Bellringer: 2/24 Pick up the papers by the door. Take out your vocab for WWI so you can study for the vocab quiz today. Have a phone or tablet out to use for the Kahoot review before the quiz today. After the quiz: Put your quiz in the class drawer. Work on the final touches of your WWI weapons brochure and turn that into the class drawer. Write down your HW: Make sure your notebook is in order for your notebook quiz on FRIDAY 2/26. Covers pages 76-100! Make the following additions to your ToC: 107: Notes: WWI Ends, Peace Begins 108: Notes: Russian Rev. 109: Vocab Quiz: WWI Agenda: 1. Vocab Review 2. Vocab Quiz – WWI 3. Notes: WWI Ends, Peace Begins/Treaty of Versailles 4. Simulation: Treaty of Versailles 5. Notebook Quiz Organization (time-permitting) A new kind of war: Life on the Front Lines of WWI The Reality of Soldier’s Lives War takes a toll on soldiers “war of attrition” Once, young and eager soldiers proud to serve their country, now had little faith in their cause. Some soldiers were mentally or physically wounded while many others lost their lives. Effects of the War of the Home Front Wartime Propaganda Women and the age of “Total War” Women poured into the workforce replacing men who went off to war Jobs: Ran farms Factory workers Office assistants Nurses Middle and upper class women: paramilitary organizations 40,000 nurses Cooks Drivers Mechanics 13,000 Women’s Land Army Women’s Wages and Changing Roles Paid less than men After the war, women were “demobilized” to make room for men in their jobs. Women discovered benefit of financial autonomy Some refused to return to domestic service Women won the right to vote throughout Europe Wartime economics WWI left the world financially stressed To finance war costs governments: Raised taxes Took out loans Rationed food, clothing, gasoline Set prices Forbid strikes Forced civilian labor Enforced “drafts” Mobilizing for Total War Citizens back home made huge sacrifices (“Victory Gardens”) Governments controlled industries, rationing Creating a “New” Europe Woodrow Wilson and The Fourteen Points By joining the war, America was helping to safeguard democracy established a high, idealistic purpose for WWI. 14 Points created by Woodrow Wilson to create a more just world spoke to congress outlining a set of ideas for a more just world once the war ended. 6 points contained plans of a general nature. 8 points dealing with specific countries and regions: Russia, Belgium, AlsaceLorraine, and the Balkans. 6 General Points 1. No secret treaties. 2. Freedom of the seas for all nations. 3. Removal of all economic barriers, such as tariffs. 4. Reduction of national armament. 5. Adjustment of colonial claims so the were fair to both the imperialist powers and colonial peoples. 6. Establishment of a “general association of nations” to guarantee political independence and protection to small and large states. League of Nations Wilson’s 14th Point #14: Create an International Cooperative Organization called the League of Nations PROBLEM: U.S.A. DID NOT JOIN Did they League of Nations work? NO!! – COULD NOT ENFORCE DECISIONS Paris Peace Conference Dominated by the leaders of the four major Allied Powers: Woodrow Wilson (U.S.) David Lloyd George (Britain) George Clemenceau (France) Vittorio Orlando (Italy) “The Big Four” Problems Facing the Peacemakers Wilson wanted a treaty that was fair to all. European Allied governments insisted on dictating the peace settlement. Russia was not invited. Other Central Powers were given a small role in peace writing terms. Reparations & Peacekeeping Reparations: Payment for war damages. Who should pay? How much? Many Allied leaders wanted Germany to bear the cost of the war Conflicting Viewpoints of Peace Wilson believed the peace settlement should be fair and not so harsh that it would kindle future wars. Many allies felt hatred towards Germany. They felt that Germany started the war and they should pay for it. Some countries wanted concrete guarantees that Germany would never Treaty of Versailles Dealt harshly with Germany. Made Germany admit that it was guilty of starting the war and must alone pay reparations. Took land from Germany Carved large chunks of territory from Germany and placed many restrictions on the German government. Territorial Changes at Germany’s Expense Alsace-Lorraine returned to France. Belgium gained some small territories along its boarders. Germany agreed not to fortify Rhineland, Allied troops occupied. A “demilitarized zone” ** Poland restored as an independent nation. Treaty of Versailles Provided for the formation of the League of Nations. Germany Questions Treaty Germans strongly object to paying reparation, denying it alone started the war. Treaty did not state a specific amount of reparations to be paid. June 1919, German’s sign treaty. Germany’s Restrictions Not allowed to manufacture heavy artillery, tanks, or airplanes. Navy could have FEW warships, but NO submarines. Rules/Restrictions meant to ensure Germany was unable to start a war. Allies lacked ability to enforce imposed restrictions. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, 1918 Republics Replace Monarchies Austro-Hungarian Empire: Poland Austria Hungary Czechoslovakia Russia: END OF IMPERIAL RULE Finland Estonia Latvia Lithuania Serbia Yugoslavia Europe 1914 Europe 1918 MANDATES – territory under “temporary” control of a European nation Ottoman Empire is GONE France and Great Britain divide former Ottoman Empire Britain- Iraq, Transjordan, and Palestine France- Syria and Lebanon THIS DIVISION PLANTED SEEDS FOR FUTURE CONFLICT IN THE MIDDLE EAST!!!