BAROQUE IN ITALY 1600s – Rome is the birthplace of Baroque art. Characteristics of Baroque in Italy Energetic movement Detail Dramatic Tenebrism: exaggerated contrast of darks and lights Artist Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680) Painter, sculptor, architect Contribution Architectural Work St. Peter’s Piazza, Rome Under his supervision, 39 artists created his sculptural plans *** His most impressive and largest project was the design for the piazza in front of St. Peter’s in Rome. Oval area framed by Doric colonnade An Egyptian obelisk in the centre Two big fountains on each side It is Classic in its style because of Greek columns, but the curves of the oval piazza are Baroque. Artwork The Ecstasy of Saint Theresa, 1645-1652 Narrative Mystical event: Saint Theresa, a Carmelite nun, believed that a pain in her side was caused by an angel stabbing her repeatedly with a fire-tipped arrow. Her face expresses her pain and ecstasy of being visited by the angel. She floats on a marble cloud Rays of bronze shower down on her from its ceiling A hidden window behind the sculpture lets in real rays of light. Artwork David, 1623 David’s body is twisted as he pivots to throw the stone at Goliath. Characteristics: Expansive Dramatic Energetic Artist Caravaggio (1571-1610) First giant artist of the Baroque era Painter Characteristics 1. Religious figures in common, earthly places 2. Figures are frequently barefoot with dirty soles exposed 3. Common people are used as models 4. Extreme naturalism: e.g. artworks are life-size and include rotten spots on apples in a still life. 5. Tenebrism: intense value and contrast 6. Figures in front of a plain dark background 7. Hard edges 8. Lit by single source of light 9. Master of foreshortening, drama, colour, light and still lifes Artwork Supper at Emmaus, 1597 Narrative Christ had appeared to two of his followers on the road to Emmaus. When he blessed the food on the table, they realized in shock that it was Christ. Man on the right throws his arms out in amazement Man on the left shoves his chair away from the table. Still life is so natural that apples are shown with rotten spots. Artwork Deposition of Christ, 1602-04 The slab appear to project from the canvas into the viewer’s space Christ’s limp hand touches the slab, connecting it with the group of figures Stage-like feeling adds to the drama Extreme contrasts: o Nearly nude figure of Christ is contrasted by the clothed figures o Intense highlights and extremely dark shadows o Life is contrasted with death o Hunched figures contrast upright figures o Horizontal figure of Christ is contrasted by the vertical direction of the standing figures and the entire composition Artist Artemisia Gentileschi (1593-1653) Influential female artist Follower of Caravaggio, who spread his Baroque style throughout Europe. Artwork Judith and Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes, 1625 Hebrew heroine, Judith surrendered herself to the enemy when the Babylonian army was invading her city. When she was held captive, she and her servant found and beheaded the general, Holofernes, which caused the Babylonians to retreat from the city. Tenebrism can be seen as the scene is lit with a single candle.