Developed by Joe Naumann
• Ancient times – Alexander the Great – Rome • Middlel Ages – Mongol • 18 th -19 th Centuries – British Empire • 20 th Century – Hitler (failed) – Soviet Union (failed) 2
• Based on naval power • Developed along with the growth of industry – Markets – Raw materials – Protection of sea lanes • “The sun never sets on the British Empire” • Legacy – English most widely spoken language – Democratic ideals 3
• Spanish and Portuguese (Americas) • Causes – Primary causative event – Napoleon’s conquest of Spain & Portugal – Dissatisfied creoles (Spanish) – Encouraged by the successful revolution in the United States in North America – Encouraged by political philosophies expressed by Enlightenment writers – Encouraged by the French Revolution 5
• British, French, German, Italian, Belgian, Dutch • Primary causative factors: World Wars I & II • Improved communications • Educated elites in the colonies took leadership roles • Self-determination of peoples encouraged by United Nations charter • Costs increasing for economically burdened European countries • Retaining by force no longer feasible 6
• Last major part of the former British Empire returned in 1997 7
• Most less developed countries are former colonies
In a position to take advantage of the other
Two Paradoxical Forces • The world is being shaped by two different and seemingly contradictory forces, both of which seem to be growing. Therein is the paradox – the tension within which we must live.
• A geographer brings that special, spatial, integrative point of view to the study of these transnational forces.
Forces in the Post-Cold-War World • Globalism – The development of political and quasi-political organizations and structures that transcend the “nation-state.” • Devolution – The breaking down into smaller, simpler parts as in ethnic strife leading to hostility and the breaking-up of multinational states and even states formerly thought to have become “nation states.” 10
Globalism: The Positive Side • the growing realization that all countries must work within the framework of a global economy.
• Economic unions: – NAFTA – European Union – Others • International peace-keeping forces to prevent the spread of conflict.
• Russia consulting with and cooperating with NATO????????????????
Globalism: The Negative Side • Easier spread of ideas and diseases – Terrorism – anti-Jewish & anti-American – Diseases – AIDS, Ebola, Mad Cow, etc.
• Multi-national or Trans-national corporations – the totality is not subject to the jurisdiction of any political unit.
• In 2001, the United States became committed to a “War on Terrorism.” • Increased health concerns for citizens.
• Consumers seem to be having fewer real choices in the marketplace.
Devolution • Striving of national or ethnic groups for sovereign political expression • Parts of several multinational states may seek to unite as a separate political entity.
• Hostilities long thought dead have surfaced in the post Cold War world.
• When these threaten world security and trade, the US may become involved financially and/or militarily.
Global Economy • No country on earth has, within its boundaries and jurisdiction, all the resources needed to operate as a developed country.
• The USA imports 100% of more than a dozen key mineral resources.
• Benefits: – Greater economic diversity and job opportunities for countries.
– Better quality, lower cost consumer products.
• • •
Free Trade Area
– No internal tariffs – Each country sets tariffs for nonmembers
– Eliminates internal tariffs & adopts a common external tariff policy
–closest level of cooperation – Eliminates internal tariff & sets common external – Common laws relating to production – May establish some common political institutions & may work toward eventual political union – Many common political, economic, & social areas 15
Economic Unions • The development after WW II of the European Union has improved living standards among members and given Europe the longest period of peace • NAFTA has the potential to do that in the Western Hemisphere – effort are being made to expand it.
• Initially there are some dislocations, but in the long-run member countries and their citizens benefit 16
• European Parliament – growing but limited power • One huge market for goods, capital, labor – Euro accepted by most but not all • Transportation system at all levels • Regional policy to assist poor agricultural areas and declining urban areas • Social policy – laws for work, labor, visas, etc.
• Environmental policies • Defense (really through NATO) 17
• Promotes peace • Has raised living standards • Is probably the “model” economic union in the world today.
Click on the map to see the video
Click the picture to see the video
NAFTA (trade & investment only)
• Canada & USA • Canada, USA, & Mexico – More resistance in USA to Mexico joining – Maquiladoras in northern Mexico – Mexico may have developed real democracy • Expansion – Talks have been going on with Chile – Andean & Middle American trade unions – Talk of eventually the whole Western Hemisphere except for Cuba (Cuba will probably change after Castro dies) 23
NAFTA Trade Flows
• League of Nations • United Nations 25
• Moral force in the world • Forum for discussion & negotiation – UN Convention on the Law of the Sea • Peace keeping forces in trouble spots • Special agencies – improve social, medical, & educational conditions world wide • World Court to settle disputes 26
• Yearly income not guaranteed – USA didn’t pay its assessment for years • Permanent members with veto power in the security council • No standing police force or military to enforce its resolutions – countries censured, often ignore the resolutions 27
• States have limited jurisdiction on transnational corporations (multi-nationals) • Globalization of justice – Crimes against humanity – International War Crimes and Genocide Tribunal established • Human rights – Universal Declaration of Human Rights – Different cultures view individual rights and community rights differently – Different views of individual’s social responsibility 28
• Jurisdiction over open areas – Arctic and Antarctic – High Seas – Airspace – 1982 U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea – Endangered ocean species – regulating whaling • Environmental problems don’t stop at borders – Air pollution: acid rain, ozone depletion, global warming – Water pollution – rivers, seas, & oceans • International terrorism, i.e. N.Y. 9/11/2001 29
Devolution Movements are on the rise also • Serious threats: – Canada – Spain – United Kingdom – less serious except for N. Ireland.
– Russia – Afghanistan • Recent examples: – Former Yugoslavia – Former Soviet Union – Former Czechoslovakia 30
• Differences between the majority and a significant minority – Language & religion – very emotional – Economic development • Historic animosity • The minority is the dominant element in a somewhat compact region of the country • Minority’s territory is more peripherally located than centrally located • Minority is encouraged (financed) by another country 31 or foreign organizations
• Sadly, terrorism is becoming a more frequently used tool by groups seeking “self-determination.” 32
• Terrorism has struck on every continent except Australia Ulster, N. Ireland Grozny, Chechnya Basque - Spain 33 Kashmir shelling Sri Lanka, truck bomb E. Timor victims
• Soviet Union split apart • Eastern European countries became truly free and sovereign.
• The potential abounds in Europe and in other places too.
• Break up of colonial empires • Partition of India/Pakistan • Separation of Bangladesh from Pakistan • East Timor (at least temporarily) • Yugoslavia split 5 ways • U.S.S.R. split into separate republics • Czechoslovakia divided in two • Philippine independence from USA • Finland separated from Sweden & Russia • United Arab Republic (short lived) • Eritrea from Ethiopia • Singapore from Malaysia 36
• Biafra (Nigerian civil war) • Chechnya from Russia (so far) • Quebec (separation vote failed) • Puerto Rico (separation vote failed) • Katanga in Congo right after independence • Ogodan province of Ethiopia • USA civil war • Philippines (so far) • Sudan (so far) • Basques in Spain (so far) • Tamils in Sri Lanka (so far) 37
Click on the map to see the video
Perfect example of a stateless nation
• Russia • Almost every African country • Yugoslavia • Italy • Spain • France • Britain • Brazil • Mexico • Indonesia • China • India • Peru • Colombia • Cyprus • Turkey • Syria • Iran • Iraq • Afghanistan • New Zealand • India 39
Click the picture of Gandhi to see the video
What of the wisdom of Gandhi?
• What of Sikh separatism?
• What of Hindu Nationalism?
• How can they coexist?
• • Catalonia is an example • Desires separation from Spain but may settle for greater autonomy (Spanish government hopes so) – It is the most industrially developed part of Spain
Union probably would want to remain in the European – Benefits from membership in the union – separation from the EU would hurt it economically – One of the major industrial areas of the EU 41
• There is some basis for saying yes to some type of global governance or cooperation
BUT – probably not in our lifetime
• Emotional factors, old jealousies, and old hatreds may prevent some global accommodation • Differences in political and economic systems may be difficult to reconcile 42