Consolidation of Communist Russia

The Communist gained power through popular
support and military victory.
War Communism
New Economic Policy (NEP)
Union of Soviet Socialists Republics
Vladimir Lenin
Leon Trotsky
Joseph Stalin
Third International (Comintern)
Lenin took Russia out of World War I by
accepting Germany’s sever terms in the Treaty
of Brest-Litovsk
Russia lost Finland, the Baltic states, Poland and
In domestic affairs Lenin
Organized the workers to take over the factories and
then nationalized industry
Directed the peasants to seize the nobles’ estates and
then nationalized all land.
From 1917 to 1920 the Communist fought a war against
Polish troops, Allied forces, and the “White” Russians.
In 1918 they put to death Czar Nicholas II and his
Executed thousands of counter-revolutionaries
The Communist “Red” army smashed military threats.
Its success resulted from
 Trotsky’s ability as military organizer and
inspirational leader
 Peasants determination not to return land back to
the nobles
 Russian nationalism, which made Russians resent
foreign intervention
 Disunity and war-weariness among the “Whites”
and the various foreign armies.
By 1921 the Communist had conceded the
independence of Finland, the Baltic states, and Poland
but had recovered Ukraine.
Also by 1921, Lenin’s government had received
diplomatic recognition from most countries
 The U.S. waited to 1933 before recognizing the Soviet
In 1922 Lenin suffered the first of a series of strokes.
He would die in 1924.