Chapter 3 Lesson 2 Notes pgs. 89-95 Key Terms

Chapter 3 Lesson 2 Notes pgs. 89-95
Key Terms
____________________ An advanced form of culture.
____________________ An ancient region of Southern Mesopotamia.
____________________A community that included a city and its nearby farmlands.
____________________An ancient temple that rose in a series of step like levels. It was the
center of city life (like a town hall).
____________________ A belief in many gods or goddesses.
____________________The leader of a group of people.
Rise of a Civilization pg. 89
______________ enabled people to settle in villages. They didn’t have to search for food. Over
time, villages grew larger and became cities and societies and culture grew more complex.
These changes led to an advanced form of culture called ________________. Most historians
think the first civilization rose around __________B.C. in Sumer (Southern Mesopotamia).
Traits of a Civilization pg. 90
____________________ A place to store and trade, offered different types of work and
____________________ Allows people to do other types of work besides farming. When
people develop a special skill such as making jewelry, clothing, pottery, etc.
____________________ A group of people who have a specific purpose like religion and
government, schools, army, etc.
____________________ Record Keeping for societies to keep track of many things such as
food supplies and trade.
___________________ When people learn new things to advance society. Ex: Irrigation to
water crops, tools to make daily life easier, etc.
Sumerian City-States pg. 92
___________________B.C. Sumer had 12 City States located near the mouths of the Tigris and
Euphrates. The land was fertile there (good for growing crops).
Food ______________ supported larger populations.
People built houses made of ________________.
Cities had _________________ winding streets and protective ______________ surrounded the city.
The ____________________was the most important structure in the city, the town hall. People
came to _________ the priests for their services with grain or other items.
The ______________ controlled the surplus grain and therefore controlled much of the
___________ of the city-state.
Changes in Leadership pg. 93-95
The Sumerians believed in many gods/goddesses called ________________________.
The Sumerians believed the gods could prevent _________________. To protect their cities,
people tried to please them. The ____________________ worked to satisfy the gods and claimed
to have influence with them. Thus, _______________ became accepted as leaders.
As city-states became richer, other groups of people began to _______________them to take
their wealth. In these dangerous times, the people of the city-state asked a powerful man to
_____________ them and protect the city. These new leaders became _____________, the highest
ranked leader of a group.
The priests still remained important, but the people believed the gods let the ____________
Ch. 2 Lesson 3 Notes: Life in Sumer pgs 99-103
Key Terms
___________________ a metal made of copper and tin.
__________________ a picture or drawing that represents a word or idea
__________________ a sharpened reed used to press markings into clay tablets
__________________ writing made up of wedge-shaped markings
__________________ a person who specializes in writing, record keeper
Sumerian Society
Class systems often define who has _________ and who usually does the less
desirable ______.
Social Classes
Role of Women: ______ woman could own land. Had rights. Still the main role
was _______________their children.
Sumerian Science and Technology
The___________(about 6,000 B.c.)broke up hard soil, made farming easier.
The __________(about 3500 B.C.) was used on wagons to transport goods,
potter’s wheel to make pottery.
_____________ A mixture of copper and tin. Stronger than copper so tools lasted
Math based on number __________. So today we have 60 sec. in a minute. 60
min. in an hour, etc.
They understood geometric shapes such as _____________, triangles, and
____________ and used these shapes to make bricks, dig canals.
Creation of Written Language
Sumerians invented writing by _____________B.C. to meet needs of
business/trade to keep records of ______________.
Clay tokens------pictographs(picture/symbols) ------pictographs that stood for
Over time, Sumerian’s stopped using pictures and used symbols made entirely of
wedged shapes. This wedge-shaped writing is called: _______________
____________ were professional record keepers and highly respected.
Written History- Sumerian’s used writing mostly for business dealings. Later to
record Sumerian’s written __________.