Emotion

advertisement
Emotion
October 19th, 2004
• Brain Damage and Emotion
– Kluver-Bucy Syndrome
– Phineas Gage
– The case of SM
• Theories of Emotion
– Darwin
– James - Lang
– Cannon - Bard
• Fear
– Measuring Fear
•Facial expressions
•Fear in non-human animals
– Neural Circuits of Fear
Munch, 1893
Emotion
Kluver-Bucy Syndrome
Damage to the Medial Temporal Lobe produces:
•
•
•
•
Emotional Blunting: a flat affect and may not respond appropriately to stimuli.
Hyperphagia: extreme weight gain without a strictly monitored diet. There is a
strong tendency for those with Kluver-Bucy to compulsively place inedible objects
in their mouths.
Inappropriate Sexual Behavior: atypical sex behaviors, mounting inanimate
objects.
Visual Agnosia: "psychic blindness," i. e. an inability to visually recognize objects.
Emotion
Phineas Gage
Phineas Gage:
From responsible,
religious respectable and
socially well-adapted
man to an irreverent,
profane and impulsive
itinerant.
Emotion
SM
SM:
Mean Correlation with Normals
A life-long pattern of social and emotional
inadequacy.
SM
1
Control
0.9
0.8
Urbach-Wiethe Disease
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
Happy
Afraid
Angry
Disgusted
Surprised
Theories of Emotion
Darwin:
Observed…..
•
Innateness of emotional expression:
•
Expressions appear similarly in many lower
animals
•
Expressions appear in very young children
•
Expressions appear identical in those born
blind
Concluded…..
•
Expression of emotion evolve from
behaviors that indicate what an animal
might do next.
•
If the signals provided by the behaviors
enhance the animal’s ability to survive,
they will be retained.
•
Opposite messages are revealed through
opposite behaviors
Theories of Emotion
James-Lange:
Emotional stimuli activate physiological
reactions that are then interpreted as emotional
experiences.
Cannon-Bard:
Emotional stimuli simultaneously activate
physiological reactions emotional feelings.
Data……
•Injections of epinephrine do not produce
emotional feelings…….
•Individuals with no peripheral sensation
experience emotion.
Emotion
Facial Expressions
Neutral
Anger
Disgust
Fear
Happy
Sad
Surprise
Neutral
Emotion
Facial Expressions
Happy
Anger
Emotion
Facial Expressions
Happy
Fear
Whalen, P. J., Rauch, S. L., Etcoff, N. L., McInerney, S. C., Lee, M. B., & Jenike, M. A. (1998). Masked presentations of emotional facial
expressions modulate amygdala activity without explicit knowledge. The Journal of Neuroscience, 18(1), 411-418.
Emotion
A theory of Amygdala Involvement in Fear
Emotion
Facial Expressions
Neutral
Anger
Disgust
Fear
Happy
Sad
Surprise
Neutral
Emotion
Facial Expressions
Neutral
Anger
Disgust
Fear
Happy
Sad
Surprise
Neutral
Emotion
Fear
Human
Increase heart rate
Decreased appetite
Increased startle
Increased motility
Decreased pain reactivity
Decrease motor activity
Rodent
Central
State of
Fear
D heart rate
Decreased appetite
Increased startle
Defecation
Decreased pain reactivity
D motor activity
Laboratory Procedures for Measuring Fear
and Anxiety in Rodents
Pavlovian Fear Conditioning
Auditory Stimulus
&
Shock
Central
State of
Fear
D heart rate
decreased salivation
increased startle
defecation
hypoalgesia
D Activity
Emotion
Laboratory Procedures for Measuring Fear
Pavlovian Fear Conditioning
Auditory Stimulus
Central
State of
Fear
D heart rate
decreased salivation
increased startle
defecation
hypoalgesia
D Activity
Emotion
Damage to the Amygdala Interferes with
Fear
Mean % Change From Pre CS Baseline
4
2
0
-2
-4
Sham
Amygdala Lesion
Untrained
-6
-8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Five Trial Blocks
8
9
Kapp, B. S., Frysinger, R. C., Gallagher, M., & Haselton, J. R. (1979). Amygdala central nucleus lesions: effect on heart rate conditioning in the rabbit.
Physiology & Behavior, 23, 1109-1117.
Emotion
Amygdala Damage Interferes with Conditioned Fear
Measure of Fear
Species
Lesion
Reference
D heart rate
rabbit
rat
rabbit
rat
electrolytic ACE
electrolytic ACE
electrolytic ACE /BLA
electrolytic ACE
Kapp et al (1979)
Sananes et al (1989)
Powell et al (1997)
Young & Leaton (1996)
Increased blood pressure
rat
excitotoxic ACE
Iwata et al (1986)
Decreased pain reactivity
rat
rat
electrolytic ACE/BLA
electrolytic ACE/BLA
Helmsteter (1992)
Watkins et al (1993)
Increased startle
rat
rat
rat
rat
rat
mouse
electrolytic ACE
excitotoxic BLA
reversible ACE/BLA
excitotoxic ACE/BLA
electrolytic ACE
electrolytic BLA
Hitchcock & Davis (1987)
Sananes & Davis (1992)
Kim et al (1993)
Campeau & Davis (1995)
Falls & Davis (1995)
Heldt et al (2000)
Freezing
rat
rat
rat
rat
rat
rat
mouse
electrolytic ACE
electrolytic ACE
reversible
electrolytic ACE
excitotoxic BLA
excitotoxic BLA
electrolytic BLA
Blanchard & Blanchard (1972)
LeDoux et al (1988)
Helmsteter (1992)
Kim et al (1993)
Cousins & Otto (1998)
Maren (1998)
Desmendt et al (1998)
Emotion
Amygdala Damage in Humans is Associated with Deficits
in Conditioned Fear
B.
A.
SM
2.5
SCR Magnitude
Normal
Urbach-Wiethe Disease
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
Habit.
Cond.
Test 1
Test 2
Bechara, A., Tranle, D., Damasio, H., Adolphs, R., Rocklan, C., & Damasio, A. R. (1995). Double dissociation of conditioning and declarative knowledge relative to the
amygdala and hippocmapus in humans. Science, 269, 1115-1118.
Emotion
Human Amygdala Activation in Fear Conditioning
LaBar, K. S., Gatenby, J. C., Gore, J. C., LeDoux, J. E., & Phelps, E. A. (1998). Human amygdala activation during conditioned fear-acquisition and
extinction: a mixed-trial fMRI study. Neuron, 20, 937-945.Bar, et al (1998). Neuron, 20, 937-945.
Emotion
Pathways Mediating Conditioned Fear
Ear
Tectum
Thalamus
Cortex
dMNV
Amygdala
Auditory Stimulus
LA
BLA
CE
PAG
PnC
Shock US
Thalamus
Cortex
Emotion
Pathways Mediating Conditioned Fear
The Amygdala, Facial Expression,
& Racial Bias
The Amygdala, Facial Expression,
& Racial Bias
Download
Related flashcards
Free will

14 Cards

Motivation

20 Cards

Free will

19 Cards

Create flashcards