Thaiss metaphor: metonymy:


Thaiss metaphor:

A form of imagery in language and symbols based on analogy, a comparison between two objects or concepts according the their perceived similarity


A form of imagery in language and symbols based on contiguity (contact) or the idea that part stands for the whole

Two perspectives which are used in the article


Rhetoric is the art of persuasion and religious cosmologies and belief systems are designed as modes of persuasions.


Religious concepts are really theoretical models/intellectual constructs which are used to account for otherwise incomprehensible phenomena.

Muslim community (pure, virginal) – female non-Muslim (violent) – male non-Muslim → Muslim (penetration)


dancer/prostitute is a metaphor for temptation

 females in one's kin- sister/mother (threat to men's honour, needs control)

 females outside kin – evil, tempting female = fickle, tempting represents world pleasures, makes men go astray modernization, Westernization = diverts the right path straightness vs. crookedness male vs. female divinity vs. spirituality