Evolution Unit Test Study Guide Be familiar with the following terms and concepts and cite examples from the text. EvolutionCharles Darwin and his contribution to science- Summary of Darwin’s Key observations (i.e. specific organisms): 3 patterns of diversity Darwin observed (cite examples) 1. 2. 3. Summary of Darwin’s Theory of Evolution by Means of Natural Selection Know the following people and their contribution to Darwin’s theory Lamarck (include what was wrong with his theory)- Alfred Russell Wallace- Hutton- Lyell- Malthus- Artificial SelectionNatural selectionUnder what 3 conditions does natural selection occur? 1. 2. 3. How does it affect a species? FitnessPrinciple of common descent- Describe the difference between natural selection on single gene traits vs. polygenic traits Types of selection (for polygenic traits): DirectionalStabilizingDisruptiveGene pool- Genetic drift- Founder effect- Bottle neck effect- Allele frequency- Genetic equilibrium- Hardy-Weinberg principalEquation (must understand each variable): 5 conditions that can disrupt genetic equilibrium 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Describe the following sources of evidence for evolution: 1. Biogeography- 2. Age of Earth and fossil record- Geologic Time Scale- Index fossilsWhat makes a good index fossil? Relative dating- Radiometric dating- 3. Comparative anatomy Homologous structures- Vestigial structures4. Universal genetic code and molecular biology 4 types of isolation that lead to speciation: 1. 2. 3. 4. Rate of Evolution- gradualism vs. punctuated equilibrium Macroevolution- Compare/contrast the two patterns of macroevolution: Coevolution- Scientific names vs. common names Binomial nomenclature (what is it and who is responsible for it?) Format used when writing scientific names Systematics Taxon (taxa pl.) Linnaean system of classification: DomainWhat are the 3 domains of living things? Study Figure 18-14 Modern Classification systems Cladograms are used to show - Shared derived characters- How do genes function as shared derived characters? Characteristics of early Earth: Miller and Urey- Endosymbiotic theory- Order of evolution of traits (up to multicellularity) Describe how sexual reproduction contributes to diversity. What other mechanism previously discussed leads to diversity (hint: meiosis)?