Measuring Domestic Output, National Income, and the Price Level 1. Gross domestic product (GDP) is the total market value of all final goods/services produced within a country in one year. GDP does NOT count in intermediate goods/services, secondhand goods, financial transactions (e.g. stocks, bonds), transfer payments (e.g. social security, unemployment insurance), profits/income earned by U.S. companies/individuals overseas. 2. GDP can be calculated in two ways: the amount spent to purchase this year’s output (i.e. expenditures approach) or the money income derived from producing this year’s total output (i.e. incomes approach). a) expenditures approach: consumption (C) + investment (I) + government (G) + net exports (Xn) b) income approach: wages (W) + interest (I) + rent (R) + profit (P) 3. Price indices are used to measure price changes in the economy; they are used to compare the prices of a given “market basket” of goods/services in one year with the prices of the same “market basket” in another year. A price index has a base year, and the price level in that year is given an index number of 100; the price level in all other years is expressed as a percentage of the price level in the base year: Price index number = current year prices x 100 base year prices 4. Nominal GDP is expressed in current dollars and is unadjusted for price changes whereas real GDP deflated or inflated for price-level changes. As a formula: Real GDP = nominal GDP_______ price index (in hundredths) 5. Inflation is a rising general level of prices whereas deflation is a falling general level of prices. 6. The inflation rate is calculated by the consumer price index (CPI) which measures the prices of a market basket of 300 consumer goods/services purchased by a typical urban consumer. Inflation Rate= CPI2 – CPI 1 CPI 1 x100 7. Nominal income includes wages, interest, rent, and profit received in current dollars whereas real income measures the amount of goods/services nominal income can buy. As an equation: % change in real income = % change in nominal income - % change in price level 8. While inflation reduces the purchasing power of the dollar (i.e. the amount of goods/services each dollar will buy), it does not necessarily decrease a person’s real income if nominal income rises with the price level. Unanticipated inflation will hurt the following groups: those on fixed incomes, savers, and lenders. 9. The nominal interest rate includes the real rate of interest (the % increase in purchasing power which the borrower pays the lender for the privilege of borrowing) and the expected rate of inflation. As a formula: Nominal interest rate = expected rate of inflation + real rate of interest If the nominal interest rate is 10% based upon an expected rate of inflation of 4%, the real rate of interest is 6%. If actual inflation is less than 4%, the lender gains and if the actual rate is greater than 4% the borrower gains purchasing power. 10. Three types of inflation include creeping, galloping, and hyperinflation.