Pertemuan 24 & 25:
Metodologi Riset dalam Psikologi Industri dan Organisasi
1. Why would knowledge of psychological research methods be of value to you in your
working career?
a. You will probably have to deal with the findings of I-O psychologists
b. To use their advice you must understand how they studied the problems and
arrived at their conclusions
c. The goal is to acquaint you with the requirements, limitations, and methods of the
scientific approach.
2. What are three basic requirements of psychological research? What are the limitations of
psychological research?
a. Requirements
i. objective observation
ii. control
iii. duplication and verification
b. Limitations
i. not all behavior can be studied
ii. observing behavior can change it
iii. the Hawthorne effect
iv. artificial settings
v. college students as subjects
3. Distinguish between (a) dependent and independent variables, (b) random group design
and matched group design, and (c) experimental groups and control groups.
a. Dependent and independent variables
i. Independent variable: the stimulus variable that is manipulated to
determine its effect on the subject’s behavior
ii. Dependent variable: the resulting behavior of the subjects, which depends
on the manipulation of the independent variable
b. Random group and matched group design
i. Random group design: subjects assigned at random to experimental and
control groups
ii. Matched group design: subjects in one group are matched with subjects in
the other group on characteristics that could affect their performance
- desirable
- costly and time consuming
c. Experimental groups and control groups
i. Experimental group: exposed to the independent variable
ii. Control group: not exposed to the independent variable, but similar in
every other way
4. How would you design an experiment to determine why experienced computer operators
who had worked for the company five years suddenly begin making data-entry mistakes
when their department was moved to a new workplace?
a. Example: Designing an Experiment regarding location and mistakes
i. Independent variable
1. Location
ii. Dependent variable
1. Mistakes
iii. Element of control
1. Experimental group
a. Exposed to the independent variable (new location)
iv. Control group
1. Not exposed to the independent variable (i.e., remain in old
location), but similar in every other way
5. Describe advantages and limitations of the naturalistic observation method.
a. Naturalistic observation – the scientific observation of behavior in its natural
setting without any experimental manipulation of the independent variable
b. Advantages
i. Behaviors being observed are typical of what occurs daily
ii. Findings can be more readily generalized and applied
c. Limitations
i. Without control of the independent variable, it’s difficult to conclude with
assurance what caused any changes
ii. Observation cannot be repeated
6. What are some of the uses of surveys and public opinion polls? Discuss some of the
problems that can limit their usefulness.
a. Uses
i. Ascertain what factors contribute to job satisfaction and morale
ii. Gather information on work-related issues
iii. Assess reactions to changes in the workplace
iv. Allow for employee participation in policy making
v. Uncover consumer preferences
vi. Assess voter reaction to candidates and issues
b. Problems with surveys
i. Difficult to measure precisely our personal opinions and attitudes
ii. Some people deliberately lie
iii. Socially or politically correct response
iv. It’s difficult to find people to respond
v. Phrasing of the question often influences the response
7. Describe four methods used to collect survey data.
a. Personal interviews – higher response rates than other methods; interviewers can
clarify questions; some people are uncomfortable with personal interviews, and
not all people are equally accessible
b. Questionnaires
i. Most frequently used - and abused - method
ii. Paper or computer-assisted
c. Web-based – there are age and cultural differences in preference; often employees
are questioned too frequently; there is concern over “ballot stuffing”
d. Telephone surveys – telephone response rates have plummeted over the last
8. If your job was to conduct a market survey of BMW car owners to find out what changes
they wanted to see in new models, what survey research method would you use? Why?
a. Use a combination of means to collect data: focus groups to personal interviews
of current owners; email surveys; telephonic; and web-based collection. Each
method has its own strengths and blind spots. Offering incentives will increase the
useful response rate. Focus groups allow for more in-depth and follow-up on
questions. Random selection of customers is a must. Control for differences in
type of car and geographic location.
9. What are push polls? How can they influence the outcome of elections?
a. Push polls use false or distorted information to see if certain information can push
voters away from one candidate in favor of the other (who is paying for the poll).
10. Differentiate between open-end and fixed-alternative survey questions. Discuss the
differences between probability sampling and quota sampling.
a. Open end
i. Respondents state their views in their own words
b. Fixed-alternative
i. Respondents must limit their answers to the choices presented
ii. Simplifies the process
iii. May not completely reflect respondents’ range of opinion
11. Describe advantages and limitations of conducting psychological research in virtual
a. Advantages
i. Run faster and less-costly studies
ii. Draw on larger and more diverse pool of subjects
iii. Data can be saved automatically in electronic form
iv. Recruiting research subjects with a broad range of personal characteristics
b. Limitations
i. Impossible to assess the honesty and accuracy of responses
ii. Computer literate people tend to have higher levels of education, different
from the population at large
iii. Respondents are self-selected
iv. Response rate is lower and drop-out rate is higher
v. “Ballot stuffing” is a possibility
12. What is the difference between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics?
a. Descriptive statistics
i. Ways of describing research data in a concise, meaningful manner; usually
focused on one group at a time
1. Mean, median, mode
2. Standard deviation
3. Correlation
b. Inferential statistics
i. Used to compare performance levels of the experimental group and the
control group
1. Determine the level of statistical significance of the difference
between the means of the two groups
2. Calculate a probability value for the difference between the means
13. In your opinion, would the world be a better place without statistics? Defend your
answer, showing appropriate data.
a. Each student will have their own answer. However, without statistics we would be
unable to compare and contrast, evaluate program effectiveness, performance, or
provide meaningful feedback.
14. What can the standard deviation reveal about your performance on an IQ test?
a. We can determine the percentage of scores that fall above or below a specific
score. The average IQ score is 100 and the SD is 15. For example, 99.5 percent
have scores less than 145 (+3 SD); 97.5 percent below 130 (+2 SD); 84 percent
below 115 (+1 SD).
b. We can compare the relative performance of individuals
c. We can tell where an individual score falls, relative to the group as a whole
15. What does a correlation of +.85 tell us about the relationship between your IQ score and
your boss’s rating of your job performance?
a. It suggests a positive relationship in the direction of the relationship between the
two scores (i.e., as one score increases, so does the other)
b. It suggests a strong relationship between the two scores
c. It does not imply causality
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