The Republican Revolution

The Republican
Democratic Party
• Founded by Andrew Jackson when the
Democratic-Republican party split after the
“corrupt bargain” decided the election of 1824
• Adhered to the basic ideals of Thomas Jefferson
by favoring strict construction of the Constitution,
a limited federal government, and policies that
were helpful to small farmers (as opposed to those
helpful to wealthy urban interests)
• Was opposed by the Whig Party
• Famous as the party of Thomas Jefferson, Andrew
Jackson, and Franklin D. Roosevelt
Whig Party
• When the Democratic-Republican party split after the
election of 1824 and the “corrupt bargain,” was formed
in opposition to the Democratic Party
• Initially led by Henry Clay, John Quincy Adams, and
Daniel Webster
• Resembled the Federalist party led by Alexander
• Favored the interests of wealthy urban citizens and
businesses over the interest of farmers
• Often nominated famous people with vague political
positions as a way to attract votes.
• Only successful presidential candidates were war heroes
William Henry Harrison and Zachary Taylor
Andrew Jackson
• First came to national prominence as a general in the Indian
Wars and at the Battle of New Orleans
• Nickname “Old Hickory”
• Senator from Kentucky
• Lost the presidential election of 1824 because of the
“corrupt bargain”
• Founder of the Democratic party
• Election president in 1828 and 1832
• Strengthened the power of the presidency
• Destroyed the Second National Bank
• Handled the “spoiled system,” wherein a newly elected
president gave federal jobs to those who had supported his
Kitchen Cabinet
Andrew Jackson’s advisers were
known as his “________ _________”
because they supposedly slipped into
the White House through the kitchen.
Spoils System
The practice by incoming political
parties of removing old workers and
replacing them with their supporters is
known as the ______________
Indian Removal Act
In 1830, this law ordered all Native
Americans to move west of the
Mississippi river?
Trail of Tears
• Name for the forced removal of the Cherokee tribe
of Native Americans from North Carolina to
Oklahoma by the United States Army in the 1830’s
• The Cherokee were forced to walk 1,200 miles west
through the winter
• More than 25 percent died along the way
Nullification Crisis
• 1832 crisis that tested the power of the federal government
as designed by the Constitution against states’ rights
• Precipitated by congressional renewal of a high tariff on
imported goods
• South Carolina passed an ordinance of nullification,
declaring the tariff void and threatening secession if the
federal government attempted to collect tariff revenue in
South Carolina
• President Andrew Jackson, who himself supported
lowering the tariff, declared nullification “incompatible with
the existence of the Union” and sought permission from
Congress to use federal troops to enforce the tariff law id
• In this effort, South Carolina drew heavily on the example
of Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
• Andrew Jackson’s response set some precedent for
Abraham Lincoln’s reaction to secession at the beginning
of the Civil War
Martin Van Buren
Who became the 8th president of the
United States?
Panic of 1837
By 1837, many of the banks Jackson
had put money in during the bank fight
had failed. This became known as the
_______ __ ______
During this time, many banks closed
and people lost their savings.
As a result, the country sank into a
William Henry Harrison
Who became the ninth president of the
United States?
His term only lasted 1 month because a
cold he was suffering from turned into
John Tyler
Who became the 10th president of
the United States?
California gold rush
• Took place when gold was discovered in
California in 1849
• Those who hurried west to find their
fortune were thus known as forty-niners
• Raised California’s population enough
that California became a state decades
before any of the states in the Great Plains
(those between California and the rest of
the United States) became states
• Large portion of Mexico that declared its independence in
• Most of those advocating for ______ independence were
Americans who had settled in ________
• Leaders of the Republic of ________ advocated for
annexation by the United States
• For the sake of relations with Mexico and because of
domestic debates over slavery, the United States waited to
annex ___________
• Manifest Destiny became popular and James K. Polk was
elected on a platform of annexing ___________ and
expanding American territory in the Northwest
• Became a state in 1845
• Border dispute with Mexico led to the Mexican American
“54°40′ or Fight!”
• Slogan of James K. Polk when he ran for president
in 1844 on a platform of manifest destiny
• Referred to the line of latitude where Americans
wanted the border between the Oregon Territory and
Canada drawn
• When Polk annexed Texas and got America
embroiled in the Mexican American War, he was
forced to settle with Britain for a less advantageous
boundary (at 49°) in the northwest
James K. Polk
11th President of the United States
Served as president from 1845-1849
Proponent of Manifest Destiny
Elected on a platform of annexing Texas and
expanding land holdings in the northwest (54°40′ or
• Led the United States into the Mexican-American
• Member of the Democratic Party
Manifest Destiny
• Popular term for mid-nineteenth century belief that the
United States was not only destined but also obligated (as
part of a divine mission to spread democracy, freedom, and
Christianity) to control as much territory in North America
as possible
• Term coined by journalist John O. Sullivan
• Provided the main ideology for the presidential campaign of
James K. Polk, who supported the annexation of Texas and
the expansion of the northwest (leading to the rallying cry,
“54° 40′ or Fight”)
• Was a primary motivation for the Mexican American War
Mexican American War
• Fought from 1846 – 1848
• After the United States annexed Texas, it claimed a southern border at
the Rio Grande River, despite the fact that the Texans had always
claimed a border a couple of hundred miles north of that (at the
Nueces River)
• When Mexican troops skirmished with Texans north of the Rio
Grande, President James K. Polk secured a declaration of war from
• American armies, led by General Zachary Taylor (later to serve as
president), routed the Mexicans
• Peace settlement declared the Rio Grande to be the national boundary,
ceded California to the United States, and gave the Americans a large
tract of land (later carved into five states) known as the Mexican
cession, as well as requiring the United States to pay $15 million in
unpaid debts to Mexico
• War was an indicator of the popularity of Manifest Destiny
• Led to debates about slavery in the Mexican Cession, including
debates over the Wilmot Proviso
• Mid nineteenth century social, intellectual, and
aesthetic movement growing out of the spread of
Romanticism from Europe to America
• Characterized by a belief that immersion in nature
could allow for a transcendence (a rising above) of
daily life
• Important figures include Ralph Waldo Emerson,
Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, Walt
Whitman, Henry David Thoreau, Margaret Fuller,
and the painters of the Hudson River School
• Connected to some aspects of the outburst of
utopian experiments
Utopian Experiments
• Attempts to create a perfect society
• A rash of these attempts swept the United States in
the mid-nineteenth century
• Most famous of these attempts included Brookfarm
(where Transcendentalists attempted to live
without interference), the Oneida community, the
Shaker community, and the Mormon communities
• What invention led to the
spread of the slaverybased "cotton kingdom" in the
Deep South?
• tractor
• cotton gin
• slavery
• steel plow
• Who invented the cotton gin?
• Eli Whitney
• Cyrus McCormick
• John Deere
• Henry Ford
• In 1828, what happened with
Americans and the electoral
• one did not have to be a male or own
land so voting numbers increased
• one did not have to own land so
voting numbers increased
• one did not have to own land so voting
numbers decreased
• one did not have to be a white male but
still had to own land so voting numbers
• Which national Republican
candidate in the election of
1832 supported the bank of the
United States?
• Henry Clay
• Aaron Burr
• Andrew Jackson
• John Calhoun
• What is the name of the
practice of using public offices
to benefit members of the
victorious party?
• federation
• spoils system
• mandate system
• civil service
• What term means a government in
which power is vested in a minority
consisting of those believed to be
best qualified ?
• spoils system
• aristocracy
• patronage
• federation
• Which president enacted the
spoils system after being
• James Monroe
• Andrew Johnson
• William Henry Harrison
• Andrew Jackson
• What did Andrew Jackson do after
being re-elected in 1832 causing
the Panic of 1837?
• He declared a bank holiday until all
banks were safe to reopen.
• He supported the Bank of the United
• He withdrew money from state banks
and put it into the Bank of the U.S.
• He caused an economic depression by
withdrawing government money from
the Bank of the U.S. and depositing it in
state banks.
• What economic situation resulted
from reckless speculation that led
to bank failures and dissatisfaction
with the use of state banks as
depositories for public funds?
• Panic of 1857
• Panic of 1847
• Panic of 1837
• Panic of 1832
• What was the name of the forced
march of the Native Americans
from their homes on the Atlantic
coast to Oklahoma?
• Long Walk Home
• Trail of Tears
• Santa Fe trail
• March to Oklahoma
• Which area did Americans
move to sparking an armed
revolt by Mexican rule?
• California
• New Mexico
• Gadsden Purchase
• Texas
• What was the famous battle in the
Mexican War in which a band of
Texans fought to the last man
against a vastly superior force?
• Battle at El Paso
• El Brazito Battle
• Battle of San Antonio
• the Alamo
• What was the result of the Texans'
eventual victory over Mexican
• U.S. control of California
• Texas became a republic for nine years
and eventually joined the union
• Manifest destiny
• Gadsden Purchase to build the railroad
• American's Manifest Destiny was a
belief that the country should
stretch from _____________.
• Mississippi River to Rocky Mountains
• Atlantic Ocean to Pacific Ocean
• Atlantic Ocean to the Rocky Mountains
• Continental United States plus Alaska
and Hawaii
• Which state is NOT part of the
land acquired in the Mexican
• Arizona
• Oklahoma
• Colorado
• California
• What led to the growth of an
industrial economy and
supported the westward
movement of settlers?
• railroads
• covered wagons and rivers
• canals and railroads
• cattle trains
• In which westward areas did
settlers NOT move to in hopes of
finding economic opportunity in the
form of land to own and farm?
• Southwest
• Midwest/Great Plains
• Texas
• Alaska