Please pass back the new objective sheet and read the board! Please get out paper for notes. Dig it! ARE THESE WORTH PROTECTING? WHY SHOULD WE PROTECT BIODIVERSITY? THREE TYPES OF BIODIVERSITY Ecosystem biodiversity Species biodiversity Genetic biodiversity ECOSYSTEM BIODIVERSITY: DIFFERENT TYPES OF EACH BIOME KIND OF GRASSLAND! – THERE’S NOT JUST ONE GREAT PLAINS ECOSYSTEM BIODIVERSITY: TEMPERATE RAINFOREST AND TROPICAL RAINFOREST CONIFEROUS FORESTS AND TEXAS DECIDUOUS FORESTS GENETIC BIODIVERSITY: THE GENE POOL (TOTAL DNA) OF A SPECIES If a species is too inbred, they could be more vulnerable to disease. They might not be able to handle changes in their environment well. GENETIC BIODIVERSITY SPECIES DIVERSITY 5 REASONS TO PROTECT BIODIVERSITY 1. Medicinal 2. Agricultural 3. Commercial 4. Ecological 5. Ethical/Aesthetic REASON #1:MEDICINAL Rosy Periwinkle: Hodgkin’s disease and lymphocytic leukemia 40% of modern medicines come from plants/animals/fungi 95% of known plant species have never been tested for medicinal value PACIFIC YEW – TAXOL CANCER MEDICINE THE NEEM TREE FROM INDIA Historically used to clean teeth, skin disorders, insect repellent. What chemical does it contain? Could it be used at a commercial level to help more people? REASON #2: COMMERCIAL Harvesting: Shrimp industry harvesting: Recreational hunting COMMERCIAL: ECOTOURISM Visiting Nature Preserves Whale Watching ECOTOURISM Austin’s bat colony Snorkling ECOTOURISM Mountain biking Whitewater Rafting BIOMIMICRY - ENGINEERING DESIGNS BASED ON NATURAL SYSTEMS BIOMIMICRY – BULLET TRAIN INSPIRED BY KINGFISHER’S BILL BIOMIMICRY – ENGINEERING DESIGNS BASED ON NATURAL SYSTEMS Whale fins – better wind turbines Underwater plants – floating energy harvesters REASON #3: AGRICULTURAL Of 80,000 known edible plants on the planet, we depend on 20 species to provide 90% of global food supply. Corn, rice, soy and wheat are 50% alone! RELYING TOO HEAVILY ON LIMITED VARIETY CAN BE DANGEROUS 1841-1851 LOSS OF DIVERSITY IN AGRICULTURE Apples – 14,000 apple cultivars in N. America have been reduced to 11 which supply 90% of our supply Coffee – 28% decline in Latin American production as climate change has brought new rainfall and pest patterns NEW OPTIONS? Winged Bean of New Guinea Katemfe berry CARRY AUROCH GENES WILL BE BRED TO LOOK AND ACT LIKE EXTINCT AUROCH. THESE WILL BE ABLE TO BROWSE ON BEECH TREES WHICH ARE CHOKING EUROPE’S WOODS POLLINATORS REASON #4: ECOLOGICAL Food webs Food webs Symbiotic relationships Indicator species US Fish and Wildlife Service estimates that losing one plant can trigger the loss of 30 other species Simba says it’s all connected! ECOLOGICAL Ecosystem services! Air purification Water filtration Climate control (absorbing CO2) Gene bank Soil building REASON #5: AESTHETICS/RECREATION/SPIRITUAL/MORAL We are ONE species 1.5 million KNOWN species More are discovered every year Biodiversity enriches our lives! “ENDANGERED MEANS THERE’S STILL TIME!” Threatened Endangered Extinct SO DID WE MEET OUR OBJECTIVES TODAY? 3 types of biodiversity 5 reasons to protect species Threatened Endangered Extinct HOMEWORK FOR THE WEEKEND Endangered species index card!