The Communist gained power through popular support and military victory. War Communism Cheka Politburo New Economic Policy (NEP) Union of Soviet Socialists Republics Vladimir Lenin Leon Trotsky Joseph Stalin Third International (Comintern) Lenin took Russia out of World War I by accepting Germany’s sever terms in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Russia lost Finland, the Baltic states, Poland and Ukraine. In domestic affairs Lenin Organized the workers to take over the factories and then nationalized industry Directed the peasants to seize the nobles’ estates and then nationalized all land. From 1917 to 1920 the Communist fought a war against Polish troops, Allied forces, and the “White” Russians. In 1918 they put to death Czar Nicholas II and his family. Executed thousands of counter-revolutionaries The Communist “Red” army smashed military threats. Its success resulted from Trotsky’s ability as military organizer and inspirational leader Peasants determination not to return land back to the nobles Russian nationalism, which made Russians resent foreign intervention Disunity and war-weariness among the “Whites” and the various foreign armies. By 1921 the Communist had conceded the independence of Finland, the Baltic states, and Poland but had recovered Ukraine. Also by 1921, Lenin’s government had received diplomatic recognition from most countries The U.S. waited to 1933 before recognizing the Soviet Union In 1922 Lenin suffered the first of a series of strokes. He would die in 1924.