Chapter 29: Nationalism and Revolution. Section 1: Struggle for Change in Latin America * Porfirio Diaz, dictator of Mexico and ruled fir 35 years. * Welcomed foreigners. * Most Mexicans lived in poverty * Demands for land were ruthlessly crushed by police. * Miners became angry and restless. The Battle Begins • Fransisco Madero, a liberal informer, demanded free elections in 1910. • He was imprisioned by Diaz and later hosted the flag revolt. • Emiliano Zapata led peasant revolt. Reforms • Constitution of 1917 adressed: 1. land 2. religion 3. labor • Nationalization- government takeover • Gave women some protection. Women were entitled to the same pay as men. • The PRI-> Intitutional Revolutionary Party. • Managed to accommadate all groups in Mexican society. • Three causes of the Mexican Revolution 1. Demands for land 2. Poverty 3. Meager Wages Section 2: Nationalist Movement in Africa and The Middle East. • In Kenya and Rhodesia, white settlers forced Africans off their land. • European could only grow crops not the Africans. • Some settled illegally on white plantations. • Best jobs went to Europeans. • Kikuyu, protested the loss of their land. • Apartheid- a system of racial segregation. Turkey and Iran • Turkish nationalists overthrew the sultan and declared it a republic. • Ataturk- “father of the Turks” replaced Islamic law with a new code based on European models. • Reza Khan overthrew the Shah and built factories, roads, and railroads. Arab Nationalism and European Mandates • Pan-Arabism sought to free Aabs from foreign domination. Section 3: India Seeks Self-Rule • Mohandas Gandhi tried to set up his own law practice and fought laws that discriminated against Indians in South Africa. • His ideas inspired Indians of all religions and background. • Civil Disobedience- the refusal to obey unjust laws. The Salt March • Gandhi wrote to the British viceroy explaining his motives and goals to break the law. • Marched to the sea. • Thousands went to prision. • Stories formed that said police brutally clubed peaceful marchers. • Complete independence was not granted until 1947. Section 4: The Chinese Republic. • Qing dynasty collapsed in 1911. • Sun Yixan stepped down as president and hoped Yuan Shikai would restore order and create a strong central government. • As rivals battled, the economy collapsed and millions suffered. • Japan presented Yuan with Twenty-one demands which sought to make China a Japanese protectorate. • Japan thought they were “selling out” at Versailles and blamed the government. • They wanted to raise an army, defeat warloads, and spread the government to rule all of China. • After Sun’s death, Jiang Jieshi took over and marched into Northern China capturing Beijing. Slide 3:Japanese Invasions. • In 1931, Japan invaded Manchuria in North eastern China. • They attacked China’s proper. Section 5: Empire of the Rising Sun • All adult men and women had the right to vote. • By 1920, the powerful business leaders influenced politics through donations to political parties. • Problems faced: 1. economy grew more slowly 2. rural peasants enjoyed none of the prosperity of citydwellers. 3. attracted Marx’s ideas.