Conjunctions Dr. Muhammad Shahbaz All of these words, and many more, are conjunctions ! ! ! or for than if before even though while wherever nor and since yet where then whether so although unless because until but Let us take a closer look . . What is a conjunction? Conjunction is the name for those common words that are used to join (conjoin) parts of sentences. Also, conjunctions may be used to begin certain sentences. There are two different types of conjunctions: coordinating conjunctions and subordinating conjunctions. Conjunctions sometimes work in pairs and are called correlative conjunctions. Coordinating Conjunctions These conjunctions are seven very common words. They are very small, made up of three or fewer letters. When to Use Each Coordinating Conjunction: Reason Coordinating Conjunction To communicate addition To communicate contrast To communicate a result/effect To communicate a reason/cause To communicate a choice To communicate a negative choice and but, yet so for or nor Use them between two independent clauses. Coordinating Conjunctions cont…. Coordinating conjunctions are used to join words, phrases, and independent clauses. Examples of coordinating conjunctions in sentences: Ex. He only wears striped ties and polka dotted bow ties. ( And joins two words.) Ex. The shoes were not blue nor black leather. (Nor joins two phrases.) Ex. It wasn’t a costume party, yet many came dressed as literary villains. (Yet joins two independent clauses.) More Coordinating Conjunctions... These are likely used less often; however, they serve an important function. When to Use Each Coordinating Conjunction: Reason To communicate additional information Coordinating Conjunction consequently furthermore however indeed moreover nevertheless then therefore Use them between two independent clauses. Coordinating Conjunctions cont…. These coordinating conjunctions are used to join independent clauses. Examples of coordinating conjunctions in sentences: Ex. He only wears brown wingtips; consequently, he does not wear white socks. ( Consequently joins two independent clauses.) Ex. The shoes were not suede; however, they were leather. (However joins two independent clauses.) Ex. It was not a Halloween party; nevertheless, many came dressed in costumes. (nevertheless joins two independent clauses.) Subordinate Conjunctions These conjunctions are used to express relationships between a dependent and an independent clause. When to Use Common Subordinate Conjunctions: Reason Regarding time Subordinate Conjunction after, before, once, since, until, when, whenever, while To communicate a reason/cause as, because, since To communicate a result/effect in order that, so, so that, that To communicate a conditionif, even if, unless To communicate contrast although, even though, though, whereas Regarding location where, wherever Regarding a choice than, whether Subordinate Conjunctions cont…. Subordinate conjunctions often begin a dependent clause. If the dependent clause begins or interrupts the sentence, then it is separated from the independent clause by a comma. Examples of subordinate conjunctions in sentences: Ex. Once she found the perfect broach, she purchased three outfits to match it. (Once demonstrates a time context. A comma is used because the conjunction begins the sentence.) Ex. He wore the top hat wherever he went. (Wherever demonstrates a location context. Though wherever begins the dependent clause, no comma is used because it does not begin the sentence or interrupt the sentence.) Correlative Conjunctions Correlative conjunctions are two separate conjunctions that are often in sentences together. Common Correlative Conjunctions and Examples: both, and Ex. Both maroon and gray accent nicely. either, or Ex. I like to wear either pants or capris. neither, nor Ex. Neither the shirt nor the jacket fit. not only, but (also) Ex. Not only one button fell off, but all of them. whether, or Ex. Whether or not you wear nice clothes, you have to wear clothes. not, so much as Ex. It was not that his clothes were flamboyant so much as they were florid.