MADISON PUBLIC SCHOOLS SAT and College Readiness Language Arts Reviewed by: Lee Nittel, Director of Curriculum and Instruction Adopted by the Board: January, 2013 Members of the Board of Education: Lisa Ellis, President Patrick Rowe, Vice-President David Arthur Kevin Blair Shade Grahling Linda Gilbert Thomas Haralampoudis James Novotny Superintendent: Dr. Michael Rossi Madison Public Schools 359 Woodland Road, Madison, NJ 07940 www.madisonpublicschools.org SAT and College Readiness Course Curriculum I. OVERVIEW The SAT and College Readiness Course is an eleventh grade (second semester) and twelfth grade (first semester) college-bound elective. The goal of instruction for this course is to prepare students for success in standardized test taking (HSPA, SAT, and ACT) and to prepare students for success in college reading and writing assignments. Emphasis is placed on critical reading skills, writing as a process, vocabulary building, grammar and usage, and test taking strategies. The materials will be taken from College Board publications, including the school’s subscription to the on-line course materials on CollegeBoard.com, the English Department’s HSPA resources, guides to the ACT, The Elements of Style, the Sadlier-Oxford vocabulary series, as well as high caliber periodicals in the fields of science, history, art, and literature. The course serves to support the skills delivered in the student’s regular English class, with special focus on the analysis of non-fiction, an emphasis on high frequency grammar and usage problems, the development of brainstorming techniques for the differing standardized writing prompts, in addition to the development of a college essay. II. RATIONALE College bound students need to be taught the proper academic habits (active reading), critical thinking processes (deductive and inductive reasoning), and language arts skills (vocabulary building, grammar and usage, and writing processes) which will enable them to excel on college entrance examinations and in freshman composition courses. All levels of English I-IV provide excellent preparation for the analysis of literature (primarily fictional, narrative texts), opportunities for vocabulary building, and for the development of the process writing approach. This course is a supplement to those skills and an extension in the following areas: analyzing the rhetorical strategies at work in pieces of non-fiction, understanding the different methods of forming a persuasive argument, providing the additional practice time and feedback necessary for students to familiarize themselves with standardized test material, and to give them a forum to debrief about test taking strategies, including process of elimination for a variety of different question types, and to discuss with each other and the instructor what strategies work best for them. As a result, the course will focus on process and content. In addition, although the course may focus on some different discrete objectives than are found in the regular English classroom, emphasis with be placed on the seamlessness of all critical thinking and language arts skills both across the curriculum and in the different testing and classroom contexts. III. IV. V. VI. STUDENT OUTCOMES (Link to New Jersey Core Curriculum Standards) ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS AND CONTENT STRATEGIES EVALUATION Items III.-VI. are combined on the chart below Course: SAT and College Readiness Suggested Time Line 2 weeks to introduce Essential Questions and Content What is critical/active reading? Daily use of What does it consist of in critical reading process and what does it skills. look like in practice? Task rotation Standards What is a logical fallacy? Evaluation Met 3.1.E.1 3.1.G.1 3.1.G.6 3.1.G.9 3.1.G.10 Describe their own critical reading process. Use their process in all subsequent reading assignments. I n D o Strategies Completed critical reading proposal where the student will describe his/her process and agree to practice it Reading assignments. habitually. Class discussion. Timed In-Class reading. Guided reading. 3.2.B.1 3.2.B.2 How does active reading of 3.2.B.4 non-fictional or non3.2.D.3 narrative texts differ from reading fictional, 3.3.A.2 narrative texts? 3.3.B.4,5,6 3.3.C.2 What is a claim, an 3.4.B.1 3.4.B.3 assumption, an inference? 3.5.C.3 What is inductive and deductive reasoning? What is a pattern of development? Student Outcomes Daily critical reading checks. Small group discussion. Recognize the different rhetorical strategies used Quizzes on the different Graphic organizers. in non-fiction as opposed to fiction. rhetorical strategies and how they are used. Timed In-Class writing. Answering multiple choice and open-ended questions Evaluating models using different rhetorical strategies and different organizing principles. Identify claims and assumptions in an essay. Draw inferences from a given text. Recognize how different arguments/essays are structured. Outline the structure of of an argument. Completed essays using these rhetorical devices and organizing structures. Course: SAT and College Readiness Suggested Time Line 1 week to introduce Essential Questions and Content What are the elements of fiction/narrative writing? Task rotation What are the most commonly used and tested literary devices? Standards What elements are measured by the HSPA rubric? What is the relationship between conflict and theme? Evaluation Met 3.1.G.2 3.1.G.6,7,8 3.1.G.11 Recognize the elements of a short story. 3.2.A.2,6 Identify and define the 3.2.B.1,8,9 commonly used and tested 3.2.D.2 literary devices: attitude, tone, 3.3.A.2 How does critical reading 3.3.B.4,6 3.3.C.2 of a narrative piece differ 3.4.B.1 from that of a non-fictional 3.5.C.3 piece? What are the elements that comprise a strong picture prompt response? Student Outcomes I n D o Strategies Daily critical reading. Reading assignments. Quizzes on literary devices. Timed In-Class reading. Guided reading. Completed picture prompts. (timed and untimed) Class discussion. Guided analysis of narratives. mood, satire, imagery, irony, foreshadowing, flashback, Completed narratives. Small group discussion. point of view, personification, Answer multiple choice and Graphic organizers. onomatopoeia, hyperbole, allegory, simile, metaphor, symbolism, and oxymoron. open-ended questions based on narrative passages. Timed In-Class writing. Analyze narratives using the rubric. Written analysis of short fiction. Develop a consistent prewriting strategy and structure for picture prompts. Derive plausible themes from the conflicts of a story. Review NJ Holistic Scoring Rubric Practice scoring of models using NJ rubric View models and guided practice of prewriting and organizing strategies. Course: SAT and College Readiness Suggested Time Line 1 week to introduce Essential Questions and Content What are the different types of reading questions used on all standardized tests? Task rotation Standards 3.1.F.1,2,3 3.1.G.1,9 3.2.D.3 How do I approach each 3.3.B.4,6 type of question? 3.3.C.2 What critical vocabulary do I need to know to simply understand the question? How do I approach a double passage? What is connotation & denotation? How do I breakdown a word I’ve never seen before? Evaluation Met 3.3.A.2 How do I approach Sentence completion questions on the SAT? Student Outcomes 3.4.A.1,2 3.4.B.1 Identify the following types Quizzes on the different of questions: 1) Specific Detail, types of questions. 2) Word-In-Context, 3) Main Idea, 4) Attitude, Mood, & Written debriefing on Tone, 5) Inference, 6) Style & Logic. Proper approaches to use for Each type of question. I n D o Strategies Class discussion of question types and teacher guided walk through of the proper approach for each. Use of collegeboard.com to evaluate question types and Develop the proper approach to each type of reading Reading passages and question, Sentence completion answering multiple choice Timed reading passages and questions, and double passage questions. Questions using proper Strategies. questions (in-class and for homework) for HSPA, SAT, and ACT. Use vocabulary strategies (such as context clues, structural analysis, and word derivations) to determine meaning. Determine if the word has a positive or negative connotation. Memorize high frequency words solutions. Quizzes on prefixes. suffixes, and common word roots. Daily Do-Nows Course: SAT and College Readiness Suggested Time Line 2 days to introduce question strategies Essential Questions and Content Task rotation Student Outcomes Evaluation Met I n D o Strategies What are the different types of writing multiple choice questions on the SAT and how do I approach each 3.1.G.6 3.2.A.4 3.2.C.1,2,3 3.2.C.4,5,6 Develop the proper approach Written debriefing on proper for the following question Approaches to use for each types: 1) Identifying the error, type of question. 2) Improving Sentences, and 3) Reading assignments from The Elements of Style. type of question? 3.3.A.2 Improving Paragraphs Answering SAT multiple and guided analysis of choice questions. problematic sentences. Grammar quizzes. Peer-evaluations of student writing. 2 new rules per week. Standards 3.3.B.2,6 3.3.C.2 What kinds of grammar and 3.4.A.1,2 Learn how to identify and/or correct the following grammar usage problems appear & usage problems: 1) Subject most frequently on the the SAT? What kind of grammar and usage problems can I find in my writing and the writing of my classmates? 3.4.B.1 Verb Agreement, 2) Pronoun Agreement, 3) Subordination & Coordination, 4) Verb Tense, 5) Parallelism, 6) Faulty Comparisons, 7) Comma Splices 8) Active and Passive Constrtn., 9) Misplaced Modifiers, 10) Idioms, and 11) Class discussion of rules Student completed writing sections of actual SAT tests. Use of collegeboard.com to evaluate question types and solutions. Grammar exercises. Daily Do-Nows Course: SAT and College Readiness Suggested Time Line Essential Questions and Content 1 week total to introduce brainstorming and development How do I approach the following standardized writing tasks: 1) the SAT of each type Prompt, Persuasive essay, Standards Student Outcomes Evaluation Met 3.1.G.1,4,5,10 Use academic examples to Essays in timed settings. 3.1.H.6 answer SAT essay prompts 3.2.A.1-7 In a timed environment . Student reflections on essays. Use argumenta tive strategies to Essay, 2) the HSPA Picture 3.2.B.3,4,5 Rough drafts. write a persuasive essay in 3.2.B.8,9,11 I n D o Strategies View model essays. Guided practice of prewriting and organizing strategies. timed environment . Evidence of pre-writing. Independent practice. Use literary devices to write a picture in timed picture prompt Final pieces. Review NJ Holistic Scoring Rubric How do I approach the 3.2.D.1,2 3.2.D.3,5,7 college essay? 3.3.A.2 Analyze excellent examples and Practice scoring of models using poor examples of each type of writing task. Rubric. of writing task. and Open-Ended questions ? 3.2.C.1-6 Task rotation. 3.3.B.4,5,6 What are the different ways 3.3.C.1,2 to develop an argument? 3.4.A.1,2,3 3.4.B.1,2,3 What are appeals? 3.5.C.3 What are the different ways to organize an argument? How is the NJ Holistic Scoring Rubric broken down? Timed SAT essays. Use lists and graphic organizers for prewriting and organizing essays. Timed Persuasive prompts. Timed Picture prompts. Support ideas with facts, examples, explanations , and descriptions. Recognize the elements of a perfect open-ended response. Use collegeboard.com to evaluate sample responses and rubric. Course: SAT and College Readiness Suggested Time Line Essential Questions and Content (as above) Standards Student Outcomes Met (as above) How can I apply my knowledge of this rubric to my writing? (as above) Determine places in their Writing that needs Improvement. How do I fit my ideas into the structure of an essay? Use rubric to evaluate model and student responses. How do writer’s use transitions, effective diction, and vary sentence structure? How does one read like a writer? Evaluation I n D o (as above) Strategies I. REQUIRED RESOURCES The Elements of Style by Strunk and White 10 Real SATs The Official SAT Study Guide by the College Board CollegeBoard.com Excerpts from The Bedford Reader, 8th edition by Kennedy, Kennedy, and Aaron Excerpts from the McDougal Littell literature anthologies Excerpts from Dialogues, 3rd edition by Goshgarian, Krueger, and Barnett Minc The Madison English Department’s HSPA resources Articles from The New York Times, The New Yorker, Harper’s Monthly, The Atlantic Monthly, Discovery Magazine, National Geographic , and other periodicals The Official Guide to the ACT The Sadlier-Oxford Vocabulary Series and a list of challenging, high frequency words, and question strategies compiled by Jason Ellrott I. High Frequency Words The following words have all been used in the questions or answer choices of College Board constructed tests. Most of these terms are logic terms and are necessary for the student to understand the question: abstract, accentuate, acquisitive, acumen, advocate, aesthetics, alienated, anachronism, assertion, assume, belie, betray (to give away), bolster, capitulate, conjure, connotations/denotations, contemporary, convey, corroborating, culminating, debunk, deductive, deduction, demystify, depict, differentiated, diminished, disparity, distorted, empirical, erroneous, ethical, exonerate, faculties, fallacy, fallible, falsification, generalize, hypothetical, implement, imply, inclusion/exclusion, intrusive, intuitively, juxtapose, methodology, minutely, motifs, multiplicity, mutually exclusive, perceive, perception, philosophical, potentially, pragmatic, prevalence, primary, profound, provoke, qualify, ramifications, signify, simulate, theoretical, tinged, trivialize, underscore, unfounded, vague, veiled, vicarious. II. Sentence Completion (SAT) A. Determine whether the answer to the sentence depends a word meaning within the sentence or on the logic of the sentence or both, by identifying the clues within the sentence that link directly to the blanks within the sentence. B. Students should first try to put their own words in the blanks and then look for a word that is analogous to it among the choices. C. Look to break down word meanings by analyzing prefixes, roots, and suffixes for words one doesn’t automatically know. D. Determining positive or negative connotations of words if applicable. E. Support general vocabulary building by having students read non-fiction articles and essays that are somewhat beyond the students reading level, in addition to traditional vocabulary building exercises. III. Critical Reading (HSPA, SAT, and ACT) A. Define Critical Reading as Active Reading. B. Active reading consists of: 1. Weighing the writer’s claims 2. Asking for definitions 3. Evaluating information 4. Looking for proof 5. Questioning assumptions 6. Making judgments. 7. Identifying patterns of development such as: a. cause and effect b. compare/constrast c. sequence C. Differentiate the process of Active Reading from the process of Passive Reading. D. Identifying the differences between evaluating a non-narrative and/or non-fictional texts (see B) and a narrative/fictional text. E. Evaluating a narrative/fictional text consists of the following: 1. Identifying who is speaking 2. Identifying the exposition elements of setting, character, and conflict (Where? Who? What?) 3. Evaluating imagery to gauge the mood, tone, or attitude of the piece. 4. Determining character motives. 5. Identifying literary devices such as: point of view, personification, onomatopoeia, hyperbole, allegory, simile, metaphor, oxymoron, symbolism, flashback, foreshadowing, irony, imagery, attitude, mood, tone, satire 6. Determining conflicts and themes. IV. Types of Reading Questions and Approaches For Each Type (HSPA, SAT, and ACT) A. Literal Comprehension Questions (Finding Specific Details) 1. Read the surrounding context of the given lines. 2. Scan the answer choices for a paraphrase of the information stated in the passage. B. Word-In-Context Questions 1. The answer will typically not be the denotative meaning of the word. 2. Reexamine the context in which the word is used and look for a word or phrase that could be a paraphrase of the correct answer choice. C. Extended Reasoning Questions 1. Main Idea a. Reexamine the introduction and the conclusion to clarify the author’s primary purpose 2. Attitude, Mood, and Tone a. Examine the diction and the main idea of the passage b. Typically avoid extremely positive or negative choices (For ex., “righteous indignation”, “awe”) c. Avoid the choices “confusion” and “indifference”. These are used to capitalize on the reader’s sense of confusion or indifference. The author of an academic article will not be either confused or indifferent to his or her subject. 3. Inference (based on a specific detail), (based on main idea) a. Define inference: conclusions that are reached based on information given in the passage. b. Identify inference question based on the wording of the question: probably, apparently, seems, suggests, it can be inferred, the author implies. 4. Logic, Style, and Tone a. Examine how the author has constructed his or her argument. Be sure to emphasis the function of language, what it’s doing, when answering this type of question. b. Identify the rhetorical and literary devices. c. Examine how the author is communicating his or her purpose. Look at the function of language but never lose sight of the main idea.