SPAIN Phillip II a. King of Spain and annexes Portugal – huge

Phillip II
a. King of Spain and annexes Portugal – huge
b. Defender of Catholicism against Muslim
Ottoman Empire, Lutheranism Holy Roman
Empire, Dutch Calvinists, and Anglican British
c. Fall of Empire – defeat of Spanish Armada,
Unfavorable Balance of Trade, Inflation,
Expulsion of Moors\Jews, Cost of Religious
Dutch – religious tolerance, republic, largest fleet
carrying trade, bankers of Europe
Henry IV of Navarre
a. St. Bartholomew’ s Day Massacre of
b. Edict of Nantes
Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu
a. Increase power of king and country
b. No walled cities\castles
c. Hired government agents
d. Anti Hapsburg – 30 Years War
Louis XIV and Cardinal Mazarin
a. Nobility attempts to kill Louis
b. Sun King – “I am the state.” Greatest French
King. Ruled 70 years
c. Intendants – collect taxes and administer
d. Jean Baptist Colbert – manufacturing, high
tariffs, colonization
e. Tries to expand borders but loses very costly
Holy Roman Empire
Austria – Hapsburgs
Prussia – Hohenzollern
a. Protestant Union vs. Catholic League – 30
Years War
b. Peace of Westphalia – Spain\Austria weak,
France strong, German princes independent
of Holy Roman Emperor, end of Christendom,
modern states emerge
c. Eastern Europe agrarian and holds on to
feudalism and absolutism thus lagging
d. Very diverse culturally especially Holy Roman
Empire– nationalism
e. Prussia highly militarized society creating best
army in Europe
f. Junkers – Prussian nobility given military
Peter the Great – Romanov Dynasty
a. Russia is backwards up until WWI
b. Boyars – land owning nobility
c. Modernize Russia – European officers, lesser
nobility given jobs\land, control of the church,
d. St. Petersburg