COMPETITION REFORMS IN KEY MARKETS FOR ENHANCING SOCIAL & ECONOMIC WELFARE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES (CREW PROJECT)-MEETING OF NATIONAL REFERENCE GROUP (NRG) MEMBERS PRESENTATION ON RESERACH METHODS FOR TRANSPORT OPERATOR AND PASSENGER STUDY PRESENTATION BY PAULINA AGYEKUM (PhD) 6th AUGUST 2013 INTRODUCTION • The (CREW project) is being implemented by CUTS to assess the state of competition in two selected sectors namely the staple food sector and the passenger transport sector. • The focus is on the impact that past and existing public policies, regulations, private sector business practices, institutional arrangements and other factors have had on consumer and producer welfare. • It also aims at identifying possible benefits from potential reforms- and tries to make a case for the same OBJECTIVE • The objective is to: • Study the availability of good quality transport services especially affordability to ordinary consumers who utilise intercity and intra-city bus service. • Assess how profitable/attractive the passenger transport sector is for entrepreneurs (existing and new entrants) • This presentation is to give an overview of the research approach and suggested methods to be applied in the Ghana study SCOPE • Identify the components of competition reform (policies, legislation, sectoral programmes, statutory instruments, administrative practices) in bus transport sector • Assess institutional responsibility in reform implementation and actual performance in terms of – Failed reform initiatives – Reasons – Lessons learnt – Successful reforms initiatives, – administrative structure used and; – how the policy was implemented SCOPE • Assess impact of competition reforms on market structure based on: – Porter’s “Five Forces” Supplier and buyer power, competitive rivalry, threat to substitution and threat of new entry. – DFID Competition Assessment framework.- A guide to identifying barriers to competition in Developing Countries • Assess impact of competition reform on consumer (passenger) and producer (vehicle operator) welfare. • Identify existing concerns of passenger and operators and their suggested reform initiatives and likely benefits. OUTLINE OF RESERCH METHODOLOGY SITUATION ANALYSIS RESOURCE MOBILISATION DATA COLLECTION DATA ANALYSIS SECONDARY Quantitative Qualitative PRIMARY Quantitative Qualitative REPORTING SITUATION ANALYSIS • Assessment of efficacy of earlier and current reform measures on consumers and producers - through secondary review of literature and anecdotes (using qualitative and quantitative data). • Identification of consumer and producer concerns from secondary sources DATA COLLECTION SOURCES • Data will be collected from three (3) major sources: • Documented Materials eg. Reports, data sets etc. • Motorised Road Users – Passengers – Vehicle Operators • Relevant Institutions eg. – Public (Government Institutions, regulators) – Private (Business entities, Unions etc.) DATA TYPE BY DOCUMENTED SOURCE DATA TYPE DOCUMENTED DATA SOURCE Policy related data •The Constitution of Ghana •National Transport Policy •Shared Growth Agenda Data on Regulations •Road Traffic Ordinance 1952, Repealed by Road Traffic Act 683 of 2004 and Amended with Road Traffic Act 761 of 2008 •Local Government Act 462 of 1993 •DVLA Act 569 •National Road Safety Act 567 of 1999 Institutions Ministry of Roads and Highways Ministry of Transport District Assemblies Financial Institutions Vehicle marketing companies DVLA NRSC Driver Unions Ghana Pass DATA TYPE BY VEHICLE OPERATORS TYPE OF OPERATION TYPE OF DATA SOURCE Private Bus Operation by Inter-city Service •Source of funding for vehicle acquisition •State of vehicle •Age of vehicle •Type of ownership •Market entry requirements •Operational arrangements •Operational factors affecting Routing Scheduling Trip frequency Transport fares •Turn over •Remuneration •Taxes and subsides •Vehicle Operation Costs •Availability of facilities VIP bus service OA bus service Public Bus Operation by Inter-city Service Private Bus Operation by Intra-city Service Public Bus Operation by Intra-city Service Inter-city Bus Service MMT Trotros’ MMT DATA FROM PASSENGERS DATA TYPE DATA SOURCE •Transport Availability •Trip purpose •Ability to make Choices •Affordability •Frequency of travel •Comfortability •Service Reliability •Safety •Seccurity •Observed Changes •Concerns •Suggested interventions Private Bus Inter-city by Passenger Public Bus Inter-city Passenger Private Bus Intra-city Service Passenger Public Bus Operation intra –city Passenger DATA COLLECTION METHODS • Desk Studies for • Field Surveys – Secondary Data Review – Administration of structured questionnaires ( To be provided by CUTS) through interviews – Collation of relevant information form documentary review – Key Personnel indepth Interview – Field Observations SAMPLING Inter-city – 2 Busy routes will be selected eg. Accra – Kumasi, Accra – Aflao or Accra – Takoradi. – 2 public bus operators would be interviewed using structured questionnaires. – 5-6 private bus operators will be interviewed – Perception of 100 passenger would also be sampled (50 on each selected route) SAMPLING • Intra-City Suggest 1 city in Ghana for primary survey Accra – In-depth Interviews: - 1 Public operator, 5-6 Private operators (different associations), govt. dept’s and relevant regulators – Perception survey: - Of 100 passengers using intra-city transport SAMPLING • In-depth interviews with unstructured questions with: – Representatives of Government Institutions- MOT, MRH, DVLA – Representatives of other InstitutionsVanguard Assurance, GPRTU, Ghana Pass. DATA ANALYSIS • Data Verification, Processing: Completed questionnaires and checklists will be reviewed for errors, omissions etc. before data is processed. • Data will then be processed to define the level of aggregation and disaggregation for different indicators for quantitative. • The analytical tool adopted for the data processing is the SPSS statistical package and the excel spread sheet. DATA ANALYSIS • Methods will be determined by data type. Examples include the following: • Quantitative data will be presented using appropriate statistical applications in terms of mean, median, percentage, histograms. • Operational statistics such as test of significance of time series variances etc. Will also be used to determine significance of outcomes • Transcripts of qualitative data be analysed with outcome ratings by weighting, scoring and ranking methods to show how well options meet predefined criteria. ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK • Selected indicators will be used for the measurement of the project components by: – Comparison across time: impact on select variables pre and post reform – Comparison across route: impact of a particular/similar reforms across route. – Impact comparison across different reform initiatives. ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK • This will relate the records of sequential changes that have occurred relating to particular points of interest. • It will help understand the contributing causes or reasons for a particular problem or issue, or to identify effects or impacts of a particular change. ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK • Quantitative – Comparison of impact on select variables pre and post reform – Comparison across national, regional and district route – Impact of a particular/similar reforms across national, regional and district, route – Impact comparison across different reform initiatives REPORTING • Reporting schedule will be delivered in accordance with set requirements for the project. CONCLUSION • The impact of some of the transport reform initiatives undertaken on the bus transport sector has not been assessed and it is hoped that this study will highlight some important issues which will go a long way to influence policy direction for the betterment of the transport sector.