Recap • What were some of the problems with cities in at the turn of the century? • Who was Jacob Riis, what was the name of his book, and what was it about? • What were political machines and what was their relationship to the “New” Immigrants? • What was the most infamous political machine? • What were settlement houses? • What was the name of the most famous settlement house and who was the woman who ran it? The Progressives Part 1 Problem #1a Problem 1b How would you fix these problems? Problem #2 Problem #2 How would you solve problem #2? Problems in U.S. circa 1900 Issues surrounding the “new Immigrants” 1. Working (and Living)Conditions of Industrial Workers a. Low pay b. Poor working conditions c. Long hours d. Child Labor 2. Big Business (the Trusts) a. No competition = fixed prices & harder to self-make 3. Political Corruption a. Corrupt political machines b. Seem to do more for big business than for “the people.” Who were the Progressives? • They were middle class reformers. • They wanted to fix the ills of the modern industrialized society. • Mainly in the cities. Why did they Care? • 1. Some were humanitarians. • 2. Others feared that if problems in society weren’t fixed, that the poor would rebel and there would be either communism/socialism or anarchy. • 3. They also felt threatened by the power of the trusts (big business). The Cause of the Problems from Above • Big Business (the trusts). • Trusts were able to get what they wanted from government by bribing them. • They were too big. They prevented individuals from “self making” —Achieving success through hard work. The Problem From Below • Disillusioned workers—their living and working conditions were so bad, they might turn to revolution. • Examples: a. The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)— Known as the “Wobblies,” this was the most radical labor union. It’s leader was William “Big Bill” Haywood. – B. Many people were turning to socialism—the public ownership of factories, utilities, railroads, and communications. The Progressive Solution • 1. Ending corruption in government. • 2. Once governments were fixed, making laws that would: • A. Limit the power of big business. • B. Deal with the social problems of the industrial age. Religious Reformers • Christians who felt that they had a duty to improve life here on earth rather than just worry about getting people to heaven later. • Believed that what turned people to crime, drugs, and alcohol was their environment (not that they were bad people). • Therefore, they felt the need to fix the environment of the poor. • This religious Progressive thinking was known as the “Social Gospel.” • Leading figure was Walter Rauschenbusch. Review • What were the 3 major problems the progressives wanted to fix? • Who were the Progressives? • What did they want to do and why? • Explain the “Social Gospel” and say who was its leading proponent. • Quien es tu papa? The “New Immigrants” • Need help assimilating. A = Settlement Houses • Some Progs., however,feel will bring down America because they are inferior and have different customs. • A = Immigration Laws. Recap • What were some of the problems with cities in at the turn of the century? • Who was Jacob Riis, what was the name of his book, and what was it about? • What were political machines and what was their relationship to the “New” Immigrants? • What was the most infamous political machine? • What were settlement houses? • What was the name of the most famous settlement house and who was the woman who ran it? More Review • What were the 3 problems with American society at the turn of the century? • Who were the Progressives and what did they want? • What was the “Social Gospel” and who was its leading voice? Why did the Progressives think that this could be a problem? Why did Progressives think that this was a problem? Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Triangle Shirtwaist Factory The Muckrakers • Name refers to writers who exposed the problems in society. • Name was first given by Teddy Roosevelt and was supposed to be negative but became a badge of honor. • Things they wrote about included: • • • • child labor corruption in politics bad working and living conditions of the poor unsanitary conditions in food preparation, etc. Famous Muckrakers • Ida Tarbell —She wrote about the rise of Standard Oil Co. and the ruthless methods used by John D. Rockefeller. Jane Addams • Wants to help urban immigrants. • Settlement Houses — provide educational and social services for immigrants. • Hull House (Chicago) Upton Sinclair • Upton Sinclair —author of The Jungle which dealt with the poor living and working condition of the “new “ immigrants as well as the unsanitary conditions in which food was processed. “The Jungle” • Book had a huge impact. • Led to passage of the Meat Inspection Act of 1906 Lincoln Steffens • Lincoln Steffens — Wrote about political corruption. He wrote many magazine articles and a famous book, Shame of the Cities. Ida B. Wells • Wrote about bad conditions for African Americans. • Lynching Looking to Experts • The Progressives thought that educated experts could solve societies problems through scientific methods. • This was the beginning of the “social sciences.” • Experts would gather and analyze data and then fix the problems. • Leading figure was Lester Ward. – He argued against social Darwinism that said that it was natural for some to prosper while other suffered. Instead, he claimed that it was natural for people to control and change their environment. Review • What were settlement houses? • What was the “Social Gospel” and who was its leading voice? • Who were the “Muckrakers”?