The Internet and World Wide Web Ilona Kane

The Internet and World
Wide Web
Ilona Kane
The Internet
A worldwide collection of networks that links
millions of businesses, government agencies,
educational institutions, and individuals.
Internet’s Resources
– Access to information and research
– Communicate with others around the world
– Bank, Shop, Download music and movies
– Access other computers and exchange files
History of the Internet
Started by the Pentagon’s networking
project known as the Advanced
Research Projects Agency (ARPA)
ARPA is an agency of the U.S.
Department of Defense whose goal
was to create a network that:
ARPA underwent phenomenal
growth as researchers realized the
great benefit to sharing information
In 1986, the National Science
Foundation, (NSF) connected its
huge network of five supercomputer
centers, called NSFnet to
ARPANET forming the complex
networks and hosts known as the
Internet today
The Internet traffic today is handled
by a variety of corporations and
commercial firms, who along with
telephone, cable, and satellite
companies contribute to the internal
structure of the internet.
– Allowed scientists at different
locations to share information and
work together on military and
scientific projects
– Could function even if part of the
network were disabled or destroyed
by a disaster such as a nuclear attack
This network is known as the
How the Internet Works
Internet Service Providers
– Is a business that has a permanent Internet
connection and offers temporary connections
to individuals and companies free or for a fee
– 2 major types:
Regional ISP- provides access to the
Internet through one or more telephone
numbers local to a specific geographic
National ISP- a larger business that
provides local telephone numbers in
major cities and towns nationwide
Online Service provider- supplies Internet
access, but has many members-only features that
offer a variety of special content and services
such as weather, games, and travel guides
Wireless Service Provider- provides
wireless Internet access to users with wireless
modems or Web-enabled computer devices
Connecting to the Internet
Dial-up access
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
Provides an easy and inexpensive way for users to
connect to the Internet
Uses a computer, a modem, and a regular telephone
line to dial into an ISP or OSP
Slow-speed technology
Provides high-speed connections over a regular
copper telephone line
Cable Modem
Provides high-speed Internet connections through the
cable television network
Along with DSL costs 2xs as much as dial-up
How Data Travels
the Internet
Connection to the Internet is a
transfer of data around the world
using servers and clients
Server- computer that manages
the resources on a network and
provides a central storage area
for resources such as programs
and data
Client- a computer that can
access the contents of the
storage area on a server
Internet Addresses
IP Address- (Internet Protocol
Address) is a number that
uniquely identifies each
computer or device connected
to the Internet
Domain name- the text version
of an IP address
DNS server- translates the
domain name into its associated
IP address, so data can route to
the correct computer
The World Wide Web
Consists of a worldwide
collection of electronic
documents, also known as
Web pages
A collection of related
Web pages- Web Site
Browsing the Web
Web browser- a software program that allows
you to access and view Web pages
– Most widely used:
Microsoft Internet Explorer
Home page- starting page for a browser
– Provides information about the Web site’s purpose and
Hyperlink- (link) a built-in connection to another
related Web page or part of a web page
Uniform Resource Locator
Is a Web page’s unique address
– Tells the browser where to locate the document
– Makes it possible for you to navigate using links
Typical URL:
– http = protcol
– = domain name
– /students/home.htm = path
Search Engines
Is a software program you
can use to find Web sites,
Web pages, and Internet
– Are specifically useful
when the exact URL is not
– Common Search Engines
Dogpile, Excite, Yahoo,
Google, Lycos
Types of Web Pages
1. Portal Web Page- offers a variety of Internet
services from a single convenient location
Offer search engine
News reports
Personalized web pages
Chat rooms
2. News Web Page- contains news worthy
material including stories and articles relating
to current events, life, money, and sports
More Web Pages
3. Informational Web Page- contains factual
information such as census data, tax codes, published
research findings
4. Business/Marketing Web Page- contains content
that promotes or sells products or services
Such companies include: AT&T, and the Disney Co.
5. Advocacy Page- acts as a device to convince the reader
of the validity of the content that describes a cause,
opinion, or idea
6. Personal Web Page- established by a private individual
who normally is not associated with any organization
To use for job hunting or to share life experiences
Multimedia on the Web
Any application that integrates texts with one or
more of the following elements: graphics,
sound, video, and virtual reality
 Graphics- a digital representation of
information such as a drawing, chart, or
Animation- the appearance of motion
created by displaying a series of still
images in a rapid sequence
– Makes pages more visually interesting
and draws attention
Audio- music, speech, or any other
– MP3 is a popular technology that
compresses audio
– Streaming- the process of transferring
data in a continuous and even flow
Important because most users do not have
a fast enough Internet connection
More Multimedia
Video- images that are played back at various
– Consist of individual video files, such as movies or TV
clips, that you download
– Web cam- a video camera whose output displays on a
Web page
Virtual Reality- the use of computers to simulate
a real or imagined environment that appears as a
3D space
– Often used for scientific models, architectural layouts,
and games
Pull Technology
Push Technology
1. a server automatically
downloads content to your
information which relies
computer at regular intervals
on a client such as your
or whenever updates are
computer to request a Web
made to the site
page from a server
2. Example: current sporting
2. Example: enter a URL or
event scores displayed on
click a link
your desktop
1. Method of obtaining
Webcasting – uses pull technology, push technology and/or
streaming media to deliver information at regualr intervals
without you having to request it, or to deliver live recorded
sound and video broadcast to your computer
Creating a Web Site
Web page authorizing
Involves working on the computer to
compose the Web site
Word processing packages help create basic
web pages that contain text and graphics
Web page authorizing software
 Is specifically to help create a web page
 Used to create more sophisticated web pages
that include animation, video, and sound
When using a word processing or Web page
authorizing software, the Web page is saved in
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
 Is a set of special codes that format a file for
use on a web page
Deploying and Maintaining a
Web Site
Store a created Web page on a Web server
– Many ISPs and OSPs provide their customers with a
Web address and storage space for the Web site
– Web hosting Services- provide storage for your Web
site for a monthly fee
Upload the Web site- copy it from your computer
to the Web server
 Submission Service- a Web-based business that
offers a registration package in which you pay to
register with hundreds of search engines
 Webmaster- the individual responsible for
maintaining a Web site and developing Web pages
The transmission of messages and files via a
computer network
One of the original services of the Internet
Email address- combination of user name and
domain name that identifies a user
Address Book- program in email that a contains a
list of names and email addresses
Mailbox- a storage location usually residing on
the computer that connects you to the Internet
Web-based Groups
Message Board- type of discussion group, also
known as a discussion board
Mailing Lists- a group of e-mail names and addresses
Chat rooms- a location on the Internet server that
allows a real-time conversation to take place on a
Instant Messaging- a real-time Internet
communications service that notifies you when one or
more people are online and allows you to exchange
messages or files
Discovering Computers 2003
 Web sites–