Strategy: Appropriate Grade Level: Procedures/Steps:

Written Expression
Strategy: Applied Writing Strategies– Written Expression
Appropriate Grade Level: Kindergarten – 6th Grade
Strategies to improve students’ written literacy skills:
Letter Recognition: Use different colors as visual clues for vowels. For instance, make
the consonants blue, and the vowels red. Color coding helps memory recall. WOW
Sound Symbol Correspondence: Have the students look into a mirror
when they are making a letter sound.
Sound segmentation: Practice segmentation of phonemes by tapping out
each sound using their fingers. For mat, the student would tap three times.
Syllables: Teach syllable division by using visual presentation. Draw lines between
syllables, and use syllable cards to reconstruct words.
Function Words: Function words are prepositions, pronouns, articles, auxiliary verbs
and conjunctions. Leave one word out of a sentence and have students fill in the missing
Vocabulary: Use photographic picture cards, computer programs and storybooks to
introduce new vocabulary words. Use pictures to help recall words.
Cloze Technique: The teacher starts a sentence and has the student fill in the missing
Sentence Formulation: Write sentences on paper and then cut them into individual
words. Scramble and have students reassemble.
Barrier Tasks: Place a large piece of cardboard between two individuals. Have one
person direct the other to do a task with only verbal information.
Role Play: Have student’s role play using particular uses of language, such as giving
information. The student could pretend to be a policeman giving directions.
Telephone Conversation: Have students’ role play phone conversations using
greetings, turn taking, requesting information, answering questions and
closing conversation.
Comments and/or tips:
Written language is dependent on spoken language skills. Oral language skills
can be linked to written language using the activities provided.
Students with learning disabilities may have difficulty expressing their thoughts in
It is important that IEP goals for communication and academics focus on
improving language in spoken and written forms.
Brice, R., (2004). Connecting oral and written language through applied writing
strategies, Intervention in School and Clinic, 40, 38-47.