04-Study Guide Prenatal Development and Birth #1-Discuss pregnancy confirmation, including what needs to occur before pregnancy can be confirmed by blood or urine tests, and when this occurs. #2-List the three stages of prenatal development and the timing of each of these. #3-Discuss the germinal, embryonic, and fetal stages of development, along with the main items that happen during that time. #4-Discuss the two stages of labor and what happens during each stage. #5-Discuss the Apgar scale and the five factors that determine the score. #6-Discuss both tratogens and behavioral tratogens, indicating the difference between these two. #7-Discuss methods to avoid tratogens, along with the threshold effect of these. #8-Discuss the causes of low birth weight and small for gestational age (SGA). #9-Discuss the newborn reflexes that aid survival, and those that show the state of brain and body functions.