Perception “The Computer as an Educational Tool: Productivity and Problem Solving” ©Richard C. Forcier and Don E. Descy Perception The process whereby one becomes aware of the world around oneself. How We Are Aware Seeing Hearing Touching Smelling Tasting Truisms Perception: Precedes communications Communications: Leads to learning Perception Research Words only: 90% lost Visuals/multimedia: Fivefold increase (up to 50%) Nine out of 10 presentations: Words only! Principles of Perception Relative, not absolute Selective Organized Influenced by expectations Principles of Perception (Continued) The better an object is perceived, the more reliable: Memory Concept formation Problem solving, creativity Attitude change Important Events do not occur in isolation Individuals react to only a very small part of an event SO... Design Instruction to Attract attention Hold interest Focus on “right” sample of perceptual event Message Theory (1) Message: Information Source or sender: Brain (Message) encoder: Thought, verbalized or written Transmitter: Print, film, the Web Message Theory (2) Channel: Air, wire, paper, light Receiver: Ear, eye, etc. Destination: Brain Decoder: Brain Message Theory (3) Feedback: Reverse communications to sender Noise: Any disturbance that interferes with or distorts transmission Redundancy: Repeating (to overcome noise...) Male cadavers are incapable of yielding testimony. Dead men tell no tales. Neophyte’s serendipity Beginner’s luck A malleable finite cylindraceous coil wrought of parallel axes with azimuthal terminates... General Learning Theory Motivation Individual differences Learning objectives Organization of content Prelearning preparation Emotions General Learning Theory (Continued) Participation Feedback Reinforcement Practice and repetition Application Questions?