Understanding Food Chapter 3: Food Safety

Understanding Food
Chapter 3:
Food Safety
Food Safety
The United States food supply is probably the
safest in the world
Federal and state regulations
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
tracks down causal factors upon outbreaks
Food manufacturers and distributors are motivated to
avoid lawsuits due to negligence
Foodborne Illness
Outbreak: Defined by the CDC as the
occurrence of two or more cases of a
similar illness resulting from the ingestion
of a common food.
Foodborne illness: An illness transmitted
to humans by food.
Foodborne Illness
Foodborne Illness
Bacteria: One-celled microorganisms abundant
in the air, soil, water, and/or organic matter (i.e.,
the bodies of plants and animals).
Pathogenic: Causing or capable of causing
Food infection: An illness resulting from
ingestion of food containing large numbers of
living bacteria or other microorganisms.
Food intoxication: An illness resulting from
ingestion of food containing a toxin.
Food intoxification: bacteria enters gut and then
produces toxin.
Foodborne Illness
Health agency fingers food in E
coli outbreak
Food Safety
Foodborne Illness
Mold: A fungus (a plant that lacks chlorophyll)
that produces a furry growth on organic matter.
Mycotoxin: A toxin produced by a mold.
Bloom: Cottony, fuzzy growth of molds.
Virus: An infectious microorganism consisting of
RNA or DNA that reproduces only in living cells.
Foodborne Illness
Food Safety
Parasite: An organism that lives on or within another organism at
the host’s expense without any useful return.
Only 3 out of about 30 types of protozoa are related to food
Prion: An infectious protein particle that does not contain DNA or
It is the cause of mad cow disease, or bovine spongiform
encephalopathy (BSE).
Foodborne Illness
HACCP: Hazard Analysis and
Critical Control Point System,
a systematized approach to
preventing foodborne illness
during the production and
preparation of food.
Critical control point (CCP):
A point in the HACCP process
that must be controlled to
ensure the safety of the food.
Food Safety
HACCP Principle #2:
Identify the Critical Control Points (CCPs)
Processing (food plants)
Purchasing (vulnerable foods)
Preparation (thawing, crosscontamination, heating, holding,
serving, and cooling/reheating)
 Cross-contamination: The transfer of bacteria or other
microorganisms from one food to another.
Sanitation (cleanup, equipment, facilities, pest control, and
Food Safety
HACCP Principle #3:
Establish Limits at Each Critical Control Point
The critical control point limits discussed include:
Water and humidity
Food Safety
Temperature danger zone:
The temperature range of 40°
to 140°F (4° to 60°C), which is
ideal for bacterial growth.
Spore: Encapsulated, dormant
form assumed by some
microorganisms that is
resistant to environmental
factors that would normally
result in its death.
Food Safety
Storage Temperatures. Perishable foods should
be stored in the refrigerator, freezer, or dry
conditions according to the following
 Refrigerator: 40°F (4°C) or below
 Freezer: below 0°F (18°C)
 Dry storage: 65°F (18°C)
Food Safety
Microbial growth grows exponentially.
Two hour rule applies
Storage times
Dry storage
Food Safety
Water and humidity
Bacteria need water to survive
Acidity or alkalinity often determines which
bacteria will grow