+ The Protestant Reformation

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+
The Protestant Reformation
+
The Protestant Reformation
Started
in the early 1500s
Protestant:
someone who protests
Reformation:
a movement to
change something (in this case the
Catholic Church)
Dissenter:
one who disagrees and
goes against the norm
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Early
Dissenters
John
Wycliffe
1331 - 1384
Jan Hus
1369 - 1415
John Wycliffe
•
•
•
•
English
Bible into the vernacular
Bible is the only authority
Died but body dug up and
bones burned
Jan Hus
•Czech
•Against
the doctrines
(teachings) of the Church
•Burned at the stake
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•Wealthy and powerful
•Catered
to the
uneducated people,
how?
•Charged
people
indulgences (paying
for forgiveness)
The
Catholic
Church
Martin Luther
•1483
– 1546
•German
monk
•Against
indulgences
•Salvation
+
through faith
alone
•Posted
the 95 Theses on
the door of the Wittenberg
Church in 1517
•Excommunicated
Church
from the
+
Wittenberg Church
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John Calvin
1509
– 1564
Believed
in
predestination
Established
5 Points of
Calvinism
a
theocracy in in
Geneva, Switzerland
in 1555
Presbyterian
Church
branched off from
Calvin. Calvinists in
Scotland
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The English Reformation
 Started
with King Henry VIII due to pure
selfishness
 Henry
wanted a male heir to the throne
 Henry
wanted a divorce,
needed annul marriage. (Pope’s
orders)
 Eventually
married 6 times!
 Henry
leaves the Catholic Church and starts his
own church. The Act of Supremacy 1534 puts
him in charge of the new Church of England
 Seized
Catholic lands & $$$
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Queen Elizabeth

Daughter of Henry VIII & Anne Boleyn (Henry’s 2nd wife)

Took the throne in 1558 and ruled for almost 45 years.

Reign was known as The Golden Age
 Birth of Shakespeare
 Defeat of the Spanish Armada
 England became a world power

“The Virgin Queen” dated but never married

VA named after Elizabeth I

Religious tolerance

Nationalized the Church of England.
Known as the Anglican Church
French
wars
of
+
the Reformation
•1562
– 1598
•France
predominantly a
Catholic country
•French
Catholics vs.
French Protestants
(Huguenots)
•Started
with the
Massacre of Vassy
•Ended
Nantes
with the Edict of
Edict of Nantes:
•Created religious tolerance
in France
•Allowed French Protestants
certain civil rights
•Reaffirmed Catholicism as
the established religion in
France
•Signed by Henry IV
German
wars
of
+
the Reformation
•Germany
known as the
Holy Roman Empire
•Luther
excommunicated and
starts Lutheranism
•Princes
support Luther
•Fighting
between the
Catholics and the
Protestants: Thirty
Years’ War
Peace of
Westphalia
•Ended Thirty Years’ War
•Gave some European
countries their
independence
•Allows for religious
toleration. Any country
could chose their religion.
+The Catholic Counter-Reformation
The Council of Trent
 Met
from 1545 – 1563
 The
Church’s reply to the Protestant Reformation
 The
church's interpretation of the Bible was final.
Any Christian who did not agree with the
interpretation was a heretic.
 Faith
and good works get salvation (not just faith
like Martin Luther said)
 Catholic
practices such as Indulgences &
pilgrimages were strongly reaffirmed.
The
Inquisition
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•
•
•
•
Around for centuries
Re-booted during the Reformation
Maintain the orthodoxy of the Catholic Church
Established the Index of Forbidden Books
SPANISH
INQUISITION
• Goal was to
ensure that
recent converts
were truly
Catholic
(Catholics had
recently
reconquered
Spain from the
Muslims in 1492)
• Known for their
extreme brutality
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•Founded in 1534 by
St. Ignatius of
Loyola
Founded schools to
spread Catholicism
•
•All
male
organization:
poverty, chastity,
and obedience
Sent Missionaries
around the Globe to
places such as
Paraguay, Japan,
Canada
•
The Jesuits
(The Society
of Jesus)