grooming Longhaired Cats
• Procedures for longhair cats
– 1st-Use a wide tooth comb for animal
– 2nd- Use a small toothed comb
– Once all tangles are out, brush hair in
opposite direction of growth occasionally
and sprinkle grooming powder
• This removes old hair and reduces
– Check for parasites, skin disorders, eye
and ear problems
Longhair Grooming
• Comb with two sizes of teeth (fine
toothed and a flea comb).
• Nail Clippers
• Grooming brush natural bristles
(nylon causes static)
• Grooming powder such as baby
powder, talcum, or cornstarch.
Shorthair Grooming
Rubber grooming brush
Fine-toothed/ flea comb
Soft chamois, silk, nylon pad
Rubber grooming brush
– Avoid removing good hair
Flea Combs
Bathing Cats
1. Start bathing as early as 4 months
2. Avoid splashing or running water when cat
is present
3. Use ~4 inches of warm water
4. Gently lower cat into the water until the
entire cat is wet
5. Keep water our of eyes and ears
6. Apply a baby shampoo to the wet coat,
lather and rinse
• Medicated shampoo for fleas
7. Towel dry or use a hairdryer
Other Grooming
• Check teeth and gums
– Dry food helps to clean the teeth
• Check for ear mites
– Dark, crumbly wax indicates mites
– Use ear drops to treat
• Used special clippers to trim claws
– Do not cut into pink area of claw, it will
– Scratching post helps to reduce claw
Objective 16.02
• Describe major health concerns for
• Infectious
Cat Distemper (FPV)
Feline herpes virus (FHV)
Feline calicivirus (FCV)
Feline Rhinotracheitis (FVR)
Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP)
Feline Leukemia (FeLV)
Feline Enteric Corona virus (FECV)
Feline Panleukopenia
• Feline distemper
caused by a parvo virus or DNA virus
Abnormally low white blood cell count
Affects young cats
75% death rate
• Spread by direct contact but also
from food and water, bedding, litter
boxes, etc.
Feline Panleukopenia
• Symptoms:
loss of appetite
high fever
Feline herpes virus (FHV)
• Caused by respiratory virus infection
– Shed in discharges from the nose, eyes,
– transmitted through direct contact
• Can remain dormant for years
Feline herpes virus (FHV)
• Symptoms
severe eye and nasal discharges
increase in temperature
Feline Rhinotracheitis
• Widespread disease
• Caused by the Herpes virus infection
– confined to the upper respiratory tract
• Symptoms:
– sneezing
– discharges from eyes and nasal
Feline Rhinotracheitis
Feline Calicivirus (FCV)
• Respiratory virus infection
• Discharges from the nose, eyes,
– transmitted from direct contact.
• Symptoms- Depression, sneezing,
coughing, severe eye and nasal
discharges with an increase in
Feline Leukemia (FeLV)
• Severely limits the cat’s immune systems
– virus is excreted primarily in the cat’s salivary
– also present in respiratory, fecal and urine
• Spread through direct contact and by
sharing litter, food, water, etc.
• Symptoms:
– low grade fever, vomiting, soft or watery diarrhea,
blood in the feces and dehydration
Feline Enteris Corona virus
• Ingestion of contaminated feces in
kittens between four and twelve
weeks of age.
• Symptoms: low grade fever, vomiting,
soft or watery diarrhea, blood in the
feces and dehydration.
Feline Infectious Peritonitis
virus (FIP)
• FIP occurs when FECV mutates
• Affect those with weak immune
• Leads to organ failure
• Symptoms:
– fever
– loss of appetite
– depression
– weight loss
• Fatal viral disease
• Spread by the saliva of an infected
warm blooded animal
• Cat become highly agitated and
possibly aggressive
Cat Disease Review
• Feline panleukopenia
– Cat Distemper (FPV) Low White Cell Count and
high death rate
Feline herpes virus (FHV)
Feline calicivirus (FCV)
Feline Rhinotracheitis (FVR)
Feline Leukemia (FeLV)
Feline Enteric Corona virus (FECV)
Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP)
Suggested Feline Vaccination
• 5 Weeks
– Panleukopenia (distemper)-Killed,
Rhinotracheitis, Calicivirus
• 9 Weeks
– Panleukopenia, Rhinotracheitis,
Calicivirus, Chlamydia, Leukemia
Suggested Feline Vaccination
• 12 to 15 Weeks*
– Panleukopenia, Rhinotracheitis,
Calicivirus, Chlamydia, Leukemia
• 16 to 19 Weeks*
– Feline Infectious Peritonitis, Ringworm,
First rabies
*Follow label directions for booster
• Non-infectious
– Feline Urological syndrome (fus)
– Entropion
– Wet eye
• Entropion
– eyeball sinks into socket and the eyelid
spasms with discomfort.
• Wet Eye
– excessive tear production
– blockage of drainage canal causing the
tears to overflow at the inner corner of
the eyes
Feline Urologic syndrome (fus)
• A feline urinary
tract disease also
referred to as
• May range from
mild inflammation
to blockage of the
• uremic poisoning
and death can
Internal Parasites
• Toxoplasmosis- prtozoan parasite
Toxoplasm gondii infection
• Ascarids-Toxocara cati
• Hookworm-Ancylostoma tubaeforme
• Tapeworm-Dipylidium caninum
External Parasites
Lice- Felicola subrostratus
Mites-denidex cati
Feline Scabies-Notoedres cati
Feline Mites-ear mites, walking
dandruff mites, chiggers, fleas and
Fungal Diseases and Poisonings
• Cats and dogs share the same
concerns for fungal diseases and
Household cleaners