Written Expression Strategy: Applied Writing Strategies– Written Expression Appropriate Grade Level: Kindergarten – 6th Grade Procedures/Steps: Strategies to improve students’ written literacy skills: Letter Recognition: Use different colors as visual clues for vowels. For instance, make the consonants blue, and the vowels red. Color coding helps memory recall. WOW Sound Symbol Correspondence: Have the students look into a mirror when they are making a letter sound. Sound segmentation: Practice segmentation of phonemes by tapping out each sound using their fingers. For mat, the student would tap three times. Syllables: Teach syllable division by using visual presentation. Draw lines between syllables, and use syllable cards to reconstruct words. Function Words: Function words are prepositions, pronouns, articles, auxiliary verbs and conjunctions. Leave one word out of a sentence and have students fill in the missing word. Vocabulary: Use photographic picture cards, computer programs and storybooks to introduce new vocabulary words. Use pictures to help recall words. Cloze Technique: The teacher starts a sentence and has the student fill in the missing words. Sentence Formulation: Write sentences on paper and then cut them into individual words. Scramble and have students reassemble. Barrier Tasks: Place a large piece of cardboard between two individuals. Have one person direct the other to do a task with only verbal information. Role Play: Have student’s role play using particular uses of language, such as giving information. The student could pretend to be a policeman giving directions. Telephone Conversation: Have students’ role play phone conversations using greetings, turn taking, requesting information, answering questions and closing conversation. Comments and/or tips: Written language is dependent on spoken language skills. Oral language skills can be linked to written language using the activities provided. Students with learning disabilities may have difficulty expressing their thoughts in writing. It is important that IEP goals for communication and academics focus on improving language in spoken and written forms. Source: Brice, R., (2004). Connecting oral and written language through applied writing strategies, Intervention in School and Clinic, 40, 38-47.