Questions (22) 1. How does the economist’s use of the term “rent” differ from everyday usage? Explain: “Though rent need not be paid by society to make land available, rental payments are very useful in guiding land into the most productive uses.” 2. Explain why economic rent is a surplus payment when viewed by the economy as a whole but a cost of production from the standpoint of individual firms and industries. Explain: “Land rent performs no ‘incentive function’ for the overall economy.” 3. In the 1980s land prices in Japan surged upward in a “speculative bubble.” Land prices then fell for 11 straight years between 1990 and 2001. What can we safely assume happened to land rent in Japan over those 11 years? Use graphical analysis to illustrate your answer. 4. Why is the supply of loanable funds upsloping? Why is the demand for loanable funds downsloping? Explain the equilibrium interest rate. List some factors that might cause it to change. 5. What are the major economic functions of the interest rate? How might the fact that many businesses finance their investment activities internally affect the efficiency with which the interest rate performs its functions? 6. Distinguish between nominal and real interest rates. Which is more relevant in making investment and R&D decisions? If the nominal interest rate is 12 percent and the inflation rate is 8 percent, what is the real rate of interest? 7. How do the concepts of accounting profit and economic profit differ? Why is economic profit smaller than accounting profit? What are the three basic sources of economic profit? Classify each of the following according to those sources: a. A firm’s profit from developing and patenting a new medication that greatly reduces cholesterol and thus diminishes the likelihood of heart disease and stroke. b. A restaurant’s profit that results from construction of a new highway past its door. c. The profit received by a firm benefiting from an unanticipated change in consumer tastes 8. Explain the absence of economic profit in a purely competitive, static economy. Realizing that the major function of profits is to allocate resources according to consumer preferences, describe the allocation of resources in such an economy.