Nursing Communication

Nursing Communication
Authar:Dr.huda B.Hassan /BNS.MNS.PhD./Assest.proff.
Address:University of Baghdad/Nursing College
Nursing Communication
Communication have various meanings depending on the context in which it is used
*Is the interchange of information between two or more people.
* Exchange of ideas or thoughts.
*Talking &listening.
* Writing &reading.
* Is the transfer of information & feelings between two or more people.
Effectiveness communication nurses depend on:
1- ability to collect assessment data.
2- Initiate interventions.
3- Evaluate outcome of interventions.
Component of communication process
 Face to face communication involves:
1- A sender : A person or group who wishes to convey a message to another
(source encoder).
Source- encoder: this term suggest that the person or group sending the message must
have an idea or reason for communication(source) & must put the idea or feeling in to
a form that can be transmitted.
Encoding: Is selected of specific signs or symbols (code) to transmit the message.
Such as the words, tone of vice.
2- Message: means what is actually said or written.
How the message transmitted----- by channel.
Channel: The medium used to convey the message.
 the channel should be appropriate for the massage &help the message more
 Talking face to face a person more effective in some instances than telephoning or
writing a message.
 T.V, Radio.
3- Receiver (listener):Who must listen, observe, and attend this person is the decoder.
Decode: means to relate the message perceived to the receiver s storehouse of
knowledge & experience & to sort out the meaning of the message.
4- Response ( feed back):Is the message that the receiver returns to the sender.
Feedback: can be -- verbal
-- Non verbal
Modes of communication:
1- Verbal communication.
2- Non verbal communication.
 Verbal com.: is largely conscious because people choose the words they use.
Words depend on:
 culture
 Socioeconomic background.
 Age
 Education
When choosing word the nurse need:
Pace & intonation.
Clarity & brevity.
Timing & relevance.
 Non verbal communication: is sometimes called (body language)
It includes gestures, body movement, use of touch, and physical appearance.
Nonverbal communication tells other more about what a person is feeling than what is
actually said, because nonverbal behavior is controlled less consciously than verbal
Note: Observation and interpreting is essential skill for nurses to develop the clients
nonverbal behavior.
To observe nonverbal behavior efficiently requires a systematic assessment of the person's
overall 1- physical appearance.(clothing and adornments can be source of source)
2-posture & Gait : (walking, erect posture, physical discomfort).
3- Facial expressions.
4- Gestures: hand and body gestures may emphasize and clarity the spoken word, or
they may occur without words to indicate a particular feeling or to give a sign.
 Factors influencing the communication process
1- Development: Language &psychosocial and intellectual development
Knowledge of a clients developmental stage will allow the nurse to modify the
message accordingly.
2- gender: female and male differently: girls tend to use language to seek confirmation,
minimize differences, and establish intimacy.
Boys use language to establish independence and negotiate status with a group.
3- Values and perceptions: Values: are standards that influence behavior and
perception: are the personal view of an event.
4- Personal space: Is the distance people prefer in interactions with others.
Proxemics: is the study of distance between people in their interaction
 Communication thus alters in accordance with four distances (Tamparo and
1- Intimate: Touching 1 ½ feet (Ex: cuddling a baby, touching the sightless.
2- Personal: 1 ½ to 4 feet ( Ex: nurse sitting with clients during giving drugs).
3- Social: 4 to 12 feet. (Ex: the nurse who stands in the doorway and ask a client how
are you today.
4- Public: 12- 15 feet: require loud, clear vocalizations ( Ex: health teaching lecture).
5- Territoriality: Is a concept of the space and space things that an individual
considers as belonging to the self.
6- Roles and relationships: between sender and receiver affect the communication
process. Ex: clients and physician.
7- Environment: Comfortable, temperature, excessive noise and poorly ventilated
environment can interfere with communication.
8- Congruence: verbal and nonverbal aspects of the message match: Trust prevent
9- Interpersonal Attitude: Attitudes convey beliefs, thoughts, and feelings about
people and event.
Nurse- clients relationship: (therapeutic relationships) (helping relationship) have two
1- Helps clients manage their problems I living more effectively and develop unused or
underused opportunities more fully.
2- Helps clients become better at helping themselves in their everyday lives
Phase of therapeutic relationship
1- Pre-interaction phase: similar to the planning stage before interview
- the nurse has information about the client before the first face to face
meeting ( during taking client name, address, age, medical history)
2- Introductory phase: ( orientation phase)
The clients and the nurse closely observe each other and form judgments about the
others behavior.
Benefit of introductory phase:
1- opening the relationship.
2- Clarifying the problem.
3- Structuring and formulation.
3-Working phase: Benefit
1- Exploring and understanding thoughts and feelings.
2- Facilitating taking action.
4- Termination phase: nurse and client accept feelings of loss.
1- Rubenfeld, M., and Scheffer, B.; Critical Thinking in nursing: An Interactive
Approach, 6th eddition, J.B. Lippincott Company,2000,PP:-215-16,220-23.
2- Linda, S., Williams, D., and Hopper, P.;Understanding Medical Surgical Nursing
10th eddition, F.A. Davis Company,Philadelphia,2000, PP:-14-15.
3- Haber,J., Krainovich, B. et al.;Comprehensive Psychiatric Nursing,14th eddition,
Mosby,Atime Mirror company, 2009,PP:122, 127,242,340-341.