Ch. 9 (Sec. 4) Age of Reforms WS

An Age of Reforms
Philosophers of Industry
A. Adam Smith (Professor) –
1. “Economic Liberty Guarantees Economic Progress”
2. “Laissez-Faire” (“Let Do”) – A hands off approach from gov’t
B. Thomas Malthus (Economist) – “Principle of Population”
1. Population will increase faster than food supply
2. Most people are destined to be poor (natural laws govern)
C. David Ricardo (Stockbroker)
1. Permanent underclass will always be present
2. Abundant Workers/Resources = Cheap Labor/Resources
3. Wages forced down as population increases
All believed reforms would lower profits and undermine
production of wealth
Rise of Socialism
A. Charles Fourier / Saint-Simon (Socialism)
1. Socialist view that called for public ownership of factors of
production that benefited all
2. Public ownership would help workers who are at mercy of
greedy owners
B. Karl Marx / Frederich Engels (Communism – Communist Manifesto 1848)
1. Human societies have always been divided into warring classes
 Haves vs. Have-Nots
2. Belief that workers would revolt and overthrow the “proletariat”
3. State would wither away and develop a classless society
4. Means of Production would be owned by the people
C. Jeremy Bentham (Utilitarian - English Philosopher)
1. People should judge ideas based on their usefulness
2. Gov’t should promote greatest good for greatest number of
3. Argued people should be able to pursue own advantage free from
D. Robert Owen (Utopia – British Factory Owner)
1. Improved working conditions for employees due to shock over
poverty in the working class
2. Prohibited Children from working and provided them with
3. Founded Cooperative Community in New Harmony, IN. (1852)
1. Union Movement in the early 1800’s leads to calls for “collective
bargaining” (for better pay and conditions)
 Management would have trouble replacing “skilled workers”
 Governments initially prohibited unions, workers joined
 AFL formed in 1886
2. Laws
 Factory Act (1833) – Children under 9 could not work;
children between 9-12 limited to 8 hours
 Mines Act (1842) – Prevents women and children from
working underground
 Ten Hours Act (1847) – Limits work day for women and
children in factories
 National Child Labor Committee (1904) – Set up to abolish
child labor
 Abolition of Slavery in Britain (1833)