Developing and Maintaining a Learning Environment Dr. Ayers HPHE 4480

Developing and Maintaining a
Learning Environment
Dr. Ayers
HPHE 4480
Western Michigan University
Teaching Functions
Arranging the environment for learning and maintaining/developing
student-appropriate behavior and engagement with the content
What is to be learned
Goal of good management system
High level of engagement in appropriate tasks
-Customary way of handling tasks (usually daily tasks)
-Establish expectations to mold S behavior
Locker room, pre-class, lesson, end-of-lesson
-Introduce and practice until “routine”
-Must be reinforced consistently*
Common Routines
Locker room
Before Class
End of Lesson
Late Arrivals
Water/Bathroom Breaks
Injured Students
• Learn the routines at your 20-hr site
-General expectations for behavior
-Teach as concepts (across a variety of +/- situations)
-Guidelines *:
Developed cooperatively w/ T and Ss
Stated positively
Make explicit (post in facility)
Reinforce consistently and fairly
Few in number (3-5)
We will discuss these in class, so come prepared!
Examples of Rules
• When others are talking, respect them by listening
• Support others’ efforts by encouraging them as they
• Use our equipment and space responsibly
• Make our best effort at all tasks
• Cooperate with others by sharing equipment
Developmental Considerations
• Take students’ personal social development into
• Develop a progression for personal social
• Rules for K, 2/3, 5/7, 8/9, 10+ should be arranged
Stages of Social Development
• Stage 1: K-2/3- Adults are important. Teaching rules
must be thorough and reinforced frequently
• Stage 2: 2/3rd through 5/6th- Teacher still important.
Review rules/management
• Stage 3: 5/6th through 9/10th- Peers are most
important. Peer contingencies, group goals very
effective. May have to work with individual students
• Stage 4: 9/10th+- Personal responsibility for all actions
approaching adult perceptions
Teaching Routines/Rules
• Share clear expectations
– Consequences
– Reinforcement (Tangible, Token, Social, Activity?)
• Identify the ultimate goal for student behavior
(Personal-Social Skills)
• Communicate expectations in advance
• Positive is more effective than negative
• Inappropriate student behavior is not a personal attack
• Discuss appropriate/inappropriate behavior
Gaining/Maintaining S Cooperation
Plan progressive experiences toward learning
environment goal (Box 6.2, p. 115)
K-2/3rd: Compliant, want to please teacher
2/3rd-5/6th: Compliant, need less management time
5/6th-9/10th: Peers most important, motivation
becomes an issue
HS: Maturation results in less mgmt time
Know your own expectations
Watch your cooperating T this semester; what is ok?
What does (s)he let go? Clarity→consistency
Know the ultimate goal for S behavior
Think long-term; what do you want next year? 2 yrs?
Share behavioral expectations in advance
Do not wait on misbehavior to teach good behavior
Help Ss internalize appropriate behavior
Explain WHY these rules exist
Encourage S participation in rule/behavior expectations
Teach rules for learning tasks too
-How do you actually practice a skill?
-How do you work with others?
-What do you do if you infringe on others’ space?
-How do you get T attention for help?
Management is ongoing
Continually work to help Ss achieve self-control
Developing Self-Control & Personal
National/State standards highlight this aspect
Standard 4 - The physically literate individual exhibits
responsible personal and social behavior that respects self and
Standard 5 - The physically literate individual recognizes the
value of physical activity for health, enjoyment, challenge,
self-expression and/or social interaction.
2013 National K-12 Physical Education Standards:
Our setting fosters development of personal/social skills
-Moving from external to internal control →decision making skills
-Guiding Ss to higher level functioning is part of physical educators’ professional
Hellison’s Developmental Levels
0: Irresponsibility
Unmotivated, undisciplined, denies personal responsibility, verbally
interrupts, off task on a continuous basis, requires constant
1: Self-control
Not highly engaged in the lesson but not disruptive, does not need
through the motions of compliance
2: Involvement
Demonstrates self-control and an enthusiasm for the subject-matter;
has a personal definition of success
3: Self responsibility
Capacity to work without direct supervision; can identify own needs
independent in his/her pursuit for them
4: Caring
Cooperative, supportive and caring about others; willing to help
5: Outside the gym
Transfers responsible behavior to life settings outside the gym;
Strategies emphasized in Hellison’s model*
-Create awareness of appropriate behavior & goals
-Provide opportunities for Ss to reflect on their
behavior relative to behavior goals
-Provide opportunities to set personal behavior goals
-Establish consequences for both +/- behavior
-Include Ss in group processes to share T ‘power’
-Help Ts interact with Ss in growth-producing ways
Behavior Modification (Box 6.4, p. 119)
Clear expectations and reinforcement
Stage One
Order a S to desist (stop behavior)
Have S state rule being broken
State expected behavior
Hairy eyeball
Allow S to choose work area to avoid temptation
Time out
Put S at end of line/group (go last)
Stage Two
Conference with S
Isolate S in hall/away from class
Send home note
Call parents
Remove privilege
Stage Three
Deny special class treat (free time at end)
Create behavioral contract
Use behavior modification program
Send S to office (last ditch effort; avoid when possible)
Ineffective Management Factors
Transition from T to S-centered control challenges
-Overuse of external rewards
-Failure to withdraw external rewards
-Lack of flexibility in rules, regulations & expected
behavior for different contexts
-T willingness to have a “busy-happy-good” environment
Authoritative Management
Ts have a firm but flexible management position
-Rules, procedures expectations context-dependent
-Expectations vary by class, content, student
Ts teach self-directed behavior
Internal control and self-discipline valued
Ss gradually assume more self-responsibility
-Transfer of responsibility for behavior goal
-Create situations in which Ss demonstrate increasing
personal responsibility
Group Processes
Involve Ss in decision making
-Include S input when novel situations arise
-Remind Ss that THEY made rule when reinforced
Resolve conflicts through discussion
Real-time issue; very dynamic environment needed
Role-playing to convey concepts
-Allows Ss to “put themselves in another’s shoes”
-Make explicit what happens during ‘skit’ and then
summarize lesson(s) learned
Final Points
Prevention is the best medicine
Withitness, overlapping, hairy eyeball, proximity *
Widespread class misbehavior
-Stop class and specifically address problem(class desist)
-Identify problem
-State as inappropriate
-Focus Ss on desired task/behavior
Treat Ss as you wish to be treated
Be gentle; determine WHY behavior occurs, address
problem, not person
Management Summary
An on-going process
Must be a priority in every lesson
Is more effective when positively approached