Cicero introduction - Powerpoint presentation (PPT, 82KB) New

An Introduction
His Life
Born on 3rd January 106BC in Arpinum
First of two sons
Educated in philosophy and rhetoric
Military service in 90/89BC
First case in 81BC (Pro Quinctio
His Life
• Reputation secured after defence of Sextus
Roscius in 80BC
• More philosophy and oratory training in
• Elected quaestor in 75BC
• Elected praetor in 66BC
(earliest age possible for both)
His Life
• His case In Verrem in 70BC marked him out as
a heavyweight defeating Hortensius up til
then the leading lawyer in Rome
• Elected consul in 63BC
• Most famous case was In Catalinam securing
him the title pater patriae
His Life
• Allied himself with Pompey during the First
Triumvirate thus securing Caesar’s eventual
• Pardoned by Caesar
• Took no part in C’s murder but said Mark
Antony should also have been murdered thus
securing MA’s enmity
His Death
• After the formation of the Second
Triumvirate, Mark Antony ensured Cicero’s
name was on the proscribed list of public
enemies and he was killed en route to Greece
• Died on 7 December 43BC
His Works
Cicero’s work can broadly be divided into 5
His Works
Of the speeches 58 survive in whole or part
Only fragments of his poetry survive, though he
had a bad reputation as a poet
Cicero wrote De inventione in his youth, De
Oratore, Brutus and Orator somewhat later and
Partitiones Oratoriae for his son; all works of rhetoric
His Works
In the De Divinatione (2.1) Cicero outlines his
contribution to Philosophy, which includes the
Hortensius on why to study philosophy, the Academica a
system of knowledge , the Tusculanae Disputationes on
the pursuit of happiness, as well as De Natura Deorum,
De Divinatione, De Fato, De Re Publica, De Consolatione,
De Senectute and De Officiis which speak for themselves
His Works
Over 800 of his letters survive giving us an
unprecedented insight into his world view and life
during one of the most turbulent times in Roman
The Text
The case against Verres was commissioned by
the outraged inhabitants of Sicily who wished
to see Verres punished for his extortion of
their island.
They chose Cicero to be their advocate since
he was a novus homo who was perceived to
be outside of the ranks of the nobles to whom
Verres belonged.
The Text
Cicero actually won the case In Verrem after
delivering two short speeches: the Divinatio in
Q. Caecilium, which sees Cicero defend his
right to appear as Verres’ prosecutor and the
In Verrem Actio Prima after which Verres fled
into voluntary exile. As such the actio
secunda, book one of which forms our set
text, was never actually delivered in court.
The Text
The actio prima “consisted in an exposure of
the methods employed to obstruct the
prosecution, and a warning to the jurors of
the grave consequences to the themselves
and the prestige of the Senate which would
follow a corrupt verdict of acquittal”
R.G.C.Levens(1946) Cicero Verrine V, p.xxxiv
The Text
As such we are meant to imagine the actio
secunda as the speeches Cicero would have
made if Verres had returned after the
The actio secunda is divided into 5 separate
speeches. We will be studying the first of
those five.
The Text
The first book of the actio secunda is
concerned with “Verres’ career up to and
including his urban praetorship, and has no
bearing on the Sicilian charges except as
establishing his character and antecedents”
R.G.C.Levens(1946) Cicero Verrine V, p.xxxix
The Text
Enjoy . . .