Aim: How can we describe Fundamental Particles? Four Fundamental forces • • • • 1) 2) 3) 4) Gravitational Electromagnetic Strong Nuclear force Weak Nuclear force Classification of Matter and Particles of the Standard Model Reference Tables • Look at Classification of Matter reference table to see how matter is classified. • Look at Particles of the Standard Model table to go beyond the “dead ends”: quarks and leptons. Facts to know: • Quarks and leptons are fundamental particles – everything is made of them. • Protons and neutrons are baryrons, composed of three quarks. • Electrons are leptons (very light particles, not made of quarks). • For each particle there is an antiparticle with a charge opposite to its associated particle, and designated with a “bar” over the associated particle. C. Classification of Subatomic Particles • 1. Hadrons – particles that interact through the strong nuclear force. • Examples: protons, neutrons. • 2. Leptons – particles that do not interact through the strong nuclear force. Have less mass than a proton. • Example: electrons • See reference table • 3. Hadrons are divided in to baryons and mesons • a. Baryon – heavy particle; can be transformed into a proton or neutron and some number of lighter particles. • b. Meson – particle of intermediate mass. • 4. Antiparticle • A particle having mass, lifetime and spin identical to the associated particle, but with an opposite charge. • Is denoted with a particle sign with a bar over the sign. • Antimatter is material consisting of atoms composed of antiprotons, antineutrons and positrons. D. Quarks • 1. Baryons and mesons are composed of quarks • 2. A quark is one of the basic particles • 3. Elementary charges are built up from quarks • 4. Charges on quarks: ±2/3 e, ±1/3 e • 5. Names: up, down, charm, strange, top, bottom Quarks • 6. Antiquark – antiparticle of a quark, having opposite charge of associated quark. • 7. Baryon – composed of three quarks • a. charges add to (0e, +1e or –1e) • b. proton = uud • c. neutron = udd • 8. Meson – composed of a quark and an antiquark. (charges add to 0e, +1e, or -1e) • Determine the charge on a strange quark in coulombs. Examples: • A proton is composed of what combination of up and down quarks? • 2 up, 1 down (charge: +1) • A neutron is composed of what combination of up and down quarks? • 1 up, 2 down (charge: 0) • How can we classify a particle consisting of an up quark and an anti-down quark? • It’s a meson. • What kind of particle is a muon neutrino? • A lepton. • What is its charge? • 0. • What particles make up an antiproton? • Anti-up, anti-up, anti-down. • What particles make up a tau neutrino? • None – it is a lepton, a fundamental particle itself. • A particle has a quark composition of sc and classification of the particle.