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Matakuliah Tahun : V0282 - Manajemen Akuntansi Hotel : 2009 - 2010 Managerial Accounting for Costs Chapter 9 Chapter Outline • • • The Concept of Cost Types of Costs Cost/Volume/Profit Analysis Learning Outcomes • • • Identify the concept of a business cost. Differentiate between the different types of business costs. Perform (when costs are known) a cost/volume/profit analysis. The Concept of Cost • • • Given all the possible approaches to examining costs, perhaps the easiest way to understand them is to consider their impact on a businesses’ profit. At any specific level of revenue, the lower a business’s costs, the greater are its profits. There are a variety of useful ways in which hospitality managers and managerial accountants can view costs and thus can better understand and operate their own businesses. Types of Costs • Useful ways to classify business costs are: – – – – – – – – – – Fixed and variable costs Mixed costs Step costs Direct and indirect (overhead) costs Controllable and non-controllable costs Joint costs Incremental costs Standard costs Sunk costs Opportunity costs Types of Costs • • • • Not all business costs can be objectively measured. In fact, in some cases, costs can be a somewhat subjective matter such as “talking with customers regarding invoices”. Cost accountants facing such issues can assign each hospitality employee’s time to different activities performed inside a company. An accountant can then determine the total cost spent on each activity by summing up the percentage of each worker's time and pay that is spent on that activity. Types of Costs • • This process is called activity based costing and it seeks to assign objective costs to somewhat subjective items such as the payment for various types of labor as well as the even more subjective management tasks involved with planning, organizing, directing and controlling a hospitality business. Using activity based costing to examine expenses and thus better manage a business is called activity based management and it is just one example of how fully understanding costs can help you make better decisions and operate a more successful business. Fixed and Variable Costs • • • • As a manager, some of the costs you incur will stay the same each month. For that reason they are called fixed costs. A fixed cost is one that remains constant despite increases or decreases in sales volume (number of guest or number of rooms). Typical examples of fixed costs include payments for insurance policies, property taxes, and management salaries. Fixed and Variable Costs • • • • A variable cost is one that increases as sales volume increases and decreases as sales volume decreases. Good managers seek to decrease their fixed costs to their lowest practical levels while still satisfying the needs of the business and its customers. Those same good managers, however, know that increases in variable costs are usually very good! You would prefer, for example, to have to purchase extra steaks and incur extra variable costs because that would mean you sold more steaks and increased sales! go figure! To illustrate, consider Maureen’s Bountiful Burgers, a midsize, freestanding restaurant outside a shopping mall, where Maureen features upscale gourmet burgers. If it costs $2.00 of ingredients to make a gourmet burger and 50 guests order burgers, then the total variable food cost is as follows: Variable Cost per Guest (VC/Guest) x Number of Guests = Total Variable Cost or $2.00 x 50 = $100 If the total variable cost and the number of guests are known, VC/Guest can be determined. Using basic algebra, a variation of the total variable cost formula can be computed as follows: Total Variable Cost Number of Guests or $100 50 = $2.00 = VC/Guest Mixed Costs • • • • It is clear that some business costs are fixed and that some vary with sales volume (variable costs). Still other types of cost contain a mixture of both fixed and variable characteristics. Costs of this type are known as semi-fixed, semivariable, or mixed costs. In a hotel, the cost associated with a telephone system is an excellent example of a mixed cost. Mixed Costs • • • • The hotel will pay a monthly fee for the purchase price repayment, or lease, of the actual phone system. This represents a fixed cost because it will be the same amount whether the occupancy percentage in the hotel is very low or very high. Increased occupancy, however, is likely to result in increased telephone usage by guests. A hotel’s local and long distance bill will increase as additional hotel guests result in additional telephone calls made. go figure! The best way to understand a mixed cost is to understand the mixed cost formula. To illustrate, assume a hotel pays $4,000 per month to lease its telephone system. Assume also that you know (from historical records) that the average guest staying at the hotel makes one local and one long-distance telephone call. The cost, to the hotel, of each call averages $0.50 in access fees, or a total of $1.00 per guest. Assume also that, in a specific month, the hotel anticipates 7,500 guests. Using the following formula for mixed costs, the hotel’s telephone bill for the month could be estimated as: Fixed Cost + Variable Cost = Total Mixed Cost or Fixed Cost + (Variable Cost per Guest x Number of Guests) = Total Mixed Cost or $4,000 + ($1.00 x 7,500) = $11,500 Separating Mixed Costs into Variable and Fixed Components • • • • A mixed cost can be divided into its fixed and variable components in order for management to effectively control the variable cost portion. It is this variable cost that is the most controllable in the short-term. Several methods can be used to split mixed costs into their fixed and variable components. The most common methods are high/low, scatter diagrams, and regression analysis. Separating Mixed Costs into Variable and Fixed Components • • • • Although regression analysis and scatter diagrams provide more precise results, the high/low method is easier to calculate and gives you a good estimate of the variable and fixed components of a mixed cost. Figure 9.4 shows costs for Joshua’s Restaurant. In order to determine his variable costs and fixed costs components for his restaurant, see Go Figure! following Figure 9.4. Figure 9.5 shows Joshua’s variable costs per guest and fixed costs separated for his restaurant. Figure 9.4 Joshua’s Restaurant Costs for October, November, and December NUMBER OF GUESTS Food Cost Beverage Cost Salaries and Wages Employee Benefits Direct Operating Expenses Music and Entertainment Marketing Utility Services Repairs and Maintenance Administrative and General Occupancy Depreciation Interest Total Costs October November December 10,000 17,000 21,000 35,000 4,000 23,960 5,125 6,056 1,070 2,912 4,077 1,630 5,570 10,000 3,400 7,200 110,000 59,500 6,800 27,460 5,265 8,156 1,070 3,262 5,477 1,840 5,570 10,000 3,400 7,200 145,000 73,500 8,400 29,460 5,345 9,356 1,070 3,462 6,277 1,960 5,570 10,000 3,400 7,200 165,000 go figure! To demonstrate how the high/low method separates a mixed cost into its variable and fixed components, we will use Joshua’s marketing expense from Figure 9.4. The high/low method uses the three following steps: 1. Determine variable cost per guest for the mixed cost. Choose a high volume month (December) and a low volume month (October) that represents normal operations. Then, use the following formula to separate out variable cost per guest for the mixed cost: High Cost – Low Cost High # of Guests – Low # of Guests = Variable Cost per Guest (VC/Guest) or $3,462 - $2,912 21,000 – 10,000 = $0.05 2. Determine total variable costs for the mixed cost. Multiply variable cost per guest by either the high or low volume (number of guests) as follows: VC/Guest x Number of Guests = Total Variable Cost or $0.05 x 10,000 = $500 (go figure! continued) 3. Determine the fixed costs portion of the mixed cost. Subtract total variable cost from the mixed cost (at the high volume or low volume you chose in step 2 – low volume at 10,000 guests was chosen in this example) to determine the fixed cost portion as follows. Mixed Cost – Total Variable Cost = Fixed Cost or $2,912 - $500 = $2,412 Thus, Joshua’s mixed marketing expense can be shown with its variable and fixed components as follows: Fixed Cost + Variable Cost = Total Mixed Cost or Fixed Cost + (Variable Cost per Guest x Number of Guests) = Total Mixed Cost or At 10,000 guests served: $2,412 + ($0.05 x 10,000) = $2,912 Figure 9.5 Joshua’s Restaurant Variable Costs per Guest and Fixed Costs NUMBER OF GUESTS Food Cost Beverage Cost Salaries and Wages Employee Benefits Direct Operating Expenses Music and Entertainment Marketing Utility Services Repairs and Maintenance Administrative and General Occupancy Depreciation Interest Total Costs October November December 10,000 17,000 21,000 Variable Cost per Guest Fixed Costs 35,000 4,000 23,960 5,125 59,500 6,800 27,460 5,265 73,500 8,400 29,460 5,345 3.50 0.40 0.50 0.02 0 0 18,960 4,925 6,056 1,070 2,912 4,077 8,156 1,070 3,262 5,477 9,356 1,070 3,462 6,277 0.30 0 0.05 0.20 3,056 1,070 2,412 2,077 1,630 1,840 1,960 0.03 1,330 5,570 10,000 3,400 7,200 110,000 5,570 10,000 3,400 7,200 145,000 5,570 10,000 3,400 7,200 165,000 0 0 0 0 $5.00 5,570 10,000 3,400 7,200 $60,000 Total Costs • • • • As you can see in Figure 9.5, total fixed costs and total variable costs per guest are the same for all levels of number of guests served. Total costs are mixed costs, and thus can be treated as such. The total cost equation represents a straight line as shown in Figure 9.6. See the Go Figure! exercise following Figure 9.6 for application of the Total Cost Equation. Figure 9.6 Total Cost Graph y axis Total Cost VC/Guest Dollars Fixed Cost 0 Low Sales (volume) High x axis go figure! As you may remember from high school algebra, the equation for a line is y = a + bx. The equation for a line applies to the Total Cost line, where “a” is the y intercept (fixed costs), “b” is the slope of the line (VC/Guest), “x” is the independent variable (Number of Guests or Sales Volume), and “y” is the dependent variable (Total Cost). The total cost equation can be summarized as follows for Joshua’s Restaurant: Total Cost Equation y = a + bx or Total Costs = Fixed Costs + (Variable Cost per Guest x Number of Guests) or At any number of guests served at Joshua’s Restaurant: Total Costs = $60,000 + ($5.00 x Number of Guests) Thus, assuming that in a normal month variable costs per guest and fixed costs remain the same for Joshua’s restaurant, total costs in any month can be estimated by using the Total Cost Equation. All Joshua must do is insert the anticipated number of guests into the equation to estimate total costs for any month. For example, if Joshua expects the month of June to have 18,000 guests, he can estimate his total costs as follows: Total Costs = Fixed Costs + (Variable Cost per Guest x Number of Guests) or At 18,000 guests served: $150,000 = $60,000 + ($5.00 x 18,000) Total Costs • • • • • Total fixed costs and total variable costs per guest are the same for all levels of number of guests served. Therefore, managers can predict total costs at varying levels of guests based on the total cost equation. Effective managers know they should not categorize fixed, variable, or mixed costs in terms of being either "good" or "bad". Some costs are, by their very nature, related to sales volume. Others are not. The goal of management is not to reduce, but to increase total variable costs in direct relation to increases in total sales volume. Step Costs • • • • A step cost is a cost that increases as a range of activity increases or as a capacity limit is reached. That is, instead of increasing in a linear fashion like variable costs, step cost increases look more like a staircase (hence the name “step” costs). For example, if one well-trained server can effectively provide service for a range of 1 to 30 of a restaurant’s guests, and 40 guests are anticipated, a second server must be scheduled. Each additional server added increases the restaurants costs in a non-liner (step-like) fashion. Figure 9.7 Step Costs Server 3 Cost Server 2 Server 1 1-30 31-60 Volume 61-90 Direct and Indirect (Overhead) Costs • • • • When a cost can be directly attributed to a specific area or profit center within a business, it is known as a direct cost. Direct costs usually (but not always) increase with increases in sales volume. An indirect cost is one that is not easily assigned to a specific operating unit or department. In the hotel industry, indirect costs are more often known as undistributed expenses and non-operating expenses. Direct and Indirect (Overhead) Costs • • Indirect costs in a restaurant or hotel include expenses such as rent and other facility occupation costs, property taxes, insurance, depreciation, amortization, interest, and income taxes. Indirect costs are also known as overhead costs. Direct and Indirect (Overhead) Costs • • • • When there is more than one profit center, management typically will use a cost allocation system to assign portions of the overhead costs among the various centers. Another approach would be to assign overhead costs on the basis of the size of each profit center. Yet another approach is based on sales revenue achieved by the profit center. For each different allocation approach utilized, the resulting charges to the individual profit centers are also different. Figure 9.8 Harley Hotels Operations Administration Position Salary Related Expense Total Director of Operations $ 125,000 $ 75,000 $ 200,000 Corporate Sales Director $ 90,000 $ 60,000 $ 150,000 Total $ 215,000 $ 135,000 $ 350,000 The five hotels operated by the Harley company, their location, their number of rooms, and their annual revenues are found in Figure 9.9. Figure 9.9 Harley Hotels Managed Properties Hotel Location Rooms Annual Revenues Bitmore Denver 300 $ 15,250,000 Los Cobo Santa Fe 200 $ 8,500,000 The Drake Dallas 225 $ 11,750,000 Greenwood Miami 250 $ 10,500,000 Sandstone Las Vegas 525 $ 22,000,000 1,500 $ 68,000,000 Total go figure! Assume that you are the individual responsible for making cost allocation decisions for the Harley Hotel company. How would you assign the costs related to your company employing the director of operations and the corporate sales director? Certainly, one approach would be to assign each hotel an equal amount of this corporate overhead. If such an approach were used, the allocation to each hotel would be computed as: Total Overhead Number of Profit Centers = Overhead Allocation per Profit Center or $ 350,000 5 = $70,000 per hotel Figure 9.10 Overhead Allocation Based on Number of Rooms Hotel Rooms % of Total Rooms $ of Overhead Charge Bitmore 300 20.0 $ 70,000 Los Cobo 200 13.3 46,550 The Drake 225 15.0 52,500 Greenwood 250 16.7 58,450 Sandstone 525 35.0 $ 122,500 1,500 100.0 $ 350,000 Total Figure 9.11 Overhead Allocation Based on Annual Revenues Annual % of Total $ of Overhead Hotel Revenues Revenues Charges Bitmore $ 15,250,000 22.4 $ 78,400 Los Cobo $ 8,500,000 12.5 43,750 The Drake $ 11,750,000 17.3 60,550 Greenwood $ 10,500,000 15.4 53,900 Sandstone $ 22,000,000 32.4 113,400 Total $ 68,000,000 100.0 $ 350,000 Controllable and Non-Controllable Costs • • • • Controllable costs are those costs over which a manger has primary control, and non-controllable costs are those costs which a manager cannot control in the short-term. In most businesses, managers will only be held responsible for the profits remaining after subtracting the expenses they can directly control. Examples of controllable costs are operating department expenses and examples of non-controllable costs are nonoperating expenses. Experienced managers focus their attention on managing controllable rather than non-controllable costs. Joint Costs • • • • Closely related to overhead and cost allocation issues is the concept of a joint cost. A joint cost is one that should be allocated to two (or more) departments or profit centers. Most direct costs are not joint costs, while many indirect costs are considered joint costs. An example would be an Executive Chef who is responsible for the food production for several departments in a hotel. Each department might share the Chef’s salary as a joint cost. Incremental Costs • • • • Incremental costs can best be understood as the increased cost of “each additional unit”, or even more simply, the cost of “one more”. Consider the costs incurred by a hotel to sell a single sleeping room to a single traveler. Assume that the managers of a hotel knew that the cost of providing this single sleeping room to a single traveler was $40.00. The direct question related to incremental costs is this, “How much more does it cost to sell the same sleeping room if it is occupied by two guests, rather than one?” Standard Costs • • • • • The best hospitality managers want to know what their costs should be. Bear in mind that management’s primary responsibility is to incur costs appropriate for the quality of products and services delivered to guests. Standard costs are defined as the costs that should be incurred given a specific level of volume. Standard costs can be established for nearly all business expenses. If the variation from the standard cost is significant, it should be of concern to management. Sunk Costs • • • A sunk cost is one that has already been incurred and whose amount cannot now be altered. Because it relates to a past decision, information about a sunk cost must actually be disregarded when considering a future decision. Sunk costs are most often identified and considered when making decisions about the replacement or acquisition of assets. Opportunity Costs • • • • An opportunity cost is the cost of foregoing the next best alternative when making a decision. For example, suppose you have two choices, A and B, both having potential benefits or returns for you. If you choose A, then you lose the potential benefits from choosing B (opportunity cost). Opportunity costs are often computed when organizations must choose between several similar, but not completely equal, courses of action. Cost/Volume/Profit Analysis • • • • Experienced managerial accountants know that, for most hospitality businesses, some accounting periods are simply more profitable than others. This is so because most businesses experience “busy” periods and “slow” periods. For most hospitality businesses, costs as a percentage of sales are reduced when sales are high, and increase when sales volume is lower. The result, in most cases, is greater profits during high volume periods and lesser profits in lower volume periods. Cost/Volume/Profit Analysis • • • • • This relationship between volume, costs, and profits is shown graphically in Figure 9.12, where the x (horizontal) axis represents sales volume. In a restaurant, this is the number of covers (guests) served; in a hotel, it is the number of rooms sold. The y (vertical) axis represents the revenues and costs associated with generating the sales. The Total Revenues line starts at 0 because if no guests are served or no rooms are sold, no revenue dollars are generated. The Total Costs line starts farther up the y axis because fixed costs are incurred even if no covers are sold. Figure 9.12 Cost/Volume/Profit Relationship Total Revenues y axis Profits Dollars Total Costs Breakeven point Losses 0 Low Sales Volume High x axis Cost/Volume/Profit Analysis • • • • • The point at which the two lines cross is called the breakeven point. At the breakeven point, operational expenses are exactly equal to sales revenue. Stated in another way, when sales volume in a business equals the sum of its total fixed and variable costs, its breakeven point has been reached. Below the breakeven point, costs are higher than revenues, so losses occur. Above the breakeven point, revenues exceed the sum of the fixed and variable costs required to make the sales, so profits are generated. Computation of Cost/Volume/Profit Analysis • • • By determining the breakeven point, the manager is answering the question, “How much sales volume must I generate before I begin to make a profit?” Beyond the breakeven point, the manager will want to answer another question, “How much sales dollars and volume must I generate to make my target profit level?” A cost/volume/profit (CVP) analysis predicts the sales dollars and volume required to achieve a breakeven point or desired profit based on known costs. Computation of Cost/Volume/Profit Analysis • • • • Before a CVP analysis can be conducted, a contribution margin income statement must be developed. A contribution margin income statement shows P&L items in terms of sales, variable costs, contribution margin, fixed costs, and profit. For an illustration of a contribution margin income statement, see Figure 9.13. The contribution margin for the overall operation is defined as the dollar amount, after subtracting variable costs from total sales, that contributes to covering fixed costs and providing for a profit (see Go Figure!). Figure 9.13 Joshua’s Contribution Margin Income Statement for October Total Sales $125,000 Sales Per Guest $12.50 Variable Costs 50,000 Guests Served 10,000 Contribution Margin 75,000 Fixed Costs 60,000 Before Tax Profit 15,000 Taxes (40 %) 6,000 After-tax Profit $9,000 go figure! As you can see in Figure 9.13, the contribution margin calculation for Joshua’s is as follows: Total Sales – Variable Costs = Contribution Margin or $125,000 – $50,000 = $75,000 Computation of Cost/Volume/Profit Analysis • • • • The contribution margin income statement can also be viewed in terms of per guest and percentage sales, variable costs, and contribution margin as shown in Figure 9.14. Notice the boxed information in Figure 9.14 includes per guest and percent calculations. These include selling price, (SP), variable costs (VC), and contribution margin (CM). See Go Figure! for the steps to follow in CVP calculations. Figure 9.14 Joshua’s Contribution Margin Income Statement With Per Guest and Percent Calculations Per Guest Total Sales $125,000 SP Variable Costs 50,000 Contribution Margin 75,000 Fixed Costs 60,000 Before-Tax Profit 15,000 Taxes (40%) 6,000 After-Tax Profit 9,000 Percent $12.50 100% - VC 5.00 40 CM 7.50 60 Guests served = 10,000 go figure! To calculate these numbers, the following steps apply: Step 1. Divide total sales, variable costs, and contribution margin by the number of guests to get per guest values. Then, calculate CM/guest. SP/guest = $125,000/10,000 guests = $12.50 VC/guest = $ 50,000/10,000 guests = $ 5.00 CM/guest = $ 75,000/10,000 guests = $ 7.50 SP/guest – VC/guest = CM/guest or $12.50 – $5.00 = $7.50 Step 2. Divide VC/guest by SP/guest, and CM/guest by SP/guest to get percentage values. Then, calculate CM%. SP% = 100% VC% = $5.00/$12.50 = 40% CM% = $7.50/$12.50 = 60% SP% – VC% = CM% or 100% – 40% = 60% go figure! To determine the dollar sales required to break even, Joshua uses the following formula: Fixed Costs Contribution Margin % = Breakeven Point in Sales Dollars or $60,000 = $100,000 0.60 Thus, Joshua must generate $100,000 in sales per month before he begins to make a profit. At a sales volume of less than $100,000, he would be operating at a loss. In terms of the number of guests that must be served in order to break even, Joshua uses the following formula: Fixed Costs Contribution Margin per Guest = Breakeven Point in Guests Served or $60,000 = 8,000 Guests $7.50 Now, assume that Joshua has decided that in July he will plan for $12,000 in after-tax profits. To determine sales dollars and covers needed to achieve his after-tax profit goal, Joshua uses the following formula: Fixed Costs + Before-Tax Profit = Sales Dollars to Achieve Desired After-Tax Profit Contribution Margin % (go figure! continued) Joshua knows that his after-tax-profit goal is $12,000, but the preceding formula calls for beforetax profit. To convert his after-tax profit to before-tax profit, Joshua must compute the following: After-Tax Profit = Before-Tax Profit 1 – Tax Rate or $12,000 = $20,000 1 – 0.40 Now that Joshua knows his before-tax profit goal is $20,000, he can calculate his sales dollars to achieve his desired after-tax profit as follows: Fixed Costs + Before-Tax Profit = Sales Dollars to Achieve Desired After-Tax Profit Contribution Margin % or $60,000 + $20,000 = $133,333.33 0.60 Thus, Joshua must generate $133,333.33 in sales in July to achieve his desired after-tax profit of $12,000. In terms of calculating the number of guests that must be served in order to make his profit, Joshua uses the following formula: Fixed Costs + Before-Tax Profit Contribution Margin per Guest = Number of Guests to Achieve Desired After-Tax Profit or $60,000 + $20,000 = 10,666.67 Guests, Round up to 10,667 Guests $7.50 Computation of Cost/Volume/Profit Analysis • You must always round the number of guests up because 1. A guest (person) does not exist as a fraction. 2. It is better to slightly overstate the number of guests to achieve breakeven or desired profits than to understate the number and risk a loss or reduce profit. It is better to be safe than sorry! • • Once you round the number of guests up, you should adjust the total sales dollars to reflect this. This difference is minimal and may not warrant adjustment unless an exact sales dollar amount is required based on number of guests. Computation of Cost/Volume/Profit Analysis • When calculating sales and guests (or rooms) to achieve breakeven and desired after-tax profits, you can easily remember which formulas to use if you know the following: – Contribution margin % is used to calculate sales dollars. – Contribution margin per guest (or room) is used to calculate sales volume in guests (or rooms). Computation of Cost/Volume/Profit Analysis • • You can predict any sales level for breakeven or aftertax profits based on your selling price, fixed costs, variable costs, and contribution margin. You can also make changes in your selling prices and costs to improve your ability to breakeven and achieve desired profit levels. Margin of Safety • • • • Margin of safety shows how close a projected amount of sales will be to breakeven, and thus, how close an operation will be to incurring a loss. Margin of safety calculates the difference between projected sales and breakeven sales. Once the margin of safety for the month is calculated, it can be divided by the number of days in the month to show the margin of safety per day. These calculations are illustrated in Figure 9.15. Figure 9.15 Joshua’s Margin of Safety for August Sales $ Guests 112,500 9,000 Breakeven Sales - 100,000 - 8,000 Margin of Safety 12,500 1,000 Margin of Safety per Day (31 days) 403.23 32.26 ~ 32 Projected Sales Margin of Safety • You must always round the number of guests for margin of safety down because 1. A guest (person) does not exist as a fraction. 2. It is better to slightly understate the number of guests as a safety margin than to overstate the number and thus, your safety net. It is better to be safe than sorry! • • Once you round the number of guests down, you should adjust the margin of safety dollars to reflect this. This difference is minimal and may not warrant adjustment unless an exact sales dollar amount is required based on number of guests. Minimum Sales Point • • A minimum sales point (MSP) is defined as the dollar sales volume required to justify staying open for a given period of time. The information necessary to compute a MSP is as follows: – Food cost % – Minimum payroll cost for the time period – Variable cost % • Fixed costs are eliminated from the calculation because, even if the volume of sales equals zero, fixed costs still exist and must be paid. go figure! Consider the situation of Adrian, who is trying to determine whether he should close his steakhouse at 10:00 p.m. or 11:00 p.m. Adrian wants to compute the sales volume necessary to justify staying open the additional hour. He can make this calculation because he knows that his food cost equals 40%, his minimum labor cost to stay open for the extra hour equals $150, and his other variable costs (taken from his P&L statement) equal 30%. In calculating MSP, his food cost % + variable cost % is called his minimum operating cost. Adrian applies the MSP formula as follows: Minimum Labor Cost 1 – Minimum Operating Cost = MSP or Minimum Labor Cost 1 – (Food Cost % + Variable Cost %) = MSP or $150 1 – (0.40 + 0.30) = $500 If Adrian can achieve a sales volume of $500 in the 10:00 p.m. to 11:00 p.m. time period, he should stay open. If this level of sales is not feasible, he should consider closing the operation at 10:00 p.m. Review of Learning Outcomes • • • Identify the concept of a business cost. Differentiate between the different types of business costs. Perform (when costs are known) a cost/volume/profit analysis.