Public Office Education Waves of Immigration years and intensity mother countries Employment Waves of Immigration Most Jewish immigration to the United States occurred from 1890-1924. The primary reason for Jews immigrating to the US was for religious freedom. They settled in cities such as New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, and Boston. Waves of Immigration Most Jews immigrated from Eastern Europe. Some of the countries with a large portion of their immigrants coming to the United States that were Jewish include: Russia, Ukraine, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, and Austria Population of Jews in America 6,000,000 5,500,000 5,000,000 4,500,000 4,000,000 3,500,000 Number of Jews in the United Sates 3,000,000 2,500,000 2,000,000 1,500,000 1,000,000 500,000 0 1860 1890 1910 1940 1970 2000 Facts About Population of Jews in America •The majority of Jewish immigrants remained in the states that they arrived in •The three cities with the largest Jewish population in the Diaspora are in the united states. They are: Cities with the Largest Jewish Population in the Diaspora New York, USA 1,750,000 London, UK 200,000 Miami, USA 535,000 Moscow, Russia 200,000 Los Angeles, USA 490,000 Buenos Aires, Argentina 180,000 Paris, France 350,000 Toronto, Canada 175,000 Philadelphia, USA 254,000 Washington DC, USA 165,000 Chicago, USA 248,000 Kiev, Ukraine 110,000 San Francisco, USA 210,000 Montreal, Canada 100,000 Boston, USA 208,000 St. Petersburg, Russia 100,000 Education Jewish immigrants took great pride in education. They wanted their children to learn as much as they could so they could reach higher and have better jobs than their parents had when they came to the US. Education However, as is so often the case it was difficult for Jews to obtain a good education because they were prejudiced against because of their ethnicities, social status, accents, and religion. Education “The grammar schools of the Jewish quarter are overcrowded with children of immigrants, who, for progress and deportment, are rated with the very best in the city. At least 500 of 1677 students at the New York City College…are Jewish boys from the East Side.” -”The Russian Jew in America” by Abraham Cahan Parents would rather sacrifice additional income by having their children go to school rather than working. Education Education was not only limited to children. Many Jews who immigrated to the US did not speak English. There were several public night schools and many Jews opted to use them as a means of broadening their education and learning English. Young Jews would also earn money by teaching English to adults in their homes to help pay their way through higher education. Employment of Jews in 1900 Males. Females. The figures for the chief occupations of 88,827 Russian and Polish male Jews and 24,221 female Jews in New York, 1900, are: Engaged in manufacture of clothing 25,674 8,545 Laborers (not specified) 4,088 ...... Agents 1,663 ...... Clerks and copyists 2,754 ...... Hucksters and peddlers 4,215 ...... Retail merchants 9,016 ...... Salespeople 3,256 1,306 Boot-and shoe-makers 1,554 ...... Carpenters and joiners 1,574 ...... Lawyers 217 ...... Hat- and cap-makers 1,543 ...... Manufacturers and officials 2,513 ...... Tobacco and cigar operatives 1,778 ...... Teachers and professors in colleges 526 132 Physicians and surgeons 305 ...... Clergymen 298 ...... Dentists 75 ...... Musicians 403 114 Electricians 135 ...... Servants and waitresses ...... 2,878 Dressmakers ...... 2,168 Actresses ...... 37 Facts about Jews in American Politics • The first Jew elected into a political office was in 1845. • The first Jew in the Senate was David Levy Yulee from Florida, however he denounced his religion and was still attacked by anti-Semitism. • Out of the 109 United States Supreme Court Justices only 7 have been Jewish. • In the past few years more Jews have become increasingly involved because of Senator Joe Lieberman’s candidacy for Vice President in the 2000 election. Political Opinions of Jews The Political Identity of Jews Democrat • The viewpoints of democracy are associated to internationalism and liberalism. • This directly correlates to the Jewish belief system, Three reasons are: Jewish Beliefs •Large emphasis on education and intellectual freedom •Charity and helping the weak and oppressed •Human pleasure is separate from G-d, the need to make the world a better place Democracy/Liberalism •Affirmative action- allowing everyone the right of education •Women’s rights and pro-choice •Social justice organizations and the focus on the people Number of Jews elected into the United States Congress 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Senate House of Representatives 18301840185018601870188018901900191019201930194019501960197019801990 The Assimilation Process and Affect on Jews in Politics • Jews have created a support system set up as a government. It began at a time when there was an extreme amount of anti-Semitism. • In the past, Jews have kept their political life separate from their religious life. This is nearly impossible to maintain if a Jew were to become president or vice president. • However, as time has progressed Jews have increasingly been able to separate their religion and political life.