Causes of WWI: Militarism Alliances Imperialism Nationalism What is the function or purpose of each part of MAIN? What countries made up the Triple Alliance? (label them and color them green) What countries made up the Triple Entente? (label them and color them purple) What would be the risks of refusing to help an ally? The assassination of the Archduke set off a chain reaction… explain what happened. June 28, 1914-- Assassination of Austria-Hungary’s Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife, Sophie. o The Archduke and his wife were visiting Sarajevo when they were shot by Gavrilo Princip, a member of the Black Hands. o Princip was a Serbian. o Since he was a Serbian, Austria along with the help of Germany used the assassination as an opportunity to move against Serbia. o Austria offered Serbia an ultimatum. Serbia wanted to negotiate. o July 28, 1914 Austria rejected Serbia’s offer and declared war. o Austria’s declaration of war against Serbia set off a chain reaction. Where did the name Central Powers come from? Label the Central Powers. (color green) Label the Allied Powers. (color purple) Tangled Alliances: Otto Von Bismarck of Germany was part of the Triple Alliance and had a treaty with Russia. Russia and Austria didn’t get along, they disagreed over the Balkans. o Austria had taken over Bosnia. o Serbia wanted Bosnia. o Austria vowed to crush any effort to undermine its authority in the Balkans. o Russia supported Serbia nationalism. Kaiser Wilhelm II, ruler of Germany, forced Bismarck to resign and let the treaty with Russia expire. o Russia formed an alliance with France. Wilhelm then challenged the British Navy. o Great Britain began to enlarge its fleet and formed an alliance with France and Russia. War Declared by ALL: In response to Austria’s declaration of war against Serbia, Russia began to move troops to the RussianAustrian border. Russia also mobilized along the German border, as a “precaution.” Germany saw Russia’s mobilization as a declaration of war, so they declared war on Russia. Two days later Germany declared war on France, Russia’s ally, Taking sides: Central Powers—Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire. Allies—Great Britain, France, and Russia. Eventually Japan and the United States will join. The War: Germany’s Schlieffen Plan—Designed by General Alfred Graf von Schlieffen. In the event of a two front war: o Attack France first then go after Russia. o Russia with its lack of railroads wouldn’t be able to mobilize quickly. o The German army would race west, defeat France, and then move east. o Supposed to be a lightning-quick strike to end the war. o France had troops along the western front. o Germany decided to go north so they invaded Belgium to get to France. o Great Britain has a close alliance with Belgium, so they declare war on Germany. o The battle lines are now drawn between the Central Powers and the Allies. French Infantry Unit at the Battle of Verdun The Conflict Grinds to a Halt: Initially, the Schlieffen Plan worked very well o Overran Belgium o Swept into France o The Schlieffen Plan would be halted at The Battle of the Marne (September 5-12, 1914) o Quick victory in the west was no longer possible. o The war settled into a stalemate on the Western Front. o Germany was now going to have to fight a long war on two fronts: France to the west and Russia to the east. War in the Trenches: By 1915 opposing armies on the Western Front had dug miles of parallel trenches to protect them from enemy fire. o This became known as trench warfare. What is trench warfare? Describe life in the trenches.