The 5 Themes of Geography How we look at the world, both past and present Geography • Geography: the study of the earth’s physical and human characteristics. • Geographers use 5 themes to explain and understand these characteristics Location • “Where is it?” • Every place has: – Absolute Location: the exact spot of a place on the earth’s surface. • Latitude and Longitude – Relative Location: tells where a place is by comparing what is around it. • Bismarck is east of Dickinson Place • “What is it like?” • Describes all of the characteristics that give an area its own special quality. • Physical: mountains, waterways, climate, plant and animals • Human: language, religion or architecture Examples of Place • Concrete/Physical: – – – – – Landforms Buildings Bridges Trees Statues • Abstract/Human: – Climate -- Language – Culture- the way of life of a group of people who share similar beliefs and customs Movement • “How do people, goods, and ideas get from one place to another?” • Has brought the world’s people closer together. • Transportation and communication Movement of People • Population- total number of people in a given area • Migration- moving from one place to another • Immigrants- people who leave one country to move to another Why do people move? • “push-pull” theorypeople migrate because something “pushes” them from where they currently live and “pulls” them to the new place. Push-Pull Example • Push: – Economic – Government – Religious persecution • Pull – Better life – Similar people – Climate Population Growth • The world’s population has increased dramatically. – Growth rate has never been seen before. • Many people move from rural areas (villages in the countryside) to urban areas (cities and towns). • Causes overcrowding in areas and over use of natural resources. Movement of Products • Import- goods bought from a foreign country. • Export- goods sold to a foreign country. • Economy- having to do with the exchanging of money for goods and services Region • “What common features bring geographical areas together?” • Can be defined by – – – – Physical features (mts) Religion (Islamic) Language (French) Livelihood (agriculture) Examples of Regions • North Dakota is in the plains, a flat land region. • North Dakota has regions within the state (Red River Valley). • North Dakota is a part of a region (the Midwest). Human-Environment Interaction • “What is the relationship between people and their surroundings?” • Landforms, waterways, climate and natural resources have either helped and harmed people and their activities. Natural Resources • Natural Resource- any useful material found in the environment. • Usually soil, water, minerals and vegetation 3 Types of Resources • Recyclable: recourses that cycle through the natural process in the environment. – Water Cycle • Renewable: a natural resource that the environment continues to supply or is replaced as used. – Wind and trees Non-renewable Resources • Non-renewable: natural resources that cannot be replaced once they are used up. – Coal, oil, fossil fuels Why is Geography Important to History • Geography is a key factor in shaping historical events. • It helps explain why and how things happened.