Ministry of Higher Education, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Majmaah University College of Applied Medical Sciences MDL 241- Haematology Blood - Introduction Prepared by Dr. R.K. Choudhary PhD 1436-37 Haematology It is the branch of Medical Science concerned with the nature, function and disease of blood. It covers the cellular and Plasma composition of blood, the coagulation process, blood cell formation, haemoglobin synthesis and disorder of these all. Blood Definition: Blood described as a specialized connective tissue in which there is liquid substance known as plasma and cellular elements are the red blood cells, the white blood cells and the platelets. The specific gravity of whole blood varies from 1.055 to 1.060. When freshly shed, blood is a red, thick, opaque and slightly alkaline. Composition Function: 1. Transport of respiratory gases. It carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and CO2 from the tissues to the lungs. 2. Transport of nutrition. It carries digested food material absorbed from the intestine to the tissue cells for utilization. It also carries nutritive material from one place of the body to the other. For instance, from the storage depots to the tissue cells. 3. It acts as a vehicle through which the hormones, the vitamins and other essential chemicals are brought to their places of activity. 4. Drainage of waste products. It carries the waste products of cellular activity and brings them to the organ of excretion, e.g. kidney, lungs, intestine etc. 5. Maintenance of water balance. 6. Maintenance of acid-base equilibrium. 7. Maintenance of ion balance between the cells and the surrounding fluid. 8. Regulation of body temperature 9. Defensive action. Blood acts as a great defensive mechanism in two ways. (a) The white cells due to their phagocytic properties engulf bacteria and foreign particles. (b) It develops antibodies which combat toxic agents. 10. By the property of coagulation it guards against haemorrhage. 11. The plasma proteins of blood have various functions. 12. Regulation of blood pressure, by changes in volume and viscosity (haematocrit value) of blood. THANK YOU Any question?