PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN

```PRINCIPLES OF
DESIGN
WHAT ARE THE PRINCIPLES
OF DESIGN?
The principles of design are the RULES/LAWS used
to create a work of art.
 The Principles of design can be thought of as what
WE DO TO THE ELEMENTS of design.
 How we apply the Principles of design determines
how successful we are in creating a work of art.
 There is no specific “recipe” for their use.

SCALE AND PROPORTION
Proportion/Scale is the feeling of unity created
when all parts (sizes, amounts, or number) relate
well with each other.
 When drawing the human figure, proportion can
refer to the size of the head compared to the rest of
the body. Proportion involves the relationship of
size between objects.
 Proportion is also relative sizes of surface areas of
different colors.
 Proportion also depends on functionality of object.

For example, one whole image can be broken down
to two equal parts, which can be more into four
equal quarters.
Think of it like a xerox copy. It’s the same image
made smaller or larger. The image/ design NEVER
changes
Fig. A
Each box is 8x8 inches
Fig. B
Each box is 4x4 inches
Fig. C
Each box is 2x2 inches

A good example is the map of New York. It is
DRAWN to SCALE. For every few inches, a few
miles have been represented.
BALANCE….
Balance is the distribution
of the visual weight of
objects, colors, texture, and
space.
 If the design was a scale
these elements should be
balanced to make a design
feel stable.

BALANCE….

SYMMETRICAL: The elements used on one side of
the design are similar to those on the other side.

ASYMMETRICAL: not exact but counterbalanced
with contrasts such as dull and bright colors, dark
with light values, geometric with organic shapes,
active and inactive areas. In asymmetrical balance,
the sides are different but still look balanced.

spiral or burst-like effect.
ACTIVITY:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
pencils.
Fold the paper into thirds. (Three EQUAL sections)
On the top of EACH section, please write
Then, create a DESIGN for EACH section based on the
information we covered.
Have a THEME for each section. For Example: Water.
Towards the end of class, we will share what we have
created.
UNITY……
• Unity is the feeling of harmony between all parts
of the artwork creating a sense of completeness.
• Unity can be achieved through the effective and
consistent use of any of the elements, but pattern- that is, underlying structure-- is the most
fundamental element for a strong sense of unity.
• Consistency of form and color are also powerful
tools that can pull a composition together.
• However, unity also exists in variety.
• It is not necessary for all of the elements to be
identical in form providing they have a common
quality of meaning or style.
• For example, fashions from a specific period share
common features of silhouette, materials, and
color that identify the style of the day, or the look
of a particular designer.
• Unity can also be a matter of concept.
• The elements and principles can be selected to
support the intended function of the designed
object; the purpose of the object unifies the design.
VARIETY…..
• Variety keeps life interesting.
• Imagine if everything in your life was the same,
day in and day out. Imagine the monotony!
• Variety in art refers to the use of contrasting or
different types of Elements in a work of art.
• An artist knows that adding contrast to a work of
RHYTHM…..
• Rhythm is created when one or more elements of
design are used repeatedly to create a feeling of
organized movement.
• Variety is essential to keep rhythm exciting and
active, and moving the viewer around the
artwork.
• Rhythm creates a mood like music or dancing.
CONTRAST…..
• When defining it, art experts refer to the
arrangement of opposite elements (light vs. dark
colors, rough vs. smooth textures, large vs. small
shapes, etc.) in a piece so as to create visual
interest, excitement and drama.
• The colors white and black provide the greatest
degree of contrast.
• Complementary colors also highly contrast with
one another.
• An artist can employ contrast as a tool, to direct
the viewer's attention to a particular point of
interest within the piece.
MOVEMENT (ALSO RHYTHM!)
• Movement in a composition guides a viewer&sup1;s eye
through the work, usually to a FOCAL POINT.
• An artist arranges parts of an image to create a
sense of motion by using lines, shapes, forms, and
textures, or by combining elements of art to
produce the look of action.
EMPHASIS……
• Emphasis is the part of the design that catches the
viewer’s attention.
• Usually the artist will make one area stand out by
contrasting it with other areas.
• The area will be different in size, color, texture,
shape, etc.
• Emphasis is also referred to as point of focus, or
interruption.
• You are not required to use an emphasis!
• If you want to capture the viewers attention, then
an emphasis should be used.
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